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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5081-5090, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer with limited targets for chemotherapy. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of novel imidazo[2,1-b]oxazole-based rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF) inhibitors, KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2, on epithelial cell transformation and TNBC tumorigenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunoblotting, BrdU incorporation assay, reporter gene assay, and soft agar assay analyses were performed. In vivo effects were studied using the BALB/c mouse xenograft model. RESULTS: KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2 inhibited the RAFs-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signalling pathway induced by EGF in MDA-MB-231 cells, which inhibited c-fos transcriptional activity and activator protein-1 transactivation activity. KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2 also prevented neoplastic transformation of JB6 C141 mouse epidermal cells induced by EGF and consistently suppressed the growth of tumours formed by 4T1 cells in BALB/c mice. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of RAF kinases using KIST0215-1 and KIST0215-2 is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy to treat TNBC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Life Sci ; 259: 118297, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822718

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is heterogeneous cancer with poor prognosis among the other breast tumors. Rapid recurrence and increased progression rate could be reasons for the poor prognosis of this type of breast cancer. Recently, because of the lack of specific targets in multiple cancer treatment, immune checkpoint blockade therapies with targeting PD-1/PD-L1 axis have displayed significant advances and improved survival. Among different types of breast cancers, TNBC is considered more immunogenic with high T-cell and other immune cells infiltration compared to other breast cancer subtypes. This immunogenic characteristic of TNBC is a beneficial marker in the immunotherapy of these tumors. Clinical studies with a focus on immune checkpoint therapy have demonstrated promising results in TNBC treatment. In this review, we summarize clinical trials with the immunotherapy-based treatment of different cancers and also discuss the interaction between infiltrating immune cells and breast tumor microenvironment. In addition, we focus on the signaling pathway that controls PD-L1 expression and continues with CAR T-cell therapy and siRNA as novel strategies and potential tools in targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(10): 1813-1824, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816580

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) refers to breast cancer without significant expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. We sought to identify the hub genes and find the potential progression mechanism of TNBC as well as immunotherapeutic targets. First, we screened the overlapped hub genes of Immune and Stromal, and the tumor mutation burden gene sets, as well as the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-TNBC data set. Among these hub genes, we performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and gene set variation analysis analyses to recognize and evaluate the hub genes. Moreover, immune cell infiltration was evaluated by the CIBERSORT algorithm and single-sample GSEA. In addition, the expression and methylation of scavenger receptor class A member 5 (SCARA5) in TNBC were verified by quantitative PCR and methylation-specific PCR. Also, MTT and transwell assays were used to assess the biological function of SCARA5 in TNBC. SCARA5 and CMA1 were listed, and they mainly participated in cancer-related signaling pathways and immune-related signaling pathways. Interestingly, SCARA5 was closely associated with tumor purity and immune cell infiltration. Moreover, we found that SCARA5 was significantly downregulated and hypermethylation was in the promoter of SCARA5 in TNBC tissues. Our study showed the role of SCARA5 in proliferation and migration of TNBC, and suggested that SCARA5 can potentially serve as a candidate immunotherapy target for TNBC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4205, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826891

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a deadly form of breast cancer due to the development of resistance to chemotherapy affecting over 30% of patients. New therapeutics and companion biomarkers are urgently needed. Recognizing the elevated expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, encoded by SLC2A1) and associated metabolic dependencies in TNBC, we investigated the vulnerability of TNBC cell lines and patient-derived samples to GLUT1 inhibition. We report that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of GLUT1 with BAY-876 impairs the growth of a subset of TNBC cells displaying high glycolytic and lower oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) rates. Pathway enrichment analysis of gene expression data suggests that the functionality of the E2F pathway may reflect to some extent OXPHOS activity. Furthermore, the protein levels of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB1) strongly correlate with the degree of sensitivity to GLUT1 inhibition in TNBC, where RB1-negative cells are insensitive to GLUT1 inhibition. Collectively, our results highlight a strong and targetable RB1-GLUT1 metabolic axis in TNBC and warrant clinical evaluation of GLUT1 inhibition in TNBC patients stratified according to RB1 protein expression levels.


Assuntos
Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Proteômica , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776970

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Identification of reliable prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets is critical for improving patient outcome. Cancer in companion animals often strongly resembles human cancers and a comparative approach to identify prognostic markers can improve clinical care across species. Feline mammary tumors (FMT) serve as models for extremely aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in humans, with high rates of local and distant recurrence after resection. Despite the aggressive clinical behavior of most FMT, current prognostic indicators are insufficient for accurately predicting outcome, similar to human patients. Given significant heterogeneity of mammary tumors, there has been a recent focus on identification of universal tumor-permissive stromal features that can predict biologic behavior and provide therapeutic targets to improve outcome. As in human and canine patients, collagen signatures appear to play a key role in directing mammary tumor behavior in feline patients. We find that patients bearing FMTs with denser collagen, as well as longer, thicker and straighter fibers and less identifiable tumor-stromal boundaries had poorer outcomes, independent of the clinical variables grade and surgical margins. Most importantly, including the collagen parameters increased the predictive power of the clinical model. Thus, our data suggest that similarities with respect to the stromal microenvironment between species may allow this model to predict outcome and develop novel therapeutic targets within the tumor stroma that would benefit both veterinary and human patients with aggressive mammary tumors.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/cirurgia , Animais , Gatos , Colágeno/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17543-17550, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669433

RESUMO

Highly heterogenous cancers, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), remain challenging immunotherapeutic targets. Herein, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of immunotherapeutic liposomal spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) for TNBC therapy. The SNAs comprise immunostimulatory oligonucleotides (CpG-1826) as adjuvants and encapsulate lysates derived from TNBC cell lines as antigens. The resulting nanostructures (Lys-SNAs) enhance the codelivery of adjuvant and antigen to immune cells when compared to simple mixtures of lysates with linear oligonucleotides both in vitro and in vivo, and reduce tumor growth relative to simple mixtures of lysate and CpG-1826 (Lys-Mix) in both Py230 and Py8119 orthotopic syngeneic mouse models of TNBC. Furthermore, oxidizing TNBC cells prior to lysis and incorporation into SNAs (OxLys-SNAs) significantly increases the activation of dendritic cells relative to their nonoxidized counterparts. When administered peritumorally in vivo in the EMT6 mouse mammary carcinoma model, OxLys-SNAs significantly increase the population of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and simultaneously decrease the population of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) within the tumor microenvironment, when compared with Lys-SNAs and simple mixtures of oxidized lysates with CpG-1826. Importantly, animals administered OxLys-SNAs exhibit significant antitumor activity and prolonged survival relative to all other treatment groups, and resist tumor rechallenge. Together, these results show that the way lysates are processed and packaged has a profound impact on their immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, this work points toward the potential of oxidized tumor cell lysate-loaded SNAs as a potent class of immunotherapeutics for cancers lacking common therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Imunomodulação , Ácidos Nucleicos/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Camundongos , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Oligonucleotídeos/imunologia , Oxirredução , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3669-3683, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple negative cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer that is highly aggressive, with poor prognosis and responds differently to treatments. This study investigated the role of vorinostat and indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on regulating critical receptors that are not normally expressed in TNBC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using real-time PCR, immunostaining, and western blots, the re-expression of estrogen receptor α (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) receptors was examined in four different TNBC cell types. RESULTS: ERα was re-expressed in three subtypes using vorinostat and I3C. Re-expression of the PR by vorinostat was also detected. Neither vorinostat nor I3C resulted in re-expression of the HER2 receptor. A significant decrease in growth and sensitivity to tamoxifen was also noted. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that vorinostat and I3C modulate the re-expression of critical receptors in certain subtypes of TNBC through several pathways and these effects can be influenced by the molecular profiles of TNBCs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Indóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109202, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717189

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly metastatic and lacks effective therapeutic targets among several subtypes of breast cancer. Cancer metastasis promotes the malignancy of TNBC and is closely related to the poor prognosis of the TNBC patients. We aim to explore novel agents that effectively inhibit cancer metastasis to treat TNBC. In our study, 2-Methoxy-5((3,4,5-trimethosyphenyl)seleninyl) phenol (SQ), a CA-4 analogue, could inhibit cell motility and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells, and the mechanism is closely associated to the inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Meanwhile, SQ significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, the conditioned medium from SQ-treated MDA-MB-231 cells significantly inhibited the motility and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which was correlated with the inhibition of EMT process in HUVECs. In addition, exogenous application of VEGF reversed the occurrence of EMT in HUVECs which stimulated by conditioned medium from SQ-treated cells. Furthermore, SQ inhibited vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation in MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with VE-cadherin and EphA2 down-regulation. This study indicates that SQ inhibits MDA-MB-231 cell metastasis through suppressing EMT and VEGF, thereby implicating this compound might be a potential therapeutic agent against metastatic TNBC.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Fenóis/química , Receptor EphA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
9.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(2): 156-167, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591477

RESUMO

The natural product (+)-discodermolide (DDM) is a microtubule stabilizing agent and potent inducer of senescence. We refined the structure of DDM and evaluated the activity of novel congeners in triple negative breast and ovarian cancers, malignancies that typically succumb to taxane resistance. Previous structure-activity analyses identified the lactone and diene as moieties conferring anticancer activity, thus identifying priorities for the structural refinement studies described herein. Congeners possessing the monodiene with a simplified lactone had superior anticancer efficacy relative to taxol, particularly in resistant models. Specifically, one of these congeners, B2, demonstrated 1) improved pharmacologic properties, specifically increased maximum response achievable and area under the curve, and decreased EC50; 2) a uniform dose-response profile across genetically heterogeneous cancer cell lines relative to taxol or DDM; 3) reduced propensity for senescence induction relative to DDM; 4) superior long-term activity in cancer cells versus taxol or DDM; and 5) attenuation of metastatic characteristics in treated cancer cells. To contrast the binding of B2 versus DDM in tubulin, X-ray crystallography studies revealed a shift in the position of the lactone ring associated with removal of the C2-methyl and C3-hydroxyl. Thus, B2 may be more adaptable to changes in the taxane site relative to DDM that could account for its favorable properties. In conclusion, we have identified a DDM congener with broad range anticancer efficacy that also has decreased risk of inducing chemotherapy-mediated senescence. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Here, we describe the anticancer activity of novel congeners of the tubulin-polymerizing molecule (+)-discodermolide. A lead molecule is identified that exhibits an improved dose-response profile in taxane-sensitive and taxane-resistant cancer cell models, diminished risk of chemotherapy-mediated senescence, and suppression of tumor cell invasion endpoints. X-ray crystallography studies identify subtle changes in the pose of binding to ß-tubulin that could account for the improved anticancer activity. These findings support continued preclinical development of discodermolide, particularly in the chemorefractory setting.


Assuntos
Alcanos/química , Carbamatos/química , Lactonas/síntese química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Pironas/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química , Células A549 , Área Sob a Curva , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia
10.
Cell Prolif ; 53(8): e12858, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Traditional cancer therapy and regular immunotherapy are ineffective for treating triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Recently, chimeric antigen receptor-engineered natural killer cells (CAR NK) have been applied to target several hormone receptors on different cancer cells to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a potential therapeutic target for TNBC. Here, we demonstrated that EGFR-specific CAR NK cells (EGFR-CAR NK cells) could be potentially used to treat patients with TNBC exhibiting enhanced EGFR expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the cytotoxic effects of EGFR-CAR NK cells against TNBC cells in vitro and in vivo. The two types of EGFR-CAR NK cells were generated by transducing lentiviral vectors containing DNA sequences encoding the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) regions of the two anti-EGFR antibodies. The cytotoxic and anti-tumor effects of the two cell types were examined by performing cytokine release and cytotoxicity assays in vitro, and tumor growth assays in breast cancer cell line-derived xenograft (CLDX) and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. RESULTS: Both EGFR-CAR NK cell types were activated by TNBC cells exhibiting upregulated EGFR expression and specifically triggered the lysis of the TNBC cells in vitro. Furthermore, the two EGFR-CAR NK cell types inhibited CLDX and PDX tumors in mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that treatment with EGFR-CAR NK cells could be a promising strategy for TNBC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3256, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591500

RESUMO

BRCA1 mutation carriers have a higher risk of developing triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is a refractory disease due to its non-responsiveness to current clinical targeted therapies. Using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system in Brca1-deficient mice, we identified 169 putative cancer drivers, among which Notch1 is a top candidate for accelerating TNBC by promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and regulating the cell cycle. Activation of NOTCH1 suppresses mitotic catastrophe caused by BRCA1 deficiency by restoring S/G2 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints, which may through activation of ATR-CHK1 signalling pathway. Consistently, analysis of human breast cancer tissue demonstrates NOTCH1 is highly expressed in TNBCs, and the activated form of NOTCH1 correlates positively with increased phosphorylation of ATR. Additionally, we demonstrate that inhibition of the NOTCH1-ATR-CHK1 cascade together with cisplatin synergistically kills TNBC by targeting the cell cycle checkpoint, DNA damage and EMT, providing a potent clinical option for this fatal disease.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/deficiência , Carcinogênese/patologia , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitose , Mutação/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
12.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115092, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512068

RESUMO

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly metastatic and lethal breast cancer. As many as 25-30% of IBCs are triple negative (TN) and associated with low survival rates and poor prognosis. We found that the microenvironment of IBC is characterized by high infiltration of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and by over-expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B (CTSB). TAMs in IBC secrete high levels of the cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) compared to non-IBC patients. Herein, we tested the roles of IL-8 and MCP-1/CCL2 in modulating proteolytic activity and invasiveness of TN-non-IBC as compared to TN-IBC and addressed the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for both cytokines. Quantitative real time PCR results showed that IL-8 and MCP-1/CCL2 were significantly overexpressed in tissues of TN-IBCs. IL-8 and MCP-1/CCL2 induced CTSB expression and activity of the p-Src and p-Erk1/2 signaling pathways relevant for invasion and metastasis in TN-non-IBC, HCC70 cells and TN-IBC, SUM149 cells. Dasatinib, an inhibitor of p-Src, and U0126, an inhibitor of p-Erk1/2, down-regulated invasion and expression of CTSB by HCC70 and SUM149 cells, a mechanism that is reversed by IL-8 and MCP-1/CCL2. Our study shows that targeting the cytokines IL-8 and MCP-1/CCL2 and associated signaling molecules may represent a promising therapeutic strategy in TN-IBC patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/biossíntese , Genes src/fisiologia , Neoplasias Inflamatórias Mamárias/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/biossíntese , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Feminino , Genes src/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Inflamatórias Mamárias/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
13.
Anticancer Res ; 40(5): 2475-2479, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Matrix-producing breast carcinoma (MPBC) is a rare and usually aggressive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In the present report, we determined the drug sensitivity for a triple-negative MPBC using a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PDOX model was established in the left 2nd mammary by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI). MPBC PDOX models were randomized into 4 groups (6 mice per group) when the tumor volume became 80 mm3: G1, control group; G2, cisplatinum group [intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, weekly, for 2 weeks]; G3, paclitaxel group (i.p., weekly, for 2 weeks); G4, eribulin group [intravenous (i.v.) injection, weekly, for 2 weeks]. All mice were sacrificed on day 15. Tumor volume and body weight were measured one time per week. RESULTS: The MPBC PDOX model was resistant to cisplatinum (p=0.800). Paclitaxel suppressed tumor growth compared to the control group (p=0.009). However, only eribulin regressed the tumor (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Eribulin has clinical potential for triple-negative MPBC patients.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Cetonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Cetonas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/etiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(5): 2509-2514, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Matrix-producing breast carcinoma (MPBC) is a rare and usually aggressive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In this study, we determined drug sensitivity for a triple-negative MPBC, without BRCA mutations, in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MPBC PDOX model was established in the left 2nd mammary gland of nude mouse by implantation of the patient tumor using surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI). We randomized MPBC PDOX mice into 5 groups (n=5 mice/per treatment group) when the tumor volume reached 80 mm3: G1, control-no treatment; G2, bevacizumab [intra-peritoneal (i.p.), weekly, for 2 weeks]; G3, vinorelbine (i.p., weekly, for 2 weeks); G4, olaparib (oral., daily, for 2 weeks); G5, eribulin [intravenous (i.v.), weekly, for 2 weeks]. The mice in each treatment group were sacrificed on day 15. Tumor volume and body weight were measured once/week. RESULTS: The MPBC PDOX model was resistant to olaparib (p=0.22). The MPBC PDOX model treated with bevacizumab and vinorelbine showed significantly suppressed tumor growth compared to the untreated group (p=0.005 and 0.002, respectively). However, only eribulin regressed the tumor (p=0.0001). Eribulin was more effective than olaparib (p=0.0001), bevacizumab (p=0.0025) and vinorelbine (p=0.0061). CONCLUSION: Eribulin has clinical potential as treatment for triple-negative MPBC patients that are resistant to a PARP inhibitor such as olaparib.


Assuntos
Bevacizumab/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/farmacologia , Cetonas/farmacologia , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Vinorelbina/farmacologia , Adulto , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Life Sci ; 254: 117812, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428596

RESUMO

AIMS: Since the role of the major mitochondrial NAD+-dependent deacetylase, sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), is differential in cancer, opposite to the well-known tumor-suppressing effect of hyperoxia, this study aimed to investigate the role of Sirt3 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 upon hyperoxic (95% O2) conditions. MAIN METHODS: MDA-MB-231 cells were stably transfected with Flag-tagged Sirt-3 or empty plasmid. Western blot and real-time PCR were used to monitor the expression of proteins or genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolic regulation and antioxidant defense. Immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to confirm the cellular localization and abundance of proteins. Flow cytometry was used to analyze mitochondrial mass, potential and ROS production, and MTT test as a measure of metabolic activity. Mitotic index analysis, colony-forming unit assay, DNA damage and Annexin V-FITC analyses were used to assess the differences in the growth and apoptosis rate. KEY FINDINGS: Although Sirt3 seemed to improve mitochondrial properties by increasing mitochondrial mass and potential, metabolic activity (Warburg effect) and antioxidative defense (SOD2, Cat), it also increased mitochondrial ROS, induced DNA damage, timp-1 expression, formation of multinucleated cells and apoptosis, and finally markedly reduced the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. All these effects were even more evident upon the hyperoxic treatment, thus pointing towards combined negative effect of Sirt3 and hyperoxia on MDA-MB-231 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Both Sirt3 and hyperoxia, alone or in combination, have the potential to negatively affect the malignant properties of the MDA-MB-231 cells and should be further explored as a possible therapy for TNBC.


Assuntos
Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Hiperóxia/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Sirtuína 3/fisiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/fisiopatologia , Anexinas/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Carcinogênese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Índice Mitótico , Proteínas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sirtuína 3/genética , Células-Tronco , Transfecção , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 39, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altered signaling pathways typify breast cancer and serve as direct inputs to steroid hormone receptor sensors. We previously reported that phospho-Ser134-GR (pS134-GR) species are elevated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and cooperate with hypoxia-inducible factors, providing a novel avenue for activation of GR in response to local or cellular stress. METHODS: We probed GR regulation by factors (cytokines, growth factors) that are rich within the tumor microenvironment (TME). TNBC cells harboring endogenous wild-type (wt) or S134A-GR species were created by CRISPR/Cas knock-in and subjected to transwell migration, invasion, soft-agar colony formation, and tumorsphere assays. RNA-seq was employed to identify pS134-GR target genes that are regulated both basally (intrinsic) or by TGFß1 in the absence of exogenously added GR ligands. Regulation of selected basal and TGFß1-induced pS134-GR target genes was validated by qRT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Bioinformatics tools were used to probe public data sets for expression of pS134-GR 24-gene signatures. RESULTS: In the absence of GR ligands, GR is transcriptionally activated via p38-dependent phosphorylation of Ser134 as a mechanism of homeostatic stress-sensing and regulated upon exposure of TNBC cells to TME-derived agents. The ligand-independent pS134-GR transcriptome encompasses TGFß1 and MAPK signaling gene sets associated with TNBC cell survival and migration/invasion. Accordingly, pS134-GR was essential for TNBC cell anchorage-independent growth in soft-agar, migration, invasion, and tumorsphere formation, an in vitro readout of cancer stemness properties. Both pS134-GR and expression of the MAPK-scaffolding molecule 14-3-3ζ were essential for a functionally intact p38 MAPK signaling pathway downstream of MAP3K5/ASK1, indicative of a feedforward signaling loop wherein self-perpetuated GR phosphorylation enables cancer cell autonomy. A 24-gene pS134-GR-dependent signature induced by TGFß1 predicts shortened overall survival in breast cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Phospho-S134-GR is a critical downstream effector of p38 MAPK signaling and TNBC migration/invasion, survival, and stemness properties. Our studies define a ligand-independent role for GR as a homeostatic "sensor" of intrinsic stimuli as well as extrinsic factors rich within the TME (TGFß1) that enable potent activation of the p38 MAPK stress-sensing pathway and nominate pS134-GR as a therapeutic target in aggressive TNBC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fosforilação , Transcriptoma , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
17.
Mol Cell ; 78(6): 1096-1113.e8, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416067

RESUMO

BET bromodomain inhibitors (BBDIs) are candidate therapeutic agents for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and other cancer types, but inherent and acquired resistance to BBDIs limits their potential clinical use. Using CRISPR and small-molecule inhibitor screens combined with comprehensive molecular profiling of BBDI response and resistance, we identified synthetic lethal interactions with BBDIs and genes that, when deleted, confer resistance. We observed synergy with regulators of cell cycle progression, YAP, AXL, and SRC signaling, and chemotherapeutic agents. We also uncovered functional similarities and differences among BRD2, BRD4, and BRD7. Although deletion of BRD2 enhances sensitivity to BBDIs, BRD7 loss leads to gain of TEAD-YAP chromatin binding and luminal features associated with BBDI resistance. Single-cell RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, and cellular barcoding analysis of BBDI responses in sensitive and resistant cell lines highlight significant heterogeneity among samples and demonstrate that BBDI resistance can be pre-existing or acquired.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azepinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
18.
Tumour Biol ; 42(4): 1010428320914477, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342732

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancers are the most aggressive subtypes with poor prognosis due to lack of targeted cancer therapy. Recently, we reported an association of A-kinase anchor protein 4 expression with various clinico-pathological parameters of breast cancer patients. In this context, we examined the effect of knockdown of A-kinase anchor protein 4 on cell cycle, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in triple-negative breast cancer cells. We also examined the synergistic cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel on A-kinase anchor protein 4 downregulated triple-negative breast cancer cells. Knockdown of A-kinase anchor protein 4 resulted in significant reduction in cellular growth and migratory abilities. Interestingly, we also observed enhanced cell death in A-kinase anchor protein 4 downregulated cells treated with paclitaxel. Knockdown of A-kinase anchor protein 4 in cell cycle resulted in G0/G1 phase arrest. Knockdown of A-kinase anchor protein 4 also led to increased reactive oxygen species generation as a result of upregulation of NOXA and CHOP. In addition, levels of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, anti-apoptotic molecules, and mesenchymal markers were reduced in A-kinase anchor protein 4 downregulated cells. Moreover, downregulation of A-kinase anchor protein 4 also caused tumor growth reduction in in vivo studies. These data together suggest that A-kinase anchor protein 4 downregulation inhibits various malignant properties and enhances the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel, and this combinatorial approach could be useful for triple-negative breast cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ancoragem à Quinase A/deficiência , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Proteínas de Ancoragem à Quinase A/genética , Proteínas de Ancoragem à Quinase A/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(5): 591-602, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284542

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by a high degree of immune infiltrate in the tumour microenvironment, which may influence the fate of TNBC cells. We reveal that loss of the tumour suppressive transcription factor Elf5 in TNBC cells activates intrinsic interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signalling, promoting tumour progression and metastasis. Mechanistically, we find that loss of the Elf5-regulated ubiquitin ligase FBXW7 ensures stabilization of its putative protein substrate IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) at the protein level in TNBC. Elf5low tumours show enhanced IFN-γ signalling accompanied by an increase of immunosuppressive neutrophils within the tumour microenvironment and increased programmed death ligand 1 expression. Inactivation of either programmed death ligand 1 or IFNGR1 elicited a robust anti-tumour and/or anti-metastatic effect. A positive correlation between ELF5 and FBXW7 expression and a negative correlation between ELF5, FBXW7 and IFNGR1 expression in the tumours of patients with TNBC strongly suggest that this signalling axis could be exploited for patient stratification and immunotherapeutic treatment strategies for Elf5low patients with TNBC.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Receptores de Interferon/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1723, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265444

RESUMO

Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a highly aggressive form of triple-negative cancer (TNBC), defined by the presence of metaplastic components of spindle, squamous, or sarcomatoid histology. The protein profiles underpinning the pathological subtypes and metastatic behavior of MBC are unknown. Using multiplex quantitative tandem mass tag-based proteomics we quantify 5798 proteins in MBC, TNBC, and normal breast from 27 patients. Comparing MBC and TNBC protein profiles we show MBC-specific increases related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and extracellular matrix, and reduced metabolic pathways. MBC subtypes exhibit distinct upregulated profiles, including translation and ribosomal events in spindle, inflammation- and apical junction-related proteins in squamous, and extracellular matrix proteins in sarcomatoid subtypes. Comparison of the proteomes of human spindle MBC with mouse spindle (CCN6 knockout) MBC tumors reveals a shared spindle-specific signature of 17 upregulated proteins involved in translation and 19 downregulated proteins with roles in cell metabolism. These data identify potential subtype specific MBC biomarkers and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Sarcoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/secundário , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metaplasia/genética , Metaplasia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/secundário , Fuso Acromático/genética , Fuso Acromático/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
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