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1.
Biol Res ; 54(1): 27, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Demethylzeylasteral (T-96) is a pharmacologically active triterpenoid monomer extracted from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF) that has been reported to exhibit anti-neoplastic effects against several types of cancer cells. However, the potential anti-tumour effects of T-96 against human Prostate cancer (CaP) cells and the possible underlying mechanisms have not been well studied. RESULTS: In the current study, T-96 exerted significant cytotoxicity to CaP cells in vitro and induced cell cycle arrest at S-phase in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, T-96 promoted the initiation of autophagy but inhibited autophagic flux by inducing ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which subsequently activated the extrinsic apoptosis pathway in CaP cells. These findings implied that T-96-induced ER stress activated the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway to inhibit proliferation of CaP cells. Moreover, we observed that T-96 enhances the sensitivity of CaP cells to the chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data demonstrated that T-96 is a novel modulator of ER stress and autophagy, and has potential therapeutic applications against CaP in the clinic.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Triterpenos
2.
Nanoscale ; 13(34): 14525-14537, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473816

RESUMO

Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the main treatments for men with prostate cancer (PCa). To date, numerous sophisticated nano-formulations as radiosensitizers have been synthesized with inspiring therapeutic effects both in vitro and in vivo; however, almost all the attention has been paid on the enhanced dose deposition effect by secondary electrons of nanomaterials with high atomic numbers (Z); despite this, cell-cycle arrest, DNA damage, and also reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are critical working mechanisms that account for radiosensitization. Herein, an 'all-purpose' nanostrategy based on dose deposition enhancement, cell cycle arrest, and ROS production as prostate cancer radiosensitizer for potential clinical translation was proposed. The rather simple structure of docetaxel-loaded Au nanoparticles (NPs) with prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand conjugation have been successfully synthesized. Enhanced cellular uptake achieved via the selective internalization of the NPs by PCa cells with positive PSMA expression could guarantee enhanced dose deposition. Moreover, the as-synthesized nanosystem could effectively arrest the cell cycle at G2/M phases, which would reduce the ability of DNA damage repair for more irradiation sensitive of the PCa cells. Moreover, the G2/M phase arrest would further promote cascade retention and the enrichment of NPs within the cells. Furthermore, ROS generation and double strand breaks greatly promoted by NPs under irradiation (IR) could also provide an underlying basis for effective radiosensitizers. In vitro and in vivo investigations confirmed the as-synthesized NPs as an effective nano-radiosensitizer with ideal safety. More importantly, all moieties within the present nanosystem have been approved by FDA for the purpose of PCa treatment, thus making it highly attractive for clinical translation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Dano ao DNA , Ouro , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4443-4446, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is one of the most effective treatments for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). However, it has been reported that the use of ADT is significantly associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients with newly diagnosed non-metastatic PCa. We investigated changes in renal function that occurred in Japanese patients with PCa after ADT was discontinued. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 121 patients who underwent prostate biopsies, were pathologically diagnosed with PCa, and received ADT for ≥6 months at our Institution between 2009 and 2014, 60 patients who underwent radiotherapy for stage B or C PCa were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study. Renal function was assessed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of ADT and the rate of change in the eGFR (ΔeGFR) during ADT and after the discontinuation of ADT was investigated. We divided patients into two groups: Group 1 received ADT for 6 months, and group 2 received ADT for 12 months. Age; ΔeGFR; prostate-specific antigen, testosterone and hemoglobin levels; clinical stage; Gleason score; comorbidities; body mass index; heart rate; and the cardiothoracic ratio were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients (group 1: n=23, group 2: n=37) were analyzed. The Gleason score of group 2 was higher than that of group 1 (p=0.0011). Regarding clinical stage, group 1 had more patients with stage B disease, and group 2 had more with stage C (p<0.0001). The eGFR decreased with the duration of ADT treatment. At 12 months, renal function had started to recover in group 1, while it had continued to decrease in group 2. CONCLUSION: Discontinuation of ADT tended to result in improvements in renal function. Furthermore, this study indicated that renal dysfunction caused by 6 months of ADT is transient. Normalization of the serum testosterone level seen after the discontinuation of ADT may be associated with improvements in renal function. Thus, intermittent ADT may be a useful treatment for PCa, as it would help to preserve renal function.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Japão , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Suspensão de Tratamento
4.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(9): 781-787, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533124

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effect of RS102895, a specific C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist, on the biological behavior of prostate cancer (PCa) cells with different degrees of malignancy. Methods Non-androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells PC-3 and androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells 22RV1 were cultured in vitro. A control group, a recombinant C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (rCCL2) treatment group, and a rCCL2 combined with RS102895 treatment group were established. Cell proliferation ability was detected by CCK-8 assay, cell invasion and migration abilities were detected by TranswellTM assay, mRNA expressions of cell antigen KI-67 (ki67) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and protein expression levels of ki67 and MMP2 were detected by Western blotting. Results The proliferation, invasion, and migration abilities of PC-3 cells were significantly enhanced by rCCL2, and the proliferation ability of 22RV1 cells was significantly increased as well. Meanwhile, the mRNA and protein expression levels of ki67 and MMP2 in PC-3 cells were significantly up-regulated by rCCL2. After RS102895 treatment, the above effects of rCCL2 were reversed. Conclusion RS102895 can inhibit the proliferation, invasion, and migration of PC-3 prostate cancer cells by specifically blocking the CCL2/CCR2 pathway and down-regulating the expressions of ki67 and MMP2.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2 , Neoplasias da Próstata , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptores CCR2/genética , Receptores de Quimiocinas
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046588, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385241

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limited data from controlled clinical trials are available for men who experience biochemical recurrence after definitive therapy for prostate cancer. In the absence of overt metastases, patients with non-metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (nmCSPC) often receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). There is no standard-of-care consensus on optimal ADT timing, although most men are treated prior to metastases, especially those with high-risk features (Gleason score 8-10 or prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) <9-12 months). Given data that ADT plus novel hormonal agents improve survival in men with metastatic CSPC, there is a desire to evaluate these agents earlier in the disease course. The main objective of EMBARK is the comparative assessment of enzalutamide plus leuprolide (luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa)) or enzalutamide monotherapy versus monotherapy LHRHa to improve metastasis-free survival (MFS) in patients with high-risk nmCSPC PSA recurrence after definitive therapy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: EMBARK is a randomised, phase 3 study of high-risk patients with nmCSPC, a PSADT of ≤9 months and a screening PSA of ≥2 ng/mL above the nadir after radiotherapy (RT) or ≥1 ng/mL after radical prostatectomy (RP) with or without postoperative RT. Men (n=1050) are randomised 1:1:1 to enzalutamide 160 mg/day plus LHRHa or placebo plus LHRHa (double-blind arms) or enzalutamide monotherapy (open-label arm). Treatment is suspended at week 37 if PSA concentrations are <0.2 ng/mL and reinstated if levels rise to ≥2.0 ng/mL with RP or ≥5.0 ng/mL without RP. Patients with PSA ≥0.2 ng/mL at week 37 continue until treatment discontinuation criteria are met. The primary endpoint is MFS comparing enzalutamide plus LHRHa versus placebo plus LHRHa. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is conducted under the guiding principles of the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. The results will be disseminated at research conferences and in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02319837.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas , Humanos , Leuprolida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360204

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BCa) and prostate cancer (PCa) are the most prevalent types of cancers. We aimed to understand and analyze the care pathways for BCa and PCa patients followed at a hospital setting by analyzing their different treatment lines. We evaluated the association between different treatment lines and the lifestyle and demographic characteristics of these patients. Two datasets were created using the electronic health records (EHRs) and information collected through semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Statistical analysis was performed to examine which variable had an impact on the treatment each patient followed. In total, 83 patients participated in the study that ran between January and November 2018 in Beacon Hospital. Results show that chemotherapy cycles indicate if a patient would have other treatments, i.e., patients who have targeted therapy (25/46) have more chemotherapy cycles (95% CI 4.66-9.52, p = 0.012), the same is observed with endocrine therapy (95% CI 4.77-13.59, p = 0.044). Patients who had bisphosphonate (11/46), an indication of bone metastasis, had more chemotherapy cycles (95% CI 5.19-6.60, p = 0.012). PCa patients with tall height (95% CI 176.70-183.85, p = 0.005), heavier (95% CI 85.80-99.57, p < 0.001), and a BMI above 25 (95% CI 1.85-2.62, p = 0.017) had chemotherapy compared to patients who were shorter, lighter and with BMI less than 25. Initial prostate-specific antigen level (PSA level) indicated if a patient would be treated with bisphosphonate or not (95% CI 45.51-96.14, p = 0.002). Lifestyle variables such as diet (95% CI 1.46-1.85, p = 0.016), and exercise (95% CI 1.20-1.96, p = 0.029) indicated that healthier and active BCa patients had undergone surgeries. Our findings show that chemotherapy cycles and lifestyle for BCa, and tallness and weight for PCa may indicate the rest of treatment plan for these patients. Understanding factors that influence care pathways allow a more person-centered care approach and the redesign of care processes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Próstata , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5049, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413304

RESUMO

Preclinical testing is a crucial step in evaluating cancer therapeutics. We aimed to establish a significant resource of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of prostate cancer for rapid and systematic evaluation of candidate therapies. The PDX collection comprises 59 tumors collected from 30 patients between 2012-2020, coinciding with availability of abiraterone and enzalutamide. The PDXs represent the clinico-pathological and genomic spectrum of prostate cancer, from treatment-naïve primary tumors to castration-resistant metastases. Inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity in adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine phenotypes is evident from bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing data. Organoids can be cultured from PDXs, providing further capabilities for preclinical studies. Using a 1 x 1 x 1 design, we rapidly identify tumors with exceptional responses to combination treatments. To govern the distribution of PDXs, we formed the Melbourne Urological Research Alliance (MURAL). This PDX collection is a substantial resource, expanding the capacity to test and prioritize effective treatments for prospective clinical trials in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Organoides/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Genoma , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Organoides/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Bancos de Tecidos , Transcriptoma , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5053, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417459

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that PTEN loss is associated with p110ß signaling dependency, leading to the clinical development of p110ß-selective inhibitors. Here we use a panel pre-clinical models to reveal that PI3K isoform dependency is not governed by loss of PTEN and is impacted by feedback inhibition and concurrent PIK3CA/PIK3CB alterations. Furthermore, while pan-PI3K inhibition in PTEN-deficient tumors is efficacious, upregulation of Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) promotes resistance. Importantly, we show that this resistance can be overcome through targeting AKT and we find that AKT inhibitors are superior to pan-PI3K inhibition in the context of PTEN loss. However, in the presence of wild-type PTEN and PIK3CA-activating mutations, p110α-dependent signaling is dominant and selectively inhibiting p110α is therapeutically superior to AKT inhibition. These discoveries reveal a more nuanced understanding of PI3K isoform dependency and unveil novel strategies to selectively target PI3K signaling nodes in a context-specific manner.


Assuntos
Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Humanos , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/deficiência , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445612

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a common cause of death worldwide. Here, we isolated cancer stem cells (CSCs) from four adenocarcinomas of the prostate (Gleason scores from 3 + 3 up to 4 + 5). CSCs were characterized by the expression of the stem cell markers TWIST, the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM), the transcription factors SNAI1 (SNAIL) and SNAI2 (SLUG) and cancer markers such as CD44 and prominin-1 (CD133). All investigated CSC populations contained a fraction highly positive for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) function and displayed robust expressions of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) ligands. Furthermore, we investigated immunotherapeutic approaches but had no success even with the clinically used PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab. In addition, we studied another death-inducing pathway via interferon gamma signaling and detected high-level upregulations of human leukocyte antigen A (HLA-A) and beta 2-microglobulin (B2M) with only moderate killing efficacy. To examine further killing mechanisms in prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs), we analyzed NF-κB signaling. Surprisingly, two patient-specific populations of PCSCs were found: one with canonical NF-κB signaling and another one with blunted NF-κB activation, which can be efficiently killed by tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Thus, culturing of PCSCs and analysis of respective NF-κB induction potency after surgery might be a powerful tool for optimizing patient-specific treatment options, such as the use of TNF-inducing chemotherapeutics and/or NF-κB inhibitors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , NF-kappa B/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5066, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417456

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) shows strong dependence on the androgen receptor (AR) pathway. Here, we show that squalene epoxidase (SQLE), an enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, is overexpressed in advanced PCa and its expression correlates with poor survival. SQLE expression is controlled by micro-RNA 205 (miR-205), which is significantly downregulated in advanced PCa. Restoration of miR-205 expression or competitive inhibition of SQLE led to inhibition of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. Furthermore, SQLE was essential for proliferation of AR-positive PCa cell lines, including abiraterone or enzalutamide resistant derivatives, and blocked transactivation of the AR pathway. Inhibition of SQLE with the FDA approved antifungal drug terbinafine also efficiently blocked orthotopic tumour growth in mice. Finally, terbinafine reduced levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in three out of four late-stage PCa patients. These results highlight SQLE as a therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced PCa.


Assuntos
Colesterol/biossíntese , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Ativação Transcricional/genética
12.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207168

RESUMO

Xanthone derivatives have shown promising antitumor properties, and 1-carbaldehyde-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone (1) has recently emerged as a potent tumor cell growth inhibitor. In this study, its effect was evaluated (MTT viability assay) against a new panel of cancer cells, namely cervical cancer (HeLa), androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3) prostate cancer, and nonsolid tumor derived cancer (Jurkat) cell lines. The effect of xanthone 1 on macrophage functions was also evaluated. The effect of xanthone 1-conditioned THP-1 human macrophage supernatants on the metabolic viability of cervical and prostate cancer cell lines was determined along with its interference with cytokine expression characteristic of M1 profile (IL-1 ≤ ß; TNF-α) or M2 profile (IL-10; TGF-ß) (PCR and ELISA). Nitric oxide (NO) production by murine RAW264.7 macrophages was quantified by Griess reaction. Xanthone 1 (20 µM) strongly inhibited the metabolic activity of the cell lines and was significantly more active against prostate cell lines compared to HeLa (p < 0.05). Jurkat was the cell most sensitive to the effect of xanthone 1. Compound 1-conditioned IL-4-stimulated THP-1 macrophage supernatants significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the metabolic activity of HeLa, LNCaP, and PC-3. Xanthone 1 did not significantly affect the expression of cytokines by THP-1 macrophages. The inhibiting effect of compound 1 observed on the production of NO by RAW 264.7 macrophages was moderate. In conclusion, 1-carbaldehyde-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone (1) decreases the metabolic activity of cancer cells and seems to be able to modulate macrophage functions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HeLa , Papillomavirus Humano 18/patogenicidade , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células PC-3 , Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Células THP-1 , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
13.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 339-347, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210489

RESUMO

Androgen receptor function, tumor cell plasticity, loss of tumor suppressors, and defects in DNA repair genes affect aggressive features of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer development, progression, and aggressive behavior are often attributable to function of the androgen receptor. Tumor cell plasticity, neuroendocrine features, and loss of tumor suppressors lend aggressive behavior to prostate cancer cells. DNA repair defects have ramifications for prostate cancer cell behavior.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Plasticidade Celular , Reparo do DNA , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia
14.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 349-363, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210490

RESUMO

Recent studies show that the prevalence of germline pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants (also known as mutations) in DNA repair genes in metastatic prostate cancer is higher than previously recognized and higher than in unaffected men. Specific gene dysfunction is important in prostate cancer initiation and/or evolution to metastases. This article reviews key literature on individual genes, recognizing BRCA2 as the gene most commonly altered in the metastatic setting. This article discusses the importance of representative and diverse inclusion, and efforts to advance management for at-risk carrier populations to maximize clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(3): 365-371, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210491

RESUMO

Germline testing should be performed to support treatment selection for patients with metastatic prostate cancer, and should be identified in patients with high-risk localized disease. Patients with germline BRCA1/2 mutations should be educated regarding additional personal cancer risk, and risk for family members. Guidelines recommend that all men with metastatic prostate cancer should also undergo somatic tissue and germline testing for priority genes BRCA1/2, PALB2, ATM, and MSH2/6. The advent of high throughput sequencing enables patients to be tested for a more comprehensive panel of germline and somatic mutations.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3271-3279, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Androgen receptor (AR) degradation is the primary regulator of androgen receptor activity. This study was designed to investigate the influence of the proteasome on AR protein stability after enzalutamide (Enz) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell counting after treatment was utilized to assess the effect of Enz on cell proliferation. Changes in mRNA levels were evaluated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Proteasome activity was assessed by measurement of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the beta-5 subunit of the proteasome. Changes in protein levels after treatment with Enz, MG132 (MG), bortezomib (Bor), or their combination were assessed using western blot analysis. RESULTS: Treatment with Enz led to a significant reduction of cell proliferation and AR protein levels. However, AR mRNA levels were unchanged. Inhibition of proteasome activity by MG counteracts the Enz-mediated AR degradation transiently, whereas Bor showed no inhibition of the Enz-mediated AR degradation. CONCLUSION: Enz-mediated change in AR stability as an early and essential event after treatment was shown. However, investigations of the ubiquitin/proteasome system indicate involvement of several proteases in the Enz-mediated AR degradation process.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Bortezomib/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leupeptinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
17.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(7): 911-919, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the real-world use of primary androgen-deprivation therapy(PADT; gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists[leuprorelin/goserelin]and antagonists[degarelix]/surgical castration), its clinical effectiveness, and the characteristics of Japanese patients with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer treated with PADT. METHODS: In this retrospective, observational study, patients using PADT(≥1 record)in the 2016-2018 Japan Study Group of Prostate Cancer registry were followed up from their initial date of PADT until October 2018. The primary endpoints included prostate-specific antigen( PSA)response rate(PSA<4 ng/mL)and duration of initial treatment. RESULTS: Of 1,895 patients, 47.7%, 24.4%, and 22.0% received leuprorelin, goserelin, and degarelix, respectively; 5.9% underwent surgical castration. The degarelix group had the highest median PSA at diagnosis(116.7 ng/mL)and proportion of patients with clinical Stage Ⅳ prostate cancer (72.9%)and Gleason score 9-10(59.7%). A concomitant antiandrogen was used in >80% and 70% of patients in the leuprorelin/goserelin and degarelix groups, respectively; bicalutamide was used most commonly(99.0%). Median duration of initial treatment was 20.8 months in the degarelix group and not yet reached in the leuprorelin/goserelin groups; continuation rates at 24 months were 44.6% and 81.6%/87.3%, respectively. The PSA response rate was the highest in the leuprorelin group(93.7%); median percentage change in PSA was comparable across all treatment groups(-99.1% to -99.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Real-world use of PADT in patients with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer is likely based on its specific therapeutic attributes and patient characteristics.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Oligopeptídeos , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201712

RESUMO

Alnus sibirica (AS) is distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Russia and has reported anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and reducing activities on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions, along with other beneficial health properties. In the present study, we tried to prove the cancer-preventive activity against prostate cancer. The extracted and isolated compounds, oregonin (1), hirsutenone (2), and hirsutanonol (3), which were isolated from AS, were tested for anti-proliferative activity. To do this, we used the MTT assay; NF-κB inhibitory activity, using Western blotting; apoptosis-inducing activity using flow cytometry; DNA methylation activity, using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines. The compounds (1-3) showed potent anti-proliferative activity against both prostate cancer cell lines. Hirsutenone (2) exhibited the strongest NF-κB inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities compared with oregonin (1) and hirsutanonol (3). DNA methylation activity, which was assessed for hirsutenone (2), revealed a concentration-dependent enhancement of the unmethylated DNA content and a reduction in the methylated DNA content in both PC-3 and LNCaP cells. Overall, these findings suggest that hirsutenone (2), when isolated from AS, may be a potential agent for preventing the development or progression of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Alnus/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecóis/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desmetilação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarileptanoides/farmacologia , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Androgênios/farmacologia , Catecóis/química , Catecóis/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diarileptanoides/química , Diarileptanoides/isolamento & purificação , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281228

RESUMO

Prostate (PC) and breast cancer (BC) are heterogeneous hormonal cancers. Treatment resistance and adverse effects are the main limitations of conventional chemotherapy treatment. The use of sensitizing agents could improve the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic drugs as well as obviate these limitations. This study analyzes the effect of single catechin (CAT), procyanidin B2 (ProB2) treatment as well as the co-adjuvant treatment of each of these compounds with docetaxel (DOCE). We used PC- and BC-derived cell lines (PC3, DU-145, T47D, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). The short and long-term pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects were analyzed. RT-qPCR was used to discover molecular bases of the therapeutic efficacy of these compounds. ProB2 treatment induced a two- to five-fold increase in anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects compared to single DOCE treatment, and also had a more sensitizing effect than DOCE on DU145 cells. Regarding BC cells, ProB2- and CAT-mediated sensitization to DOCE anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects was cell-independent and cell-dependent, respectively. Combined treatment led to high-efficacy effects on MCF-7 cells, which were associated to the up-regulation of CDKN1A, BAX, caspase 9 and E-cadherin mRNA under combined treatment compared to single DOCE treatment. CAT and ProB2 can enhance the efficacy of DOCE therapy on PC and BC cells by the sensitizing mechanism.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biflavonoides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Proantocianidinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células MCF-7 , Masculino
20.
J Proteomics ; 246: 104311, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214676

RESUMO

Among cancers, prostate cancer (PCa) is frequently detected solid tumor and a growing problem for the male population, globally. Newer treatment modalities with specific targets are required for management. Plant-derived agents/drugs have historically been useful in cancer therapeutics. Natural metabolite i.e. plectranthoic acid (PA), inhibits the proliferation of PCa cells and has potent anti-cancer potential. Herein, we aim to identify the molecular signatures of PA. Proteins from control and PA-treated PCa cells were analysed using high-throughput labeled free proteomics approach. Data was processed with the SIEVE software and thoroughly analysed by using Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) and PANTHER. A total of 98 unique peptides, showing >2 fold change, were identified. Results indicated that PA modulates oncogenic pro-survival and pro-apoptotic signaling pathways in PCa cells. mTOR was the major canonical pathway targeted by PA, the inhibition of which was likely to induce PA mediated apoptosis. Moreover, PA interacts with the rapamycin binding domain of mTOR, demonstrated by the molecular dynamic (MD) simulation and binding free energy calculations. Furthermore, the biological process moderated by PA with a high percentage was a metabolic process. Taken together, PA appears to have pleiotropic effects, as it modulates multiple key signaling pathways, supporting the potential usefulness. SIGNIFICANCE: Studies on the mechanism of action of therapeutic agents are crucial for drug development. These studies support the selection of a therapeutic agent, appropriate models of its efficacy, and designing of further experiments. Furthermore, information on mechanism of action may suggest strategies for combination therapies. In this regard Proteomics provide the platform for comprehensive understanding of the molecular action mechanisms of newly discovered therapeutic agents. Current research highlights the new insights into mode of action of novel therapeutic metabolite i.e. Plectranthoic acid (PA). Using labeled free proteomics approach we extracted the underlying mechanisms for the anticancer activity of PA using prostate cancer model. The result of the study will pay the way for further investigations on this potent natural compound in different cancers and will provide a root for its development as a lead.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Triterpenos , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Proteômica
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