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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1331-1340, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant radiotherapy has been shown to halve the risk of biochemical progression for patients with high-risk disease after radical prostatectomy. Early salvage radiotherapy could result in similar biochemical control with lower treatment toxicity. We aimed to compare biochemical progression between patients given adjuvant radiotherapy and those given salvage radiotherapy. METHODS: We did a phase 3, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial across 32 oncology centres in Australia and New Zealand. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years and had undergone a radical prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate with pathological staging showing high-risk features defined as positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension, or seminal vesicle invasion; had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and had a postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of 0·10 ng/mL or less. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a minimisation technique via an internet-based, independently generated allocation to either adjuvant radiotherapy within 6 months of radical prostatectomy or early salvage radiotherapy triggered by a PSA of 0·20 ng/mL or more. Allocation sequence was concealed from investigators and patients, but treatment assignment for individual randomisations was not masked. Patients were stratified by radiotherapy centre, preoperative PSA, Gleason score, surgical margin status, and seminal vesicle invasion status. Radiotherapy in both groups was 64 Gy in 32 fractions to the prostate bed without androgen deprivation therapy with real-time review of plan quality on all cases before treatment. The primary endpoint was freedom from biochemical progression. Salvage radiotherapy would be deemed non-inferior to adjuvant radiotherapy if freedom from biochemical progression at 5 years was within 10% of that for adjuvant radiotherapy with a hazard ratio (HR) for salvage radiotherapy versus adjuvant radiotherapy of 1·48. The primary analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00860652. FINDINGS: Between March 27, 2009, and Dec 31, 2015, 333 patients were randomly assigned (166 to adjuvant radiotherapy; 167 to salvage radiotherapy). Median follow-up was 6·1 years (IQR 4·3-7·5). An independent data monitoring committee recommended premature closure of enrolment because of unexpectedly low event rates. 84 (50%) patients in the salvage radiotherapy group had radiotherapy triggered by a PSA of 0·20 ng/mL or more. 5-year freedom from biochemical progression was 86% (95% CI 81-92) in the adjuvant radiotherapy group versus 87% (82-93) in the salvage radiotherapy group (stratified HR 1·12, 95% CI 0·65-1·90; pnon-inferiority=0·15). The grade 2 or worse genitourinary toxicity rate was lower in the salvage radiotherapy group (90 [54%] of 167) than in the adjuvant radiotherapy group (116 [70%] of 166). The grade 2 or worse gastrointestinal toxicity rate was similar between the salvage radiotherapy group (16 [10%]) and the adjuvant radiotherapy group (24 [14%]). INTERPRETATION: Salvage radiotherapy did not meet trial specified criteria for non-inferiority. However, these data support the use of salvage radiotherapy as it results in similar biochemical control to adjuvant radiotherapy, spares around half of men from pelvic radiation, and is associated with significantly lower genitourinary toxicity. FUNDING: New Zealand Health Research Council, Australian National Health Medical Research Council, Cancer Council Victoria, Cancer Council NSW, Auckland Hospital Charitable Trust, Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Seed Funding, Cancer Research Trust New Zealand, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, Cancer Institute NSW, Prostate Cancer Foundation Australia, and Cancer Australia.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Terapia de Salvação , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1341-1352, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant radiotherapy reduces the risk of biochemical progression in prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy. We aimed to compare adjuvant versus early salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy, combined with short-term hormonal therapy, in terms of oncological outcomes and tolerance. METHODS: GETUG-AFU 17 was a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial done at 46 French hospitals. Men aged at least 18 years who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or less, localised adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with radical prostatectomy, who had pathologically-staged pT3a, pT3b, or pT4a (with bladder neck invasion), pNx (without pelvic lymph nodes dissection), or pN0 (with negative lymph nodes dissection) disease, and who had positive surgical margins were eligible for inclusion in the study. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either immediate adjuvant radiotherapy or delayed salvage radiotherapy at the time of biochemical relapse. Random assignment, by minimisation, was done using web-based software and stratified by Gleason score, pT stage, and centre. All patients received 6 months of triptorelin (intramuscular injection every 3 months). The primary endpoint was event-free survival. Efficacy and safety analyses were done on the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00667069. FINDINGS: Between March 7, 2008, and June 23, 2016, 424 patients were enrolled. We planned to enrol 718 patients, with 359 in each study group. However, on May 20, 2016, the independent data monitoring committee recommended early termination of enrolment because of unexpectedly low event rates. At database lock on Dec 19, 2019, the overall median follow-up time from random assignment was 75 months (IQR 50-100), 74 months (47-100) in the adjuvant radiotherapy group and 78 months (52-101) in the salvage radiotherapy group. In the salvage radiotherapy group, 115 (54%) of 212 patients initiated study treatment after biochemical relapse. 205 (97%) of 212 patients started treatment in the adjuvant group. 5-year event-free survival was 92% (95% CI 86-95) in the adjuvant radiotherapy group and 90% (85-94) in the salvage radiotherapy group (HR 0·81, 95% CI 0·48-1·36; log-rank p=0·42). Acute grade 3 or worse toxic effects occurred in six (3%) of 212 patients in the adjuvant radiotherapy group and in four (2%) of 212 patients in the salvage radiotherapy group. Late grade 2 or worse genitourinary toxicities were reported in 125 (59%) of 212 patients in the adjuvant radiotherapy group and 46 (22%) of 212 patients in the salvage radiotherapy group. Late genitourinary adverse events of grade 2 or worse were reported in 58 (27%) of 212 patients in the adjuvant radiotherapy group versus 14 (7%) of 212 patients in the salvage radiotherapy group (p<0·0001). Late erectile dysfunction was grade 2 or worse in 60 (28%) of 212 in the adjuvant radiotherapy group and 17 (8%) of 212 in the salvage radiotherapy group (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Although our analysis lacked statistical power, we found no benefit for event-free survival in patients assigned to adjuvant radiotherapy compared with patients assigned to salvage radiotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy increased the risk of genitourinary toxicity and erectile dysfunction. A policy of early salvage radiotherapy could spare men from overtreatment with radiotherapy and the associated adverse events. FUNDING: French Health Ministry and Ipsen.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Terapia de Salvação , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , França , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/etiologia , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(8): 652-659, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734728

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The benefits of early administration of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-only recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) following radical prostatectomy (RP) are controversial. We investigated the impact of early versus delayed ADT on survival outcomes in patients with non-metastatic, localized or locally advanced PCa who received radiation therapy (RT) following RP and later developed distant metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 69 patients with non-metastatic, localized or locally advanced PCa who received RT following RP and later developed distant metastasis between January 2006 and December 2012. Patients were stratified according to the level of PSA at which ADT was administered (<2 ng/mL vs. ≥2 ng/mL). Study endpoints were progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)-free survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS). RESULTS: Patients were stratified according to the criteria of 2 ng/mL of PSA at which ADT was administered, based on the Youden sensitivity analysis. Delayed ADT at PSA ≥2 ng/mL was an independent prognosticator of cancer-specific mortality (p=0.047), and a marginally significant prognosticator of progression to CRPC (p=0.051). During the median follow-up of 81.0 (interquartile range 54.2-115.7) months, patients who received early ADT at PSA <2 ng/mL had significantly higher CSS rates compared to patients who received delayed ADT at PSA ≥2 ng/mL (p=0.002). Progression to CRPC-free survival was comparable between the two groups (p=0.331). CONCLUSION: Early ADT at the PSA level of less than 2 ng/mL confers CSS benefits in patients with localized or locally advanced PCa who were previously treated with RP.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21642, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846773

RESUMO

Currently, the standard management for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa) is still controversial. In our study, we aimed to compare the survival outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) versus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT).We conducted analyses with a large cohort of 38,544 patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2016). Propensity score matching, Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazard regression were used to reduce the influence of bias and compare the overall survival (OS) and cancer specific survival (CSS). Several different sensitivity analyses including inverse probability of treatment weighting and standardized mortality ratio weighting were used to verify the robustness of the results.Totally, 33,388 men received RP and 5,156 men received EBRT with cT3-4N0M0 PCa were included in this study. According to the Kaplan-Meier curves, RP performed better in both OS and CSS compared with EBRT (P < .0001). In the adjusted multivariate Cox regression, RP also showed better OS and CSS benefits (OS: HR=0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.54; P < .0001 and CSS: HR=0.43; 95% CI: 0.38-0.49; P < .0001). After propensity score matching, RP is still the management that can bring more survival benefits to patients. (OS: HR=0.46; 95% CI: 0.41-0.51; P < .0001 and CSS: HR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.34-0.48; P < .0001).Our research demonstrated the significantly better survival benefits of RP over EBRT in patients with locally advanced PCa. The results of this study will provide more evidence to help clinicians choose appropriate treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radioterapia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1114): 20200028, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the toxicity reduction required to justify the added costs of MRI-guided radiotherapy (MR-IGRT) over CT-based image guided radiotherapy (CT-IGRT) for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. METHODS: The costs of delivering prostate cancer radiotherapy with MR-IGRT and CT-IGRT in conventional 39 fractions and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) 5 fractions schedules were determined using literature values and cost accounting from two institutions. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity rates associated with CT-IGRT were summarized from 20 studies. Toxicity-related costs and utilities were obtained from literature values and cost databases. Markov modeling was used to determine the savings per patient for every 1% relative reduction in acute and chronic toxicities by MR-IGRT over 15 years. The costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) saved with toxicity reduction were juxtaposed with the cost increase of MR-IGRT to determine toxicity reduction thresholds for cost-effectiveness. One way sensitivity analyses were performed. Standard $100,000 and $50,000 per QALY ratios were used. RESULTS: The added cost of MR-IGRT was $1,459 per course of SBRT and $10,129 per course of conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. Relative toxicity reductions of 7 and 14% are required for SBRT to be cost-effective using $100,000 and $50,000 per QALY, respectively. Conventional radiotherapy requires relative toxicity reductions of 50 and 94% to be cost-effective. CONCLUSION: From a healthcare perspective, MR-IGRT can reasonably be expected to be cost-effective. Hypofractionated schedules, such a five fraction SBRT, are most likely to be cost-effective as they require only slight reductions in toxicity (7-14%). ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This is the first detailed economic assessment of MR-IGRT, and it suggests that MR-IGRT can be cost-effective for prostate cancer treatment through toxicity reduction alone.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista/economia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiografia Intervencionista/economia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
6.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(6-7): 513-522, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830055

RESUMO

Stereotactic radiotherapy is a fundamental change from the conventional fractionated radiotherapy and represents a new therapeutic indication. Stereotactic radiotherapy is now a standard of care for inoperable patients or patients who refuse surgery. The results are encouraging with local control and survival rates very high in selected populations. The rate of late toxicity remains acceptable. Good tolerability makes it appropriate even for elderly and frail patients. In these fragile patients or in certain specific clinical situations, different surgical, radiotherapy or interventional radiology attitudes can be discussed on a case-by-case basis. These situations are considered in this article for the pulmonary, hepatic and prostatic localizations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
7.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(6-7): 547-553, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855028

RESUMO

The management of early metastatic prostate cancer is based on systemic treatment by androgen deprivation therapy with or without chemotherapy or next-generation anti-androgen therapies. Local treatment of the prostate was initially used only to alleviate local symptoms. However, local radiotherapy of the prostate has been the subject of retrospective and prospective studies in patients with better prognostic factors, particularly in oligometastatic status. The results of these studies support that prostate radiotherapy can prolong the survival of patients with a low metastatic burden. This article states the biological bases, the main published and future published studies aimed to embed this strategy to optimize therapeutic management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/radioterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(6-7): 635-644, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859466

RESUMO

Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) corresponds to various replanning strategies aiming to correct for anatomical variations occurring during the course of radiotherapy. The goal of the article was to report the rational, feasibility and benefit of using PET and/or MRI to guide this ART strategy in various tumor localizations. The anatomical modifications defined by scanner taking into account tumour mobility and volume variation are not always sufficient to optimise treatment. The contribution of functional imaging by PET or the precision of soft tissue by MRI makes it possible to consider optimized ART. Today, the most important data for both PET and MRI are for lung, head and neck, cervical and prostate cancers. PET and MRI guided ART appears feasible and safe, however in a very limited clinical experience. Phase I/II studies should be therefore performed, before proposing cost-effectiveness comparisons in randomized trials and before using the approach in routine practice.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia
9.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1112): 20200197, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study presents a methodology for voxel-based evaluation of two phase sequential radiotherapy treatment plans having conventional dose scheme in the first phase and subsequent hypofractionation dose scheme in the second phase based upon different priority [planning target volume (PTV), clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OAR)] of display modes. METHODS: A case of carcinoma prostate was selected for demonstration. Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) was used for contouring and planning. In the first phase, a dose of 52 Gy in 26 fractions to the PTV and in the second phase, a dose of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions to the PTV Boost was planned on the same CT data set. Both the plans (Phase 1 and Phase 2) were exported and processed using "Voxel-based radiobiology display (VRb) tool". Plan Sum for Biologically effective dose (BED)-Cube and equivalent dose of 2Gy (EQD2)-Cube was reconstructed using a combination of linear quadratic (LQ) and linear quadratic-linear (LQ-L) radiobiological models. Tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for different target volumes and organs were also calculated using EQD2-volume histograms of the Plan Sum. RESULTS: An in-house graphical user interface (GUI) is developed to present the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the multiphase treatment plans with different display modes and dose regimens. The voxel based TCP obtained for the combined target volume was 90.56%. NTCP for the bladder and rectum was calculated from the Plan Sum histograms and found to be 0.33% and ~0.0% respectively. CONCLUSION: The proposed methodology using the VRb tool offers superior plan evaluation for multiphase sequential radiotherapy treatment plans over the existing methods. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: PTV, CTV and OAR priority based display modes in VRb tool offers better understanding of radiobiological evaluation of sequential radiotherapy treatment plans.


Assuntos
Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701978

RESUMO

We report medium-term results in men receiving primary whole-gland HIFU (WG-HIFU) and following salvage treatment. One hundred and twenty-eight patients in a single hospital were enrolled. The enrolled patients were treated with WG-HIFU for primary localized prostate cancer. Salvage treatment include androgen deprivation therapy, secondary HIFU and salvage radiation therapy. Our primary outcomes were biochemical recurrence-free survival, salvage treatment-free survival, and metastasis-free survival. Secondary outcomes included urinary incontinence, de novo erectile dysfunction, acute epididymitis, bladder neck contracture, and urethral stricture. The 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rates were 85.7%, 82.7%, and 45.2% for D'Amico low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed high risk group is the only predictor of significant shorter biochemical recurrence free survival, salvage treatment free survival, and metastasis free survival. Of 38 patients receiving salvage treatment after biochemical recurrence, 29 (76.3%) became free from biochemical recurrence. Rates of the adverse events of urinary incontinence, acute epididymitis, bladder neck contracture or urethral stricture, and de novo erectile dysfunction were 2.3%, 10.9%, 20.3%, 65.6%, respectively. In conclusion, WG-HIFU is an effective treatment option for localised prostate cancer, especially in D'Amico low- and intermediate-risk cases. The success rate of salvage treatment with radiation therapy and secondary HIFU for biochemical recurrence was acceptable. Fewer adverse events were caused by HIFU, especially incontinence and erectile dysfunction, than by radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Epididimite/diagnóstico , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
11.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1114): 20200548, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of an empty bladder filling protocol on patients receiving radical RT for localised prostate cancer on post RT toxicity and biochemical progression free survival (bPFS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Records of patients receiving radical external beam RT (EBRT) for localised prostate cancer with a full or empty bladder were reviewed. These included the bladder size on planning CT, daily online image guided RT (IGRT) setup data, treatment time and post treatment follow up data.These included bPFS, gastrointestinal(GI) and genitourinary(GU) toxicity scoring post RT using the CTCAE v4.0 scoring system. All patients included in the study were planned and treated under the same departmental clinical protocol with VMAT and daily online IGRT corrections. RESULTS: 90 patients were treated with 60 Gy in 20 fractions with a median follow up of 48 months. At 4 years bPFS in the empty bladder group was 100 and 98% in the full bladder group (p = 0.27). There were no statistically significant differences in cumulative ≥Grade 2GU (p = 0.10) and GI (p = 0.27) toxicity rates between the two bladder filling protocols. No statistically significant differences in the IGRT setup between the two groups of patients. Although the median treatment times per fraction were not statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.47), patients in the full bladder filling group were required to spend a longer time in the RT department per treatment session for bladder filling. CONCLUSION: An empty bladder filling protocol has non-inferior bPFS, GI and GU toxicities at 4 years in patients with localised prostate cancer using advanced RT techniques in comparison to a full bladder filling protocol. A longer follow up with a larger sample size is required to validate this approach. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study suggests that an empty bladder filling protocol can be used in external beam EBRT for localised prostate cancer with non-inferior treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos da radiação
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235616, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Extended Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) instrument is a commonly used patient reported outcome (PRO) tool in prostate cancer clinical trials. Summary scores for EPIC subscales are calculated by averaging patient scores for attributes (e.g., side effects), implying equal weighting of the attributes in the absence of evidence showing otherwise. METHODS: We estimated patient preferences for each of the attributes included in the bowel subscale of the EPIC instrument using best-worst (B-W) scaling among a cohort of men with prostate cancer. Patients were presented with multiple tasks in which they were asked to indicate which attribute they would find most and least bothersome at different levels of severity. Analysis utilized both (simple) B-W counts and scores to estimate patient preferences for each attribute as well as attribute levels. RESULTS: A total of 174 respondents from two institutions participated in the survey. Preference estimates for each of the five attributes included in the EPIC-26 bowel subscale showed wide variation preferences: 'losing control of bowel movements' was found to be the most bothersome attribute, with a B-W score of -0.48, followed by bowel urgency which also had negative B-W score (-0.04). Increased frequency of bowel movements was the least bothersome attribute, with a B-W score of +0.33, followed by bloody stools (+0.12), and pelvic/rectal pain (+0.06). Analysis of preference weights for attribute bother levels showed preference estimates be linear. CONCLUSIONS: We provide novel evidence on patient preferences for side effect reduction following prostate radiotherapy. Within the bowel sub-scale of the EPIC-26 short form, we found that bowel incontinence was perceived to be the most bothersome treatment effect, while increased bowel frequency was least bothersome to patients.


Assuntos
Intestinos/efeitos da radiação , Preferência do Paciente , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Intestinos/patologia , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4413-4418, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To compare the predictive efficacy of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and European Association of Urology (EAU) risk stratification systems in radiotherapy of prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-thousand-nine-hundred-nine patients treated with definitive (1,074), adjuvant (381), and salvage radiotherapy (454) were analysed. RESULTS: Both systems significantly predicted biochemical-relapse-free-survival, metastasis-free-survival, and disease-free-survival, while only the NCCN system correlated with local-control in the definitive radiotherapy group. In the adjuvant setting, both systems failed to predict all outcomes. In the salvage setting, only the NCCN system significantly predicted biochemical-relapse-free-survival, metastasis-free-survival and disease-free-survival. CONCLUSION: This analysis confirms the efficacy of both systems in definitive radiotherapy and suggests the utility of the NCCN also in salvage radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Salvação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Humanos , Calicreínas/metabolismo , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(5): 423-428, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620459

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the most common malignant tumour and represents the third cause of cancer-mortality in men. The management of prostate cancer has dramatically changed over the last decades, mainly due to improvement of diagnostic modalities and development of new therapeutic strategies. Imaging plays a key role in all the steps of prostate cancer management. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography (PET) - computed tomography (CT) have emerged as two major tools for the detection of prostate cancer, tumour staging and treatment choice. Both MRI and PET-CT - using choline or prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as radiotracer - have become mandatory. This article presents the contribution of the latest advances in these two imaging techniques of prostate cancer and their future developments.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/química , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/radioterapia , Idoso , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Colina/análogos & derivados , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Humanos , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
15.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(4): 323-331, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532578

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate MRI and fluorocholine PET/CT diagnostic performances for the detection of local recurrence following prostate brachytherapy for localised prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this single-centre study, we retrospectively reviewed data from 21 patients treated by brachytherapy for localised prostate cancer and diagnosed with biochemical recurrence according to Phoenix Criteria, who underwent MRI and fluorocholine PET/CT. We included patients with local relapse suspicion according to imaging exams, with biopsy for the final assessment of local recurrence. Patient analysis data were supplemented by segment analysis using an 8-segment model. RESULTS: The fluorocholine PET/CT was positive for 81% and negative for 19% of patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 33% with diagnosis accuracy of 67%. The MRI was positive for 57% and negative for 43% of patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 67% and 56% with diagnosis accuracy of 62%. There was no statistically significant difference between fluorocholine PET/CT and MRI accuracy (P=0.63). On a segment-based analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were 44% and 82% for fluorocholine PET/CT with diagnosis accuracy of 78%. For MRI, specificity was 91% diagnosis accuracy was 82%. CONCLUSION: Both MRI and fluorocholine PET/CT permit to highlight local recurrence sites after prostate brachytherapy. Confirmation biopsies are, however, necessary since this accuracy is insufficient.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Idoso , Biópsia , Colina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3307-3314, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recent evidence has shown that African American men with prostate cancer may have more radiosensitive disease with greater overall survival (OS) with radiotherapy compared to Caucasian men. We compared OS in African American and Caucasian men receiving radiotherapy utilizing the National Cancer Database. PATIENTS AND METHODS: African American or Caucasian men with N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 were selected and grouped into favorable and unfavorable risk based on clinical T-stage, clinical Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen. Patients with favorable risk received brachytherapy or dose-escalated external beam radiation (EBRT); those with unfavorable risk received EBRT plus anti-androgen therapy with/without brachytherapy. African American and Caucasian men in each subgroup were propensity score-matched and analyzed for survival. Sensitivity analysis used treatment-race and age-race interaction terms. RESULTS: 27,150 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median age of 68 (range=38-90) years and median follow-up of 59.93 (range=48-142.62) months. OS was equivalent between African American and Caucasian race in favorable risk [log-rank p=0.82; hazard ratio (HR)=0.928; 95% confidence intervaI (CI)=0.583-1.477, p=0.753] and unfavorable-risk subgroups (log-rank p=0.87, HR=1.078, 95% CI=0.843-1.379, p=0.550). No significant interaction existed between treatment and race for either cohort but there was a significant interaction between race and age in those with unfavorable risk (HR=1.046, 95% CI=1.009-1.084, p=0.015), with greater OS in those of Caucasian race ≤60 years (HR=0.320, 95% CI=0.137-0.752, p=0.009). CONCLUSION: African American and Caucasian men have similar survival when treated with risk-appropriate definitive radiotherapy. However, younger (age ≤60 years) African American men with unfavorable risk have poorer survival than their Caucasian counterparts and may harbor a significantly different biology of disease.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 16(4): 273-279, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519506

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to identify the optimal candidates for early salvage radiotherapy (SRT) among patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: This multi-institutional retrospective study included 371 patients treated using SRT after RP. The median (range) PSA level at BCR was 0.36 (0.10-2.00) ng/mL. The association between early SRT (ie, starting PSA level < 0.50) and BCR after SRT was tested in each subgroup according to our own risk stratification. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 51 months. By multivariate analysis, pT3b, Gleason score ≥ 8, negative surgical margins, PSA doubling time < 6 months, and non-early SRT were associated with BCR after SRT. Patients were stratified by four risk factors other than non-early SRT: (1) low risk (0 risk factor), (2) intermediate risk (1 risk factor), and (3) high risk (≥2 risk factors). The BCR-free survival was higher in the early SRT group than the nonearly SRT group in the high-risk subgroup (P = 0.020), whereas that was similar between two groups in the low-risk and intermediate-risk subgroups (P = .79 and .18, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that early SRT was beneficial for the high-risk subgroup (P = .032), whereas early SRT was not associated with improved outcomes in the low-risk and intermediate-risk subgroups (P = .92 and 1.0, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that early SRT seemed to contribute to better biochemical control for patients with more adverse features, whereas no benefit was observed in men with no adverse features.


Assuntos
Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(9): 963-969, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580211

RESUMO

Radical prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy are recognized as comparable treatment options for localized prostate cancer. Previous studies of oncological outcomes of surgery versus radiotherapy have reported their comparability or possible superiority of surgery. However, the issue of which treatment is better remains controversial. Several factors make fair comparison of their outcomes difficult: different patient backgrounds caused by selection bias, different definitions of biochemical recurrence and different complication profiles between the treatment modalities. In 2016, the first large randomized controlled trial was published, which compared radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy and active monitoring in localized prostate cancer. More recently, another study has reported comparative outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and volumetric modulated arc therapy, as the leading surgery and radiotherapy techniques, respectively. Furthermore, there has been a trend toward combining external beam radiotherapy with brachytherapy boost, especially in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. This review summarizes the updated evidence on oncological outcomes of surgery versus external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/métodos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(9): 2311-2317, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583236

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We herein present the results of the first Italian Association of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology (AIRO) survey regarding salvage external beam re-irradiation of local prostate cancer relapse named PROLAPSE. METHODS: A questionnaire with 12 items was administered to the 775 Italian radiation oncologist members of the AIRO. RESULTS: One hundred of the members completed the survey. The survey highlighted that 59% of the participants are currently performing prostate re-EBRT, while nearly two-thirds (65%) affirmed that they are taking into consideration the procedure in case of intraprostatic relapse. Regarding the clinical target volume (CTV), only a minority (16%) declared to always prefer the partial prostate re-irradiation, while a consistent portion (nearly two-thirds) relied on clinical considerations of the choice towards partial or whole gland irradiation. The main techniques used for re-irradiation resulted to be intensity-modulated RT (IMRT)/volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and SBRT, having received approximately 40% of responses each. Regarding the criteria for patients' selection, more than 75% of responders agreed on the use of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-choline to exclude distant metastases and of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) to detect intraprostatic recurrence. A sufficient timeframe (> 3 years) between primary RT and reirradiation was indicated by more than half of participants as an important driver in decision-making, while histological confirmation of the relapse was considered not essential by more than two-thirds. For the use of concomitant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), most AIRO members (79%) agreed that the prescription should be based on a case-by-case analysis. Extreme hypofractionation (> 5 Gy/fraction) was preferred by the majority (52%) of the AIRO members. In most centers (more than 74%), the planning dose-volume constraints were generally extrapolated from the published data. In half of the cases, the interviewed responders affirmed that no major gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were registered in the follow-up of their re-EBRT patients. Bladder complications represented the most commonly observed form of toxicity, with an incidence of 67%. CONCLUSION: This first AIRO survey about salvage prostate re-EBRT provides an interesting snapshot and suggests increasing interest in re-EBRT patients in Italy. Consensus about some aspects of patients' selection, the necessity of biopsy, fractionation, and highly selective techniques seems feasible, but other key points such as irradiated volume, dosimetry parameters, and hormonal treatment association need to be clarified.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Idoso , Biópsia/métodos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Oncologia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Prolapso , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Reirradiação/métodos , Recidiva , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518630

RESUMO

Cancer in the elderly remains an evolving issue and a health challenge. Several improvements in the radiotherapy field allow the delivery of higher doses/fractions with a safe toxicity profile, permitting the reduction of radiation treatment protocols in the elderly. Regarding breast, prostate, and lung cancer, the under-representation of older patients in clinical trials limits the extension of treatment recommendations to elderly patients in routine clinical practice. Among the feasible alternatives to standard whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) in older patients are shorter courses using higher hypofractionation (HF) and accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The boost continues to be used in women at high risk of local recurrence but is less widely accepted for women at lower risk and patients over 70 years of age. Regarding prostate cancer, there are no published studies with a focus on the elderly. Current management decisions are based on life expectancy and geriatric assessment. Regimens of HF and ultra-HF protocols are feasible strategies for older patients. Several prospective non-randomized studies have documented the safe delivery of ultra-HF for patients with localized prostate cancer, and multiple phase III trials and meta-analyses have confirmed that the HF regimen should be offered with similar acute toxicity regardless of patient age and comorbidity. A recent pooled analysis from two randomized trials comparing surgery to stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in older adult patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer did show comparable outcomes between surgery and SBRT. Elderly cancer patients are significantly under-represented in all clinical trials. Thus, the inclusion of older patients in clinical studies should be strongly encouraged to strengthen the evidence base for this age group. We suggest that the creation of oncogeriatric coordination units may promote individualized care protocols, avoid overtreatment with aggressive and unrecommended therapies, and support de-escalating treatment in elderly cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Doses de Radiação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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