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1.
Acta Oncol ; 60(10): 1301-1307, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To analyse the cumulative incidence of any failure (AF), prostate cancer-specific failure (PCSF), any death (AD), prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD), and local control in 2387 men with prostate cancer (PC), consecutively treated with combined high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) from 1998 to 2010. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective, single-institution study of men with localised PC. The mean age was 66 years and 54.7% had high-risk PC according to the Cambridge prognostic group (CPG) classification. The treatment was delivered as EBRT (2 Gy × 25) and HDRBT (10 Gy × 2) with combined androgen blockade (CAB). The median follow-up was 10.2 years. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of PCSD at 10 years was 5% [CI 95% 0.04-0.06]. The 10 years PCSD per risk group were: low (L) 0.4%, intermediate favourable (IF) 1%, intermediate unfavourable (IU) 4.3%, high-risk favourable (HF) 5.8%, and high-risk unfavourable (HU) 13.9%. The PCSF rate at 10 years was 16.5% [CI 95% 0.15-0.18]. The PCSF per risk group at 10 years were: L 2.5%, IF 5.5%, IU 15.9%, HF 15.6%, and HU 38.99%. PCSF occurred in 399 men, of whom 15% were found to have local failure. The estimated frequency of local failure in the entire cohort was 1.2%. CONCLUSIONS: HDRBT combined with EBRT is an effective treatment with long-term overall survival and excellent local control for patients with PC. The low rate of local recurrence among men with relapse suggests that these patients were micro metastasised at time of treatment, which calls for improved methods to detect disseminated disease.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Nanoscale ; 13(34): 14525-14537, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473816

RESUMO

Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the main treatments for men with prostate cancer (PCa). To date, numerous sophisticated nano-formulations as radiosensitizers have been synthesized with inspiring therapeutic effects both in vitro and in vivo; however, almost all the attention has been paid on the enhanced dose deposition effect by secondary electrons of nanomaterials with high atomic numbers (Z); despite this, cell-cycle arrest, DNA damage, and also reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are critical working mechanisms that account for radiosensitization. Herein, an 'all-purpose' nanostrategy based on dose deposition enhancement, cell cycle arrest, and ROS production as prostate cancer radiosensitizer for potential clinical translation was proposed. The rather simple structure of docetaxel-loaded Au nanoparticles (NPs) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand conjugation have been successfully synthesized. Enhanced cellular uptake achieved via the selective internalization of the NPs by PCa cells with positive PSMA expression could guarantee enhanced dose deposition. Moreover, the as-synthesized nanosystem could effectively arrest the cell cycle at G2/M phases, which would reduce the ability of DNA damage repair for more irradiation sensitive of the PCa cells. Moreover, the G2/M phase arrest would further promote cascade retention and the enrichment of NPs within the cells. Furthermore, ROS generation and double strand breaks greatly promoted by NPs under irradiation (IR) could also provide an underlying basis for effective radiosensitizers. In vitro and in vivo investigations confirmed the as-synthesized NPs as an effective nano-radiosensitizer with ideal safety. More importantly, all moieties within the present nanosystem have been approved by FDA for the purpose of PCa treatment, thus making it highly attractive for clinical translation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Dano ao DNA , Ouro , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353827

RESUMO

We present two 85-year-old men, with a similar history of prostate cancer treated more than 10 years ago with radiotherapy, who were in remission, but sought medical care at a time, due to alarm sign and symptoms. Case 2 resulted in a locally advanced secondary radiation-induced sarcoma of the penile base. Case 1 suffered from a round, 2 cm soft-tissue lesion with spiculated borders at the ureterovesical junction responsible for ipsilateral iliac vein compression and urinary obstruction without proven biochemical prostate cancer relapse, raising concerns about recurrence or secondary tumour. Both patients followed an oncological geriatric assessment and were 'vulnerable' at their presentation. Hence, we describe the effort to perform medical care adequacy regarding patient's frailty and the anatomic locations within the prior radiation field. In case 2, we got a pathological diagnose and followed sequential multimodal treatments without success. But in case 1, minimal intervention resulted in improvement.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
4.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 165: 103432, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) currently represents the standard RT approach for all prostate cancer (PCa) risk categories. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available literature, focusing on acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) of moderate hypofractionation for localized PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature search was performed and two independent reviewers selected the records according to the following Population (P) Intervention (I) Comparator (C) and Outcomes (O) (PICO) question: "In patients affected by localized PCa (P), moderately hypofractionated RT (defined as a treatment schedule providing a single dose per fraction of 3-4.5 Gy) (I) can be considered equivalent to conventionally fractionated RT (C) in terms of G > 2 GI and GU acute and late adverse events (O)?". Bias assessment was performed using Cochrane Cochrane Collaboration's Tool for Assessing Risk of Bias. RESULTS: Thirteen records were identified and a meta-analysis was performed. Risk of acute GI and GU > 2 adverse events in the moderately hypofractionated arm was increased by 9.8 % (95 %CI 4.8 %-14.7 %; I2 = 57 %) and 1.5 % (95 % CI -1.5 %-4.4 %; I2 = 0%), respectively. DISCUSSION: Overall, majority of trials included in our meta-analysis suggested that moderately hypofractionated RT is equivalent, in terms of GI and GU adverse events, to conventional fractionation. Pooled analysis showed a trend to increased GI toxicity after hypofractionated treatment, but this might be related to dose escalation rather than hypofractionation.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Neoplasias da Próstata , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação
5.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 22(9): 113-122, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338435

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the dose-volume parameters and regression scatter plots of the iteratively improved RapidPlan (RP) models, specific knowledge-based planning (KBP) models, in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer over three periods. METHODS: A RP1 model was created from 47 clinical intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)/VMAT plans. A RP2 model was created to exceed dosimetric goals which set as the mean values +1SD of the dose-volume parameters of RP1 (50 consecutive new clinical VMAT plans). A RP3 model was created with more strict dose constraints for organs at risks (OARs) than RP1 and RP2 models (50 consecutive anew clinical VMAT plans). Each RP model was validated against 30 validation plans (RP1, RP2, and RP3) that were not used for model configuration, and the dose-volume parameters were compared. The Cook's distances of regression scatterplots of each model were also evaluated. RESULTS: Significant differences (p < 0.05) between RP1 and RP2 were found in Dmean (101.5% vs. 101.9%), homogeneity index (3.90 vs. 4.44), 95% isodose conformity index (1.22 vs. 1.20) for the target, V40Gy (47.3% vs. 45.7%), V60Gy (27.9% vs. 27.1%), V70Gy (16.4% vs. 15.2%), and V78Gy (0.4% vs. 0.2%) for the rectal wall, and V40Gy (43.8% vs. 41.8%) and V70Gy (21.3% vs. 20.5%) for the bladder wall, whereas only V70Gy (15.2% vs. 15.8%) of the rectal wall differed significantly between RP2 and RP3. The proportions of cases with a Cook's distance of <1.0 (RP1, RP2, and RP3 models) were 55%, 78%, and 84% for the rectal wall, and 77%, 68%, and 76% for the bladder wall, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The iteratively improved RP models, reflecting the clear dosimetric goals based on the RP feedback (dose-volume parameters) and more strict dose constraints for the OARs, generated superior dose-volume parameters and the regression scatterplots in the model converged. This approach could be used to standardize the inverse planning strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Masculino , Órgãos em Risco , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
6.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 22(9): 242-251, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Carbon ion radiotherapy for prostate cancer was performed using two fine needle Gold Anchor (GA) markers for patient position verification in Osaka Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Kansai (Osaka HIMAK). The present study examined treatment plans for prostate cases using beam-specific planning target volume (bsPTV) based on the effect of the markers on dose distribution and analysis of target movements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gafchromic EBT3 film was used to measure dose perturbations caused by markers. First, the relationships between the irradiated film density and absolute dose with different linear energy transfer distributions within a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) were confirmed. Then, to derive the effect of markers, two types of markers, including GA, were placed at the proximal, center, and distal depths within the same SOBP, and dose distributions behind the markers were measured using the films. The amount of internal motion of prostate was derived from irradiation results and analyzed to determine the margins of the bsPTV. RESULTS: The linearity of the film densities against absolute doses was constant within the SOBP and the amount of dose perturbations caused by the markers was quantitatively estimated from the film densities. The dose perturbation close behind the markers was smallest (<10% among depths within the SOBP regardless of types of markers) and increased with depth. The effect of two types of GAs on dose distributions was small and could be ignored in the treatment planning. Based on the analysis results of internal motions of prostate, required margins of the bsPTV were found to be 8, 7, and 7 mm in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions, respectively. CONCLUSION: We evaluated the dose reductions caused by markers and determined the margins of the bsPTV, which was applied to the treatment using fiducial markers, using the analysis results of prostate movements.


Assuntos
Radioterapia com Íons Pesados , Íons Pesados , Neoplasias da Próstata , Marcadores Fiduciais , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
7.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 22(9): 49-58, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342134

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of rectal spacing on inter-fractional rectal and bladder dose and the need for adaptive planning in prostate cancer patients undergoing SBRT with a 0.35 T MRI-Linac. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated and compared SBRT plans from prostate cancer patients with and without rectal spacer who underwent treatment on a 0.35 T MRI-Linac. Each group consisted of 10 randomly selected patients that received prostate SBRT to a total dose of 36.25 Gy in five fractions. Dosimetric differences in planned and delivered rectal and bladder dose and the number of fractions violating OAR constraints were quantified. We also assessed whether adaptive planning was needed to meet constraints for each fraction. RESULTS: On average, rectal spacing reduced the maximum dose delivered to the rectum by more than 8 Gy (p < 0.001). We also found that D3cc received by the rectum could be 12 Gy higher in patients who did not have rectal spacer (p < 9E-7). In addition, the results show that a rectal spacer can reduce the maximum dose and D15cc to the bladder wall by more than 1 (p < 0.004) and 8 (p < 0.009) Gy, respectively. Our study also shows that using a rectal spacer could reduce the necessity for adaptive planning. The incidence of dose constraint violation was observed in almost 91% of the fractions in patients without the rectal spacer and 52% in patients with implanted spacer. CONCLUSION: Inter-fractional changes in rectal and bladder dose were quantified in patients who underwent SBRT with/without rectal SpaceOAR hydrogel. Rectal spacer does not eliminate the need for adaptive planning but reduces its necessity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Órgãos em Risco , Próstata , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 22(9): 262-270, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351055

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare radiotherapy plans between an O-ring and a conventional C-arm linac for hypofractionated high-dose prostate radiotherapy in terms of plan quality, dose distribution, and quality assurance in a multi-vendor environment. METHODS: Twenty prostate cancer treatment plans were irradiated on the O-ring Varian Halcyon linac and were re-optimized for the C-arm Elekta Synergy Agility linac. Dose-volume histogram metrics for target coverage and organ at risk dose, quality assurance, and monitor units were retrospectively compared. Patient-specific quality assurance with ion chamber measurements, gamma index analysis, and portal dosimetry was performed using the Varian Portal Dosimetry system and the ArcCHECK® phantom (Sun Nuclear Corporation). Prostate-only radiotherapy was delivered with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in 20 fractions of 2.5/3.0 Gy each. RESULTS: For both linacs, target coverage was excellent and plan quality comparable. Homogeneity in PTVBoost was high for Synergy as well as Halcyon with a mean homogeneity index of 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.05 ± 0.01, respectively. Mean dose for the organs at risk rectum and bladder differed not significantly between the linacs but were higher for the femoral heads and penile bulb for Halcyon. Quality assurance showed no significant differences in terms of ArcCHECK gamma pass rates. Median pass rate for 3%/2 mm was 99.3% (96.7 to 99.8%) for Synergy and 99.8% (95.6 to 100%) for Halcyon. Agreement between calculated and measured dose was high with a median deviation of -0.6% (-1.7 to 0.8%) for Synergy and 0.2% (-0.6 to 2.3%) for Halcyon. Monitor units were higher for the Halcyon by approximately 20% (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Hypofractionated high-dose prostate cancer SIB VMAT on the Halcyon system is feasible with comparable plan quality in reference to a standard C-arm Elekta Synergy linac.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Orv Hetil ; 162(33): 1328-1334, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392239

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A prosztatarák kezelésében jelentos szerepet kapnak a különbözo sugárterápiás eljárások. Ennek ellenére a vizelési képességre gyakorolt, rövid és hosszú távú mellékhatásaikat objektív vizsgálómódszerrel igen kevés tanulmányban vizsgálták. Célkituzés: Arra a kérdésre kerestük a választ, hogy hogyan változik a korai vizelési képesség a különbözo sugárterápiás eljárások során. Módszerek: A vizsgálatunkban meghatározott protokoll szerint a kezelés elott minden bevont beteggel IPSS-t (nemzetközi prosztatatünet-értékelo lap) töltettünk ki, illetve uroflow (vizeletáramlási) vizsgálatot végeztünk, suprapubicus ultrahanggal meghatározott mictiós residuum méréssel kiegészítve. A sugárkezelés befejezésétol számított 4-6 héten belül ismételten elvégeztük ezeket a vizsgálatokat, melyekbe összesen 26 beteget vontunk be. A kezelési modalitások szerint 6, kis dózisteljesítményu (low-dose rate; LDR) brachytherapiában, 5, nagy dózisteljesítményu (high-dose rate; HDR) brachytherapiában, 12, Cyberknife (CK) készüléken extrém hipofrakcionált sugárkezelésben és 3, lineáris gyorsítón (LINAC) mérsékelten hipofrakcionált sugárkezelésben részesített prosztatarákos beteget választottunk be. A kezelések hasonlósága miatt az LDR- és a HDR-csoportot együttesen brachytherapiás csoportként (BTCS), a CK- és a LINAC-csoportot teleterápiás csoportként (TTCS) vizsgáltuk. Eredmények: A BTCS betegeinél az IPSS- és az uroflow paraméterek korai romlása (IPSS irritatív panaszok: p = 0,003, IPSS obstruktív panaszok: p = 0,011, maximális áramlás: p = 0,003, átlagos áramlás: p = 0,006) szignifikánsnak bizonyult, a TTCS-ban mindösszesen az IPSS irritatív tünetekben volt kimutatható eltérés (p = 0,011). Következtetés: A sugárterápiás modalitás kiválasztása elott javasolható az uroflow és az IPSS-vizsgálat elvégzése. Eredményeink alapján azoknál a betegeknél, akiknél a kezelés elott középsúlyos vagy súlyos dysuriás vizelési panaszok állnak fenn, a brachytherapia helyett teleterápiás módszerek alkalmazását javasoljuk, amelyek kevésbé rontják a betegek korai vizeletürítési képességét. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(33): 1328-1334. INTRODUCTION: Various radiotherapy procedures are applied in the treatment of prostate cancer. Nevertheless, their early and late side effects measured by uroflow and residual volume measurements have not been studied extensively. OBJECTIVE: We investigated by objective methods the early changes of urination ability after different radiotherapy procedures. METHODS: According to the protocol defined in our study, all patients had their IPSS (international prostate symptom score) determined, as well as their uroflow examinations and measurements of their residual urine via suprapubic ultrasound, carried out before treatment. These tests were then repeated at 4-6 weeks after the end of their radiotherapy. A total of 26 patients were included in the study. 6 patients were treated with low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy and 5 patients with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, 12 patients with Cyberknife (CK) using extreme hypofractionation and 3 patients with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy with a linear accelerator (LINAC). Due to the similarity of the treatments, the LDR and HDR groups together were also studied as brachytherapy group and the CK and LINAC patients as teletherapy group. RESULTS: We found that the early deterioration of IPSS and uroflow parameters after brachytherapy were significant (IPSS irritative symptoms: p = 0.003, IPSS obstructive symptoms: p = 0.011, maximum flow: p = 0.003, mean flow: p = 0.006), while in teletherapy only the IPSS irritative symptoms worsened significantly (p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we suggest to perform uroflow examination and IPSS test before selecting therapeutic modality for patients with prostate cancer. In patients with moderate or severe urinary complaints before the treatment, we recommend to use teletherapy rather than brachytherapy. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(33): 1328-1334.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Micção , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(8): e348-e357, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339655

RESUMO

In patients with prostate cancer who have a high risk of pelvic nodal disease, the use of elective whole pelvis radiotherapy is still controversial. Two large, randomised, controlled trials (RTOG 9413 and GETUG-01) did not show a benefit of elective whole pelvis radiotherapy over prostate-only radiotherapy. In 2020, the POP-RT trial established the role of elective whole pelvis radiotherapy in patients who have more than a 35% risk of lymph node invasion (known as the Roach formula). POP-RT stressed the importance of patient selection. In patients with cN1 (clinically node positive) disease or pN1 (pathologically node positive) disease, the addition of whole pelvis radiotherapy to androgen deprivation therapy significantly improved survival compared with androgen deprivation therapy alone, as shown in large, retrospective studies. This patient population might increase in the future because use of the more sensitive prostate-specific membrane antigen PET-CT will become the standard staging procedure. Additionally, the SPORTT trial suggested a benefit of whole pelvis radiotherapy in biochemical recurrence-free survival in the salvage setting. A correct definition of the upper field border, which should include the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta, is key in the use of pelvic radiotherapy. As a result of using modern radiotherapy technology, severe late urinary and intestinal toxic effects are rare and do not seem to increase compared with prostate-only radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Metástase Linfática/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Acta Oncol ; 60(10): 1283-1290, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dose escalation has been associated with improved biochemical control for prostate cancer. Focusing the high dose on the MRI-defined intraprostatic lesions (IL) could spare the surrounding organs at risk and hence allow further escalation. We compare treatment efficacy between state-of-the-art focally-boosted proton and photon-based radiotherapy, and investigate possible predictive guidelines regarding individualized treatment prescriptions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten prostate cancer patients with well-defined ILs were selected. Multiparametric MRI was used to delineate ILs, which were transferred to the planning CT via image registration. Pencil beam scanning proton therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans, were created for each patient. Each modality featured 6 plans: (1) moderately hypofractionated dose: 70 Gy to the prostate in 28 fractions, (2)-(6) plan 1 plus additional simultaneous-integrated-boost to ILs to 75.6, 81.2, 86.6, 98 and 112 Gy in 28 fractions. Equivalent dose to 2 Gy-per-fraction (EqD2) was used to calculate tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) for ILs and organs-at-risk. RESULTS: For both modalities, the maximum necessary dose to achieve TCP > 99% was 98 Gy for very high-risk ILs. For lower risk ILs lower doses were sufficient. NTCP was <25% and 35% for protons and photons at the maximum dose escalation, respectively. For the cases and beam characteristics considered, proton therapy was dosimetrically superior when IL was >4 cc or located <2.5 mm from the rectum. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrated the potential role for proton therapy in the setting of prostate focal dose escalation. We propose that anatomical characteristic could be used as criteria to identify patients who would benefit from proton treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Terapia com Prótons , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Órgãos em Risco , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Prótons , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
15.
Radiol Phys Technol ; 14(3): 328-335, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313911

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of quality assurance (QA)-related setup errors in passive proton therapy for prostate cancer with and without a hydrogel spacer. We used 20 typical computed tomography (CT) images of prostate cancer: 10 patients with and 10 patients without spacers. The following 12 model errors were assumed: output error ± 2%, range error ± 1 mm, setup error ± 1 mm for three directions, and multileaf collimator (MLC) position error ± 1 mm. We created verification plans with model errors and compared the prostate-rectal (PR) distance and dose indices with and without the spacer. The mean PR distance at the isocenter was 1.1 ± 1.3 mm without the spacer and 12.9 ± 2.9 mm with the spacer (P < 0.001). The mean rectum V53.5 GyE, V50 GyE, and V34.5 GyE in the original plan were 2.3%, 4.1%, and 12.1% without the spacer and 0.1%, 0.4%, and 3.3% with the spacer (P = 0.0011, < 0.001, and < 0.001). The effects of the range and lateral setup errors were small; however, the effects of the vertical/long setup and MLC error were significant in the cases without the spacer. The means of the maximum absolute change from original plans across all scenarios in the rectum V53.5 GyE, V50 GyE, and V34.5 GyE were 1.3%, 1.5%, and 2.3% without the spacer, and 0.2%, 0.4%, and 1.3% with the spacer (P < 0.001, < 0.001, and = 0.0019). This study indicated that spacer injections were also effective in reducing the change in the rectal dose due to setup errors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Terapia com Prótons , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
16.
Hinyokika Kiyo ; 67(6): 245-248, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265900

RESUMO

Herein we report two cases of palliative radiation therapy for retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis (RLNM) causing annoying leg edema in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients in the terminal phase. [Case 1] A 53-year-oldman with T3bN0M1a prostate cancer was treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). After 9 months, he developed CRPC with local progression that required local radiation therapy (75.6 Gy/36 fr). Disease progression after life-prolonging therapies was followed only by best supportive care (BSC). Radiation therapy (40 Gy/20 fr) was performed for the RLNM due to which he suffered from painful leg edema. Although the painful leg edema was alleviated, he died of prostate cancer after 2 months. [Case 2] A 71-year-oldman with T4N1M1a prostate cancer was treated with ADT plus bicalutamide. After 10 months, he developed CRPC. He was treated with only BSC for disease progression after life-prolonging therapies. He had RLNM that caused painful leg edema, making it difficult for him to stretch and lie on his back. Radiation therapy (16 Gy/2 fr) was performed for the RLNM. His condition improved enough that he was able to move to a wheelchair and lie on his back. However, he died of prostate cancer without recurrence of the painful leg edema after one month. Our experience with these two CRPC patients with severe leg edema due to the RLNM indicates that radiation therapy for lymph node metastasis may be included as one of the treatment options even for terminal disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia
17.
J Sex Med ; 18(8): 1467-1472, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sildenafil citrate has been shown to be protective of sexual function when given concurrently and following prostate radiation therapy (RT), but some evidence suggests an increased biochemical recurrence (BCR) risk in patients taking sildenafil after radical prostatectomy. AIM: To evaluate whether sildenafil use is associated with increased risk of BCR in patients receiving prostate RT, we performed a secondary analysis of a randomized placebo-controlled trial (RPCT) that compared sildenafil citrate to placebo during and after prostate RT. METHODS: The study population consisted of prostate cancer patients who initiated radiation treatment at our institution and participated in our multi-institutional RPCT that compared 6 months of sildenafil 50 mg once a day to placebo with a 24-month follow-up. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was allowed. Prostate cancer prognostic risk grouping was not an exclusion criterion, but most study participants had low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank testing. OUTCOMES: The primary outcomes of this report were biochemical recurrence and overall survival rates, where BCR was defined according to the Phoenix definition. RESULTS: Data of 162 men were analyzed. Nine men had inadequate PSA follow-up and the remaining 153 men were included in the final report. Median age was 61 years. At a median follow-up of 8.3 years (range: 3.0-12.2), 5/94 (5.3%) and 2/59 (3.4%) patients developed BCR in the sildenafil and placebo groups, respectively. The 6-year BCR-free survival was 98.8% for all patients, 98.1% for the sildenafil cohort, and 100% for the placebo cohort. The 10-year BCR-free survival was 94.4% for all patients, 95.6% for the sildenafil cohort, and 92.9% for the placebo cohort. There was no difference in BCR-free survival between the sildenafil and placebo groups by log-rank comparison (p = 0.36). CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This analysis informs clinical decision making about the safety of using sildenafil during and after prostate RT. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This study included patients who were treated in the setting of a prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial, and who attained high medication compliance. However, the study was limited by the post-hoc nature of the analysis, use of ADT in some patients, inadequate study power to detect a difference in BCR between sildenafil and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic sildenafil citrate was not associated with biochemical recurrence risk in prostate cancer patients treated with radiation. However, the study was inadequately powered to definitively conclude a negative finding. Haseltine JM, Hopkins M, Schofield E, et al. Sildenafil Citrate and Risk of Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy: Post-Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial. J Sex Med 2021;18:1467-1472.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Citrato de Sildenafila/efeitos adversos
18.
Radiologe ; 61(9): 839-845, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hybrid devices of MR-scanners and linear accelerators (MR-Linacs) represent a new and promising extension of radiotherapeutic options for prostate cancer. The potential advantage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over computed tomography (CT) for soft tissue contrast is well-known and leads to more consistent and smaller target volumes and improved normal tissue sparing. OBJECTIVES: This article presents an overview of clinical experience, indications, advantages and challenges of utilizing a 1.5 T MR-Linac in the setting of radiotherapy of prostate cancer. RESULTS: All current indications for radiotherapy of prostate cancer can be treated with an MR-Linac. The advantages include daily MR-based imaging in treatment position and daily adaption of the treatment plan on current anatomy (adaptive radiotherapy). Additionally, functional MRI sequences might be exploited to enhance treatment individualization and response assessment. Ultimately treatment on an MR-Linac might further increase the therapeutic window. The limitations of using MR-Linac include treatment complexity and the duration of each session. CONCLUSIONS: MR-Linacs expand the spectrum of radiotherapeutic options for prostate cancer. Increased precision can be reached with daily MRI-based target volume definition and plan adaption. Clinical studies are necessary to identify patient groups who would benefit most from radiotherapy on a MR-Linac.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Aceleradores de Partículas , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
19.
Andrologia ; 53(9): e14122, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319588

RESUMO

Radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy and active surveillance are three widely used treatment options for patients with low-risk prostate cancer, but the relative effects are controversial. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science until June 2020, focusing on the studies comparing the effect of radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy and active surveillance in patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Through the random-effects model, dichotomous data were extracted and summarised by odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Twenty-two studies containing 185,363 participants were pooled for the comprehensive comparison. The Bayesian mixed network estimate demonstrated the cancer-specific mortality of radical prostatectomy was significantly lower than active surveillance (OR, 0.46; 95% CI 0.34-0.64) and external beam radiation therapy (OR, 0.66; 95% CI 0.46-0.96), but not brachytherapy (OR, 0.63; 95% CI 0.41-1.03). The brachytherapy demonstrated the best treatment ranking probability results in terms of all-cause mortality, while no significant difference was observed when compared with other three treatment modalities. Brachytherapy and radical prostatectomy were associated with a similar risk of cancer-specific mortality, and both of them were significantly superior to active surveillance and external beam radiation therapy; nevertheless, there was no significant difference among the aforementioned treatment methods in all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia
20.
Acta Oncol ; 60(10): 1291-1295, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the long-term clinical outcomes of low-risk (LR) and intermediate-risk (IR) prostate cancer patients treated with low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Men with biopsy-proven low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer received EBRT and LDR-BT in an Asian academic center from 2000 to 2019 were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) between LDR and EBRT in the low- and intermediate-risk cohorts. RESULTS: 642 patients (521 EBRT and 121 LDR-BT) with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included for analysis. In the intermediate-risk group, 5- and 10-year bFFS was 96%, 89% and 86%, 61% for LDR-BT and EBRT, respectively. LDR-BT was associated with a statistically significant improvement of bFFS in the intermediate-risk cohort (HR 2.7, p = 0.02). In the low-risk cohort, no difference of bFFS was found between LDR-BT and EBRT (HR 1.9, p = 0.08). Hormone therapy was more common in EBRT than LDR-BT for intermediate-risk group (71% versus 44%, p < 0.05). Prostate cancer-specific mortality was low in both EBRT (1%) and LDR-BT (2%) cohorts. No significant difference in OS was found between LDR-BT and EBRT in low- and intermediate-risk group (HR 2.1, p = 0.2 and HR = 1.7, p = 0.3). CONCLUSION: In our retrospective study, LDR-BT is associated with superior bFFS compared with EBRT in Asian men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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