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1.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1103): 20190198, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Radiation therapy is among the most effective and widely used modalities of cancer therapy in current clinical practice. In this era of personalized radiation medicine, high-throughput data now provide the means to investigate novel biomarkers of radiation response. Large-scale efforts have identified several radiation response signatures, which poses two challenges, namely, their analytical validity and redundancy of gene signatures. METHODS: To address these fundamental radiogenomics questions, we curated a database of gene expression signatures predictive of radiation response under oxic and hypoxic conditions. RadiationGeneSigDB has a collection of 11 oxic and 24 hypoxic signatures with the standardized gene list as a gene symbol, Entrez gene ID, and its function. We present the utility of this database by gaining an understanding of hypoxia-associated miRNA by applying a penalized multivariate model; by comparing breast cancer oxic signatures in cell line data vs patient data; and by comparing the similarity of head and neck cancer hypoxia signatures at the pathway level in clinical tumour data. RESULTS: We obtained a set of miRNA highly associated both positively and negatively to the hypoxia gene signatures, across pan-cancer. In addition, we identified moderate correlations between breast cancer oxic signatures in patient data, and significant differences across molecular subtypes. Moreover, we also found that different set of pathways to be enriched using the head and neck hypoxia signatures, although, they are found to be concordant when applied on the patient data. CONCLUSION: This valuable, curated repertoire of published gene expression signatures provides motivating case studies for how to search for similarities in radiation response for tumours arising from different tissues across model systems under oxic and hypoxic conditions, and how a well-curated set of gene signatures can be used to generate novel biological hypotheses about the functions of non-coding RNA. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: We envision that RadiationSigDB database will help accelerate preclinical radiotherapeutic discovery pipelines in terms of analytical validity of novel biomarkers of radiation response and the need for ensemble approaches to clinical genomic biomarkers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Pesquisa Biomédica , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Hipóxia/genética , Oxigênio/fisiologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
2.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(4): 613-626, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397435

RESUMO

Carotid paragangliomas (CPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors of the head and neck. "Germline" and somatic mutations in a number of genes were shown to be associated with the development of CPGLs; however, molecular mechanisms of the tumor pathogenesis have not been fully understood. In the work, we have used whole exome sequencing data of 52 CPGLs obtained earlier. Using MutSigCV, the search for genes with high mutation rate was performed. Thirty four genes (MADCAM1, SARM1, ZFPM1, CTDSP2, DSPP, POTED, ANP32B, FRG2B, BAGE3, CCDC89, ACOT2, KRTAP10-1, ATXN1, GXYLT1, MUC2, AQP7, TMPRSS13, KRTAP4-3, PRR21, PSPH, PLBD1, ZNF595, IGSF3, PRR16, FAM157A, KCNJ12, HYDIN, IGFBP2, KIAA1671, DISC1, MUC6, XKR3, HRNR, and MUC4) potentially associated with the CPGL initiation and progression were revealed. The involvement of these genes in the pathogenesis of CPGLs was first shown, and possible mechanisms of their participation in that were discussed.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Paraganglioma/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
3.
Neoplasma ; 66(5): 671-680, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307198

RESUMO

Head and neck paragangliomas Paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas are rare, mostly benign neuroendocrine tumors, which are embryologically derived from neural crest cells of the autonomic nervous system. Paragangliomas are essentially the extra-adrenal counterparts of pheochromocytomas. As such this family of tumors can be subdivided into head and neck paragangliomas, pheochromocytomas and thoracic and abdominal extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Ten out of fifteen genes that contribute to the development of paragangliomas are more susceptible to the development of head and neck paragangliomas when mutated. Gene expression profiling revealed that pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas can be classified into two main clusters (C1 and C2) based on transcriptomes. These groups were defined according to their mutational status and as such strongly associated with specific tumorigenic pathways. The influence of the main genetic drivers on the somatic molecular phenotype was shown by DNA methylation and miRNA profiling. Certain subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and transmembrane protein 127 (TMEM127) still have the highest impact on development of head and neck paragangliomas. The link between RAS proteins and the formation of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas is clear due to the effect of receptor tyrosine-protein kinase (RET) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in RAS signaling and recent discovery of the role of HRAS. The functions of MYC-associated factor X (MAX) and prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) mutations in the contribution to the pathogenesis of paragangliomas still remain unclear. Ongoing studies give us insight into the incidence of germline and somatic mutations, thus offering guidelines to early detection. Furthermore, these also show the risk of mistakenly assuming sporadic cases in the absence of definitive family history in head and neck paragangliomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Paraganglioma , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Paraganglioma/genética
4.
Gene ; 714: 143997, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348981

RESUMO

Based on Akt1 and Jak1 key roles in apoptosis and proliferation of many cancers, the aim of this study was to find a new gene therapy strategy by silencing of these main anti-apoptotic genes for HNSCC treatment. Cancerous HN5 and normal HUVEC cell lines were treated with Akt1 and Jak1 siRNAs alone or with each other combined with/without cisplatin. The MTS, flow cytometry, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, real-time PCR and ELISA methods were utilized in this study. The highest percentage of apoptosis was observed in the treatment of Jak1 siRNA/cisplatin group in cancerous HN5 cells (96.5%) where this treatment showed 12.84% apoptosis in normal HUVEC cell line. Cell viability reduced significantly to 64.57% after treatment with Akt1 siRNA in HN5 treated group. Knocking down Akt1 and Jak1 genes using siRNAs could increase levels of apoptosis and reduce proliferation rate in HNSCC indicating the powerful effects of these genes siRNAs with or without chemotherapeutic agents in HNSCC treatment. In conclusion, the combination of siRNA-mediated gene-silencing strategy can be considered as a valuable and safe approach for sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents thus proposed further studies regarding this issue to approve some siRNA based therapeutics for using in clinic.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Janus Quinase 1/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/métodos , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Arkh Patol ; 81(3): 12-18, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the expression of the molecular markers p53 and p16INK4A in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to assess their impact on its clinical and morphological characteristics and overall survival (OS) rates in patients with HNSCC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Histological blocks were immunohistochemically studied using anti-p16 and p53 monoclonal antibodies in Krasnodar Clinical Oncology Dispensary One in 2011 to 2016. Overexpression of p16INK4A was established in the presence of 3 and 4 staining points (nuclear and/or cytoplasmic staining in 40% or more tumor cells). That of p53 was determined in the presence of nuclear staining (3+) in more than 50% of tumor cells. RESULTS: Overexpression of p16 was found in 15 (27%) patients (9 (60%) men and 6 (40%) women). The p16-positive tumor status was associated with the female sex (p=0.023), which was characteristic of tonsil cancer (p<0.001) and represented by the nonkeratinizing type (p=0.008). Overexpression of p16 was associated with more frequent regional lymph node metastases (p=0.029). Overexpression of p53 was related to G2 tumor (p=0.021) and expression of p53 was less than 50% associated with tongue body cancer (p=0.004). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the 3-year OS in p16-positive HNSCC patients was significantly higher than that in p16-negative ones (p=0.048). Significantly higher OS rates were observed in p16-positive HNSCC patients than in p16INK4A-negative ones for Stage III-IV (p=0.021). OS rates in HNSCC patients with co-expression of p16INK4A (3 and 4 points) and p53 (3+) were significantly higher than in the absence of a combination of these molecular markers (p=0.049). At the same time, OS in HNSCC patients with co-expression of p16INK4A (3 and 4 points), p53 (3+) was significantly higher than in the absence of a set of these molecular markers for stage III-IV (p=0.01). OS in patients with Stages I-II HNNSCC and co-expression of p16INK4A (3 and 4 points) and p53 (3+) did not significantly differ from that in the absence of a set of these molecular markers (p=0.960). CONCLUSION: Overexpression of p16INK4A (3 and 4 points) can be used as a prognostic marker to divide patients into subgroups with different clinical and morphological characteristics. The data on the correlation of p53 overexpression as a marker of mutations in the TP53 gene are contradictory and the study has not revealed the worst overall survival rates. A set of markers for the expression of p16 (≥40%) and p53 (≥50%) has been proposed for use as a favorable prognostic sign.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Genes p53 , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3633-3639, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of DL-methadone on enhancing the action of the chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel on head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemotherapeutic drugs were applied alone or in combination with DL-methadone and cytotoxicity was analyzed by XTT assays. Expression of the µ-opioid receptor and the drug transporter p-glycoprotein were analyzed by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: The effect of DL-methadone strongly depended on the respective chemotherapeutic agent. The basic expression of the µ-opioid receptor was not associated with the effect of DL-methadone, rather its induction by chemotherapeutic drugs. Expression or expression induction of p-glycoprotein was higher in weak-responder cell lines. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of the toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs by DL-methadone depends on the drug and on the cell line used.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Metadona/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética
7.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 106-109, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC), significantly associated with living environment and behaviour, can be prevented more efficiently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental and behavioural risk factors for HNC. METHODS: Using a detailed questionnaire on social status, education, living and occupational environment exposures, family cancer and lifestyle, HNC patients (103 cases, 76.7% of men) were compared with control subjects (244 subjects, 73% of men) balanced by age: mean (standard deviation) 63.8 (9.3) and 63.8 (9.0) for cases and controls, respectively. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that smoking and low education were significant risk factors for HNC regardless of sex. Family HNC and breast cancer were significant predictors of HNC risk. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed previous results that smoking and low education are significantly associated with HNC. Additionally, results pointed to significant HNC and breast cancer risk in HNC patient's families that may have originated from passive smoking or a smoking habit stemming from social environments that support it. Better dissemination programmes regarding smoking risks for children and adults are needed, targeting not only individuals but also families.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Life Sci ; 231: 116459, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075234

RESUMO

AIM: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most prevalent types of cancer worldwide with unfavorable patient outcomes and relatively low survival rates. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to participate in the progression of HNSCC. The present study aimed to investigate the functional mechanism of lncRNA LINC00460 in HNSCC by mediating microRNA-206 (miR-206)/stanniocalcin-2 (STC2) axis. METHODS: The interactions among miR-206, LINC00460 and STC2 were identified, and the expression of LINC00460, miR-206 and STC2 in tissues and cells was determined. Gain- and loss-of function experiments were conducted to analyze effects of LINC00460, miR-206 and STC2 on the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, autophagy-related proteins, and the extents of AKT, ERK phosphorylation. Cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and the production of autophagosomes after transfection were evaluated to further explore the role of LINC00460/miR-206/STC2 axis in HNSCC. RESULTS: LINC00460 and STC2 were highly expressed while miR-206 was poorly expressed in HNSCC. Besides, miR-206 was found to bind to both LINC00460 and STC2. After the transfection of HNSCC cells with miR-206 mimic or si-LINC00460, the expression of STC2, AKT, ERK, as well as the extent of AKT, ERK phosphorylation all decreased, which facilitated the apoptosis and autophagy of HNSCC cells. CONCLUSION: Collectively, the apoptosis and autophagy of HNSCC can be facilitated by downregulating LINC00460, which highlights a novel target in the treatment of HNSCC.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/fisiologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
9.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 83, 2019 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954079

RESUMO

The proliferation and metastasis ability of tumors are mediate by the "mutual dialogue" between cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Extracellular vesicles (EVs), mainly exosomes and microvesicles, play an important role in achieving intercellular substance transport and information transfer in the TME. Initially considered "garbage dumpsters" and later referred to as "signal boxes", EVs carry "cargo" (proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids) that can redirect the function of a recipient cell. Currently, the molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of EVs in head and neck cancers (HNCs) are still at an early stage and need to be further investigate. In this review, we provide insight into the TME of HNCs, classifying and summarizing EVs derived from different cell types and illuminating their complex signaling networks involved in mediating tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, vascular angiogenesis and cancer drug resistance. In addition, we highlight the application of EVs in HNCs, underlining the special pathological and physiological environment of HNCs. The application of tumor heterogeneous EVs in saliva and circulating blood diagnostics will provide a new perspective for the early screening, real-time monitoring and prognostic risk assessment of HNCs. Given the concept of precise and individual therapy, nanostructured EVs are equipped with superior characteristics of biocompatibility, low immunogenicity, loadability and modification ability, making these molecules one of the new strategies for HNCs treatment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Comunicação Celular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Vesículas Extracelulares/classificação , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
10.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 151, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most common deadly diseases worldwide. An increasing number of studies have recently focused on the malignant functions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in numerous cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms by which CAF-derived exosomes promote tumor progression need to be further elucidated. This study aims to determine whether the loss of specific miRNAs in CAF-derived exosomes may be involved in the malignant transformation of HNC. METHODS: MiRNA array and real-time PCR assays were used to analyze the differential expression of miRNAs in exosomes from normal fibroblasts (NFs) and CAFs. Cell proliferation, EdU incorporation, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and xenograft assays were performed to examine the effects of miR-3188 on HNC in vitro and in vivo. Real-time PCR, western blotting and luciferase reporter assays were used to identify the target genes of miR-3188. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mouse models were used to prove the potential therapeutic value of miR-3188-loaded exosomes in HNC. RESULTS: Our results showed that miR-3188 expression is reduced in exosomes and their parental CAFs from HNC tissues. In addition, miR-3188 can be transferred from fibroblasts to HNC cells by exosomes. Further exploration demonstrated that exosomal miR-3188 can influence the proliferation and apoptosis of HNC cells by directly targeting B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, we also found that miR-3188-loaded exosomes significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that CAF-derived exosomes contain lower miR-3188 levels than NFs, and the loss of miR-3188 in exosomes contributes to the malignant phenotypes of HNC cells through the derepression of BCL2. Furthermore, these data suggest the potential therapeutic value of exosomal miR-3188 for inhibiting HNC growth.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção
11.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 16(3): 155-161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: In metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) the metastatic tumor does not always keep the same gene expression profile as the parental tumor, which may influence the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of genes implicated in HNSCC carcinogenesis between the primary tumor and the corresponding lymph node metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen HNSCC, their corresponding node metastases and non-neoplastic tissues were studied by RT-qPCR for the expression of EGFR, VEGF, claudin7, maspin, survivin and SCCA. The levels of expression were correlated with histological characteristics and patients' prognosis. RESULTS: All genes except for survivin displayed different expression in node metastasis compared to the primary tumor. The expression of EGFR, survivin, maspin, and claudin7 in node metastasis and SSCA in the primary tumor affected the prognosis. SCCA expression is associated with the expression of claudin7 and maspin. P16-positive tumors expressed low levels of VEGF and SCCA, while keratinizing tumors over-expressed VEGF. CONCLUSION: Differential gene expression levels in node metastases compared to the primary tumor is linked to the prognosis of HNSCC patients. The histological/immunohisto-chemical characteristics of the tumor are associated with these genes expression changes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 354, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents one of the most common malignancies worldwide with a high mortality rate mainly due to lack of early detection markers, frequent association with metastasis and aggressive phenotype. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to have important regulatory roles in human cancers. The lncRNA prostate cancer-associated transcript 1 (PCAT-1) showed potential oncogenic roles in different cancers, however its role in HNSCC is not known. In this study, we evaluated the role of the PCAT-1 in HNSCC. METHODS: The expression of PCAT-1 was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in 23 paired human HNSCC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissue specimens. Cell proliferation after depleting PCAT-1 was determined. Effect of PCAT-1 depletion in HNSCC cell lines was determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Finally, JHU029 HNSCC cells was implanted subcutaneously into athymic nude mice and therapeutic potential of PCAT-1 was investigated. RESULTS: Up-regulation of PCAT-1 in TCGA dataset of HNSCC was noted. We also observed increased expression of PCAT-1 in archived HNSCC patient samples as compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues. Knockdown of PCAT-1 significantly reduced cell proliferation in HNSCC cell lines. Mechanistic study revealed significant down regulation of c-Myc and AKT1 gene in both RNA and protein levels upon knockdown of PCAT-1. We observed that c-Myc and AKT1 positively correlate with PCAT-1 expression in HNSCC. Further, we observed activation of p38 MAPK and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 upon knockdown of PCAT-1 which induces Caspase 9 and PARP mediated apoptosis. Targeted inhibition of PCAT-1 regresses tumor growth in nude mice. CONCLUSION: Together our data demonstrated an important role of the PCAT-1 in HNSCC and might serve as a target for HNSCC therapy.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Nat Med ; 25(5): 767-775, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011208

RESUMO

Anti-tumor immunity is driven by self versus non-self discrimination. Many immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer have taken advantage of tumor neoantigens derived from somatic mutations. Here, we demonstrate that gene fusions are a source of immunogenic neoantigens that can mediate responses to immunotherapy. We identified an exceptional responder with metastatic head and neck cancer who experienced a complete response to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, despite a low mutational load and minimal pre-treatment immune infiltration in the tumor. Using whole-genome sequencing and RNA sequencing, we identified a novel gene fusion and demonstrated that it produces a neoantigen that can specifically elicit a host cytotoxic T cell response. In a cohort of head and neck tumors with low mutation burden, minimal immune infiltration and prevalent gene fusions, we also identified gene fusion-derived neoantigens that generate cytotoxic T cell responses. Finally, analyzing additional datasets of fusion-positive cancers, including checkpoint-inhibitor-treated tumors, we found evidence of immune surveillance resulting in negative selective pressure against gene fusion-derived neoantigens. These findings highlight an important class of tumor-specific antigens and have implications for targeting gene fusion events in cancers that would otherwise be less poised for response to immunotherapy, including cancers with low mutational load and minimal immune infiltration.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/imunologia , Fusão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/imunologia , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/imunologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myb/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myb/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(7): 627-638, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025877

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) is a common malignancy with high mortality and poor prognosis. Alternative splicing (AS) is a transcriptional regulation mechanism that generates multiple transcripts from same genes, and aberrant AS signatures of cancers can be predictive for prognosis. We identified the survival-related AS events and splicing factors (SFs) from the RNA sequencing data and the corresponding clinical information of an HNSC cohort downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and SpliceSeq. The independent prognostic predictors were assessed by Cox proportional regression analysis, and the regulatory network of SFs and AS events was analyzed by Spearman's test and constructed. A total of 4626 survival-related AS events in 3280 genes were identified, and most were protective factors. Among the different types of splicing events, exon skip was the most frequent. The prognostic models were constructed for each type of AS, and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve of the combined prognostic model was 0.765, indicating good predictive performance. Finally, a correlation network between SF and AS events was constructed. We identified prognostic predictors based on AS events that stratified HNSC patients into the high- and low-risk groups, and revealed splicing networks that provide insights into the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
15.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 44, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898135

RESUMO

Circular RNAs are abundant endogenous non-coding RNA with no 5' cap and 3' polyadenylation tail that modify liner mRNAs and have no terminal structures. Our knowledge of the biogenesis of circular RNAs has been expanded, and circular RNAs were shown to be key regulators of various diseases, especially cancers. Head and neck cancers are the sixth most popular cancers worldwide, and the overall survival rates remain unsatisfactory. Recent studies have indicated that circular RNAs are involved in the tumorigenesis, progression, invasion and chemosensitivity of head and neck cancers and that some circular RNAs could serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In this study, we summarize research advances in the regulation of circular RNA biogenesis, their characteristics and functions, the involvement of circular RNAs in the pathophysiology of head and neck cancers and their potential clinical utilization, as well as the likely directions of future studies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , RNA Neoplásico/genética , RNA/genética , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Humanos
16.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 57, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma is a rare, highly metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma that typically arises in midline structures and is characterized by having a fusion involving the nuclear protein in testis, NUT, gene. Nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma has been identified in patients of all ages and is often initially misdiagnosed due to the rapid timeline of symptom onset. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the case of a 47-year-old Caucasian woman with a nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma that was initially mistaken for a sinus infection. After symptom progression while on an aggressive antibiotic regimen, the source of her symptoms was correctly identified as a sella mass. Comprehensive analysis of the tumor was performed, and standard cytogenetic analysis identified a translocation of 15q and 19p. Further testing identified a NUT-BRD4 fusion and confirmed the diagnosis of nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma. Despite definitive diagnosis and surgical, radiation, and, ultimately, systemic therapy, she progressed rapidly, developing widespread metastases, and ultimately died from the disease 5 months after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this and other previous reports, aggressive therapy should be initiated once nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma is diagnosed and close surveillance employed in an attempt to prevent and/or recognize metastases as early as possible. Aggressive therapy has shown little efficacy such that the average overall survival for patients with nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma is very short, often less than 6 months. Thus, early enrollment into clinical trials testing novel therapies for the treatment of nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma should be considered. Finally, additional reports of nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma are needed to fully characterize this rare and highly aggressive cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Sinusite
17.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 38, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long intergenic noncoding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21) is considered a target of wild-type p53, but little is known about its regulation by mutant p53 and its functions during the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: RNAscope was used to detect the expression and distribution of lincRNA-p21. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were performed to analyze the transcriptional regulation of lincRNA-p21 in HNSCC cells. The biological functions of lincRNA-p21 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. RNA immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays were used to detect the direct binding of lincRNA-p21. RESULTS: Lower lincRNA-p21 expression was observed in HNSCC tissues and indicated worse prognosis. Both wild and mutant type p53 transcriptionally regulated lincRNA-p21, but nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) was essential for mutant p53 in the regulation of lincRNA-p21. Ectopic expression of lincRNA-p21 significantly inhibited cell proliferation capacity in vitro and in vivo and vice versa. Moreover, the overexpression of lincRNA-p21 induced G1 arrest and apoptosis. Knockdown NF-YA expression reversed tumor suppressor activation of lincRNA-p21 in mutant p53 cells, not wild-type p53 cells. A negative correlation was observed between lincRNA-p21 and the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in HNSCC tissues. High lincRNA-p21 expression inhibited Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signal activation and vice versa. Further, we observed direct binding to STAT3 by lincRNA-p21 in HNSCC cells, which suppressed STAT3-induced oncogenic potential. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the transcriptional regulation of lincRNA-p21 by the mutant p53/NF-YA complex in HNSCC. LincRNA-p21 acted as a tumor suppressor in HNSCC progression, which was attributed to direct binding to STAT3 and blocking of JAK2/STAT3 signaling.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Seguimentos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 138, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SOX11 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in mantle cell lymphoma development. However, its functional role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unknown. METHODS: Protein expression was measured with Western blotting, immunohistochemistry or quantitative proteomics, and gene expression was measured with quantitative RT-PCR. Functional role of SOX11 in HNSCC was evaluated with MTS/apoptosis, migration, invasion assays and a xenograft model. A SOX11-targeting gene, SDCCAG8, was confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), luciferase reporter and rescue assays. RESULTS: SOX11 was up-regulated in recurrent versus primary HNSCC and in highly invasive versus low invasive HNSCC cell lines. Silencing SOX11 in HNSCC cell lines significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration, invasion and resistance to Cisplatin, and vice versa. Quantitative proteomic analysis of SOX11-silencing HNSCC cells revealed a number of differentially expressed proteins, including a down-regulated tumor antigen SDCCAG8. Silencing of SDCCAG8 in HNSCC cells also significantly inhibited the cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and vice versa. ChIP assays demonstrated that endogenous SOX11 strongly bound to Sdccag8 gene promoter in highly invasive HNSCC cells. When over-expressed in low invasive HNSCC cells, wild type SOX11 but not mutant SOX11 induced the promoter activity of Sdccag8 and significantly induced the expression of SDCCAG8. However, exogenous mutant SOX11 abolished the expression of SDCCAG8 in highly invasive HNSCC cells. In addition, the inhibitory effects of SOX11 knockdown were partially rescued by over-expression of SDCCAG8 in HNSCC cells. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings indicate SOX11 promotes HNSCC progression via the regulation of SDCCAG8.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Autoantígenos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Transplante de Neoplasias , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética
19.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 141, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth leading cancer worldwide. They are typically characterized by a high incidence of local recurrence, which is the most common cause of death in HNSCC patients. TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in HNSCC and patients carrying TP53 mutations are associated with a higher probability to develop local recurrence. MiRNAs, which are among the mediators of the oncogenic activity of mt-p53 protein, emerge as an appealing tool for screening, diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. We previously identified a signature of 12 miRNAs whose aberrant expression associated with TP53 mutations and was prognostic for HNSCC. Among them miR-96-5p emerges as an oncogenic miRNAs with prognostic significance in HNSCC. METHODS: To evaluate the oncogenic role of miR-96-5p in a tumoral context, we performed colony formation, cell migration and cell viability assays in two HNSCC cell lines transfected for miR-96-5p mimic or inhibitor and treated with or without radio/chemo-therapy. In addition, to identify genes positively and negatively correlated to miR-96-5p expression in HNSCC, we analyzed the correlation between gene expression and miR-96-5p level in the subset of TCGA HNSCC tumors carrying missense TP53 mutations by Spearman and Pearson correlation. To finally identify targets of miR-96-5p, we used in silico analysis and the luciferase reporter assay to confirm PTEN as direct target. RESULTS: Our data showed that overexpression of miR-96-5p led to increased cell migration and radio-resistance, chemotherapy resistance in HNSCC cells. In agreement with these results, among the most statistically significant pathways in which miR-96-5p is involved, are focal Adhesion, extracellular matrix organization and PI3K-Akt-mTOR-signaling pathway. As a direct target of miR-96-5p, we identified PTEN, the main negative regulator of PI3K-Akt signalling pathway activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight a new mechanism of chemo/radio-resistance insurgence in HNSCC cells and support the possibility that miR-96-5p expression could be used as a novel promising biomarker to predict radiotherapy response and local recurrence development in HNSCC patients. In addition, the identification of pathways in which miR-96-5p is involved could contribute to develop new therapeutic strategies to overcome radio-resistance.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Tolerância a Radiação , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917608

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) defines a group of solid tumors originating from the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, pharynx, larynx, mouth, and nasal cavity. It has a metastatic evolution and poor prognosis and is the sixth most common cancer in the world, with 600,000 new cases reported every year. HNSCC heterogeneity and complexity is reflected in a multistep progression, involving crosstalk between several molecular pathways. The Notch pathway is associated with major events supporting cancerogenic evolution: cell proliferation, self-renewal, angiogenesis, and preservation of a pro-oncogenic microenvironment. Additionally, Notch is pivotal in tumor development and plays a dual role acting as both oncogene and tumor suppressor. In this review, we summarize the role of the Notch pathway in HNSCC, with a special focus on its compelling role in major events of tumor initiation and growth.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais
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