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1.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 469-474, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008497

RESUMO

Multiple immunologic platforms have provided minimal impact in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, necessitating that novel approaches continue to be developed. Although checkpoint inhibitors have been largely ineffective, there remain small cohorts of patients who have durable responses but lack the conventional indicators for response to this class of drugs, that is, high mutational burden or significant genomic alterations, as seen in other solid tumors. This article presents an update on the evolution of immunotherapeutics that target a more lethal form of prostate cancer and provides the groundwork for future considerations as to how this field should proceed.


Assuntos
Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Idoso , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239686, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) harbor mutations in homologous recombination (HR) repair genes, with some of these mutations associating with increased tumor susceptibility to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and platinum-based chemotherapy. While mutations in some HR repair genes (e.g., BRCA1/2) have been associated with a more aggressive clinical course, prior studies correlating HR mutational status with treatment response to androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitors (ARSIs) or taxane-based chemotherapy have yielded conflicting results. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis to assess clinical outcomes to conventional, regulatory-approved therapies in mCRPC patients with somatic (monoallelic and biallelic) and/or germline HR repair mutations compared to patients without alterations as determined by clinical-grade next-generation sequencing assays. The primary endpoint was PSA30/PSA50 response, defined as ≥30%/≥50% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) reduction from baseline. Secondary endpoints of PSA progression-free survival (pPFS) and clinical/radiographic progression-free survival (crPFS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. RESULTS: A total of 90 consecutively selected patients were included in this analysis, of which 33 (37%) were identified to have HR repair gene mutations. Age, race, Gleason score, prior surgery, and receipt of prior radiation therapy were comparable between carriers and non-carriers. There was no evidence that PSA30/PSA50 differed by HR gene mutational status. Median pPFS and crPFS ranged 3-14 months across treatment modalities, but there was no evidence either differed by HR gene mutational status (all p>0.05). There was also no difference in outcomes between those with BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations (n = 17) compared to those without HR repair mutations. CONCLUSION: HR gene mutational status was associated with comparable clinical outcomes following treatment with ARSIs or taxane-based chemotherapy. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Mutação , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/genética , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Humanos , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Inibidores da Síntese de Esteroides/uso terapêutico
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0232807, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986721

RESUMO

Here we have improved an existing mouse model of prostate cancer based on prostate-specific deletion of Pten and Trp53 by incorporating a Cre-activatable luciferase reporter. By coupling the deletion of those genes to the activation of a luciferase reporter, we were able to monitor tumor burden non-invasively over time. We show that, consistent with previous reports, deletion of both Pten and Trp53 on a C57BL/6 background accelerates tumor growth and results in both the loss of androgen receptor expression and castrate resistant tumors as compared with loss of Pten alone. Loss of Trp53 results in the development of sarcomatoid histology and the expression of markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition Zeb1 and vimentin, with kinetics and penetrance dependent on whether one or both alleles of Trp53 were deleted. Homozygous deletion of Trp53 and Pten resulted in uniformly lethal disease by 25 weeks. While we were able to detect locally invasive disease in the peritoneal cavity in aggressive tumors from the double knockout mice, we were unable to detect lymphatic or hematogenous metastatic disease in lymph nodes or at distant sites.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinogênese , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Monitorização Fisiológica
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0226056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881870

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) is activated in patients with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) despite low circulating levels of androgen, suggesting that intracellular signaling pathways and non-androgenic factors may contribute to AR activation. Many G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and their ligands are also activated in these cells indicating that they may play a role in development of Prostate Cancer (PCa) and CRPC. Although a cross talk has been suggested between the two pathways, yet, the identity of GPCRs which may play a role in androgen signaling, is not established yet. By using blast analysis of 826 GPCRs, we identified a GPCR, GPCR 205, which exhibited maximum similarity with the ligand binding domain of the AR. We demonstrate that adhesion GPCR 205, also known as GPR56, can be activated by androgens to stimulate the Rho signaling pathway, a pathway that plays an important role in prostate tumor cell metastasis. Testosterone stimulation of GPR56 also activates the cAMP/ Protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, that is necessary for AR signaling. Knocking down the expression of GPR56 using siRNA, disrupts nuclear translocation of AR and transcription of prototypic AR target genes such as PSA. GPR56 expression is higher in all twenty-five prostate tumor patient's samples tested and cells expressing GPR56 exhibit increased proliferation. These findings provide new insights about androgen signaling and identify GPR56 as a possible therapeutic target in advanced prostate cancer patients.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Células COS , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Próstata/citologia , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/cirurgia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Testosterona/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5091-5095, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether treatment with YM155, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of survivin, reversed cabazitaxel resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cabazitaxel resistance was induced in the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line, 22Rv1-CR. In vitro and in vivo models were used to test the efficacy of YM155 and cabazitaxel. RESULTS: Survivin gene expression was significantly higher in 22Rv1-CR than its parent cells (22Rv1). In 22Rv1-CR cells, YM155 significantly reduced expression of the survivin gene in a concentration-dependent manner. YM155 alone was poorly effective; however, it significantly enhanced the anticancer effects of cabazitaxel on 22Rv1-CR in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of survivin by YM155 overcomes cabazitaxel resistance in CRPC cells.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Survivina/genética , Taxoides/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Prostate ; 80(12): 950-961, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is characterized by aberrant lipid metabolism, including elevated fatty acid oxidation. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of fatty acid oxidation. This study aimed to determine if CPT1B has a critical role in prostate cancer progression and to identify its regulatory mechanism. METHODS: CPT1B expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases was compared with patient survival data. A tissue microarray was constructed with 60 samples of prostate cancer and immunohistochemically stained for CPT1B. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines 22RV1 and C4-2 in which CPT1B expression had been stably knocked down were established; and cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and invasion were investigated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays, flow cytometry, and Transwell assays, respectively. To examine the impact of androgen receptor (AR) inhibition on CPT1B expression, JASPAR CORE was searched to identify AR-binding sites in CPT1B. Dual luciferase and ChIP assays were performed to confirm CPT1B activity and AR binding, respectively. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in prostate cancer underwent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Enzalutamide-resistant C4-2 cells were generated and the mechanism of enzalutamide resistance and downstream signaling pathway changes of CPT1B to C4-2 was explored through CCK-8 test. RESULTS: CPT1B expression was upregulated in human prostate cancer compared with normal prostate tissue and was associated with poor disease-free survival and overall survival. Silencing of CPT1B resulted in downregulated cell proliferation, reduced S-phase distribution, and lower invasive ability, whereas the opposite was observed in CRPC cells overexpressing CPTB1. DEGS in prostate cancer were correlated with G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, molecular transducer activity, and calcium ion binding. AR may regulate CPT1B expression and activity via specific binding sites, as confirmed by dual luciferase and ChIP assays. The CCK-8 experiment demonstrated that CPT1B overexpression in C4-2 cells did not significantly increase the ability of enzalutamide resistance. However, overexpression of CPT1B in C4-2R cells significantly increased the enzalutamide resistance. Upregulation of CPT1B expression increased AKT expression and phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: CPT1B is upregulated in prostate cancer and is correlated with poor prognosis, indicating its potential as a biomarker. AR inhibits the transcription of CPT1B. In the CRPC cell line, overexpression of CPT1B alone cannot promote enzalutamide resistance, but in the drug-resistant line C4-2R, overexpression of CPT1B can promote the resistance of C4-2R to enzalutamide.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/enzimologia , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Prostate ; 80(12): 1012-1023, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell neuroendocrine (NE) carcinomas of the prostate classically lose androgen receptor (AR) expression, may harbor loss of the RB1, TP53, and PTEN tumor suppressor genes, and are associated with a poor prognosis. However usual-type adenocarcinomas may also contain areas of NE differentiation, and in this context the molecular features and biological significance are less certain. METHODS: We examined the molecular phenotype and oncologic outcomes of primary prostate adenocarcinomas with ≥5% NE differentiation (≥5% chromogranin A-positive NE cells in any given tumor spot on tissue microarray) using three independent study sets: a set of tumors with paneth cell-like NE differentiation (n = 26), a retrospective case-cohort of intermediate- and high-risk patients enriched for adverse outcomes (n = 267), and primary tumors from a retrospective series of men with eventual castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide (n = 55). RESULTS: Benign NE cells expressed significantly lower quantified AR levels compared with paired benign luminal cells (P < .001). Similarly, paneth-like NE carcinoma cells or carcinoma cells expressing chromogranin A expressed significantly lower quantified AR levels than paired non-NE carcinoma cells (P < .001). Quantified ERG protein expression, was also lower in chromogranin A-labeled adenocarcinoma cells compared with unlabeled cells (P < .001) and tumors with NE differentiation showed lower gene expression scores for AR activity compared with those without. Despite evidence of lower AR signaling, adenocarcinomas with NE differentiation did not differ by prevalence of TP53 missense mutations, or PTEN or RB1 loss, compared with those without NE differentiation. Finally, NE differentiation was not associated with time to metastasis in intermediate- and high-risk patients (P = .6 on multivariate analysis), nor with progression-free survival in patients with CRPC treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide (P = .9). CONCLUSION: NE differentiation in usual-type primary prostate adenocarcinoma is a molecularly and clinically distinct form of lineage plasticity from that occurring in small cell NE carcinoma.


Assuntos
Células Neuroendócrinas/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neuroendócrinas/metabolismo , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
8.
Prostate ; 80(13): 1087-1096, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide. Tumor microenvironment is composed of activated fibroblasts, the so called carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). They express high levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type I collagen (COL1), and support proliferation and migration of tumor epithelial cells. Extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs), acoustic waves, are effective in the treatment of hypertrophic scars, due to their ability to modulate fibrosis. Based on this rationale, the study evaluated the effects of ESWs on CAF activation and the influence of ESW-treated CAFs on the growth and migration of epithelial prostatic carcinoma cells. METHODS: Primary cultures of CAFs (n = 10) were prepared from tumors of patients undergoing surgery for high-risk prostate carcinoma. CAFs were treated with ESWs (energy levels: 0.32 mJ/mm2 , 1000 pulses; 0.59 mJ/mm2 , 250 pulses). After treatment, the messenger RNA and protein levels of the stromal activation markers α-SMA and COL1 were determined. Subsequently, two different stabilized cell lines (PC3 and DU145) of androgen-resistant prostate cancer were treated with the conditioned media produced by ESW-treated CAFs. At different times, viability and migration of PC3 and DU145 cells were evaluated. Viability was also assessed by coculture system using CAFs and PC3 or DU145 cells. RESULTS: ESWs reduced gene expression and protein level of α-SMA and COL1 in CAFs. The treatment of PC3 and DU145 with conditioned media of ESW-treated CAFs determined a reduction of their growth and invasive potential. Coculture systems between ESW-treated CAFs and PC3 or DU145 cells confirmed the epithelial cell number reduction. CONCLUSIONS: This in vitro study demonstrates for the first time that ESWs are able to modulate the activation of prostate CAFs in favor of a less "reactive" stroma, with consequent slowing of the growth and migration of prostate cancer epithelial cells. However, only further studies to be performed in vivo will confirm the possibility of using this new therapy in patients with prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Tratamento por Ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas/métodos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Células Estromais/patologia , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo
9.
Prostate ; 80(13): 1134-1144, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the initial treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa), recurrent castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) eventually ensues. In this study, cancer-derived immunoglobulin G (CIgG) is found to be induced after ADT, identifying CIgG as a potential CRPC driver gene. METHODS: The expression of CIgG and its clinical significance in PCa tissue was analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas database and immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, the sequence features of prostate cell line VHDJH rearrangements were analyzed. We also assessed the effect of CIgG on the migratory, invasive and proliferative abilities of PCa cells in vitro and vivo. Suspended microsphere, colony formation and drug-resistant assays were performed using PC3 cells with high CIgG expression (CIgGhigh ) and low CIgG expression (CIgG-/low ), and A nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mouse tumor xenograft model was developed for the study of the tumorigenic effects of the different cell populations. The SOX2-CIgG signaling pathway was validated by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, luciferase, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and bioinformatics analyses. Finally, we investigated the effect of RP215 inhibition on the progression of PCa in vivo using a Babl/c nude mouse xenograft model. RESULTS: CIgG is frequently expressed in PCa and associated with clinicopathological characteristics, moreover, CIgG transcripts with unique patterns of VHDJH rearrangements are found in PCa cells. Functional analyses identified that CIgG was induced by ADT and upregulated by SOX2 (SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2) in PCa, promoting the development of PCa. In addition, our findings underscore a novel role of CIgG signaling in the maintenance of stemness and the progression of cancer through mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and AKT in PCa. In vivo experiments further demonstrated that depleting CIgG significantly suppressed the growth of PCa cell xenografts. Furthermore, a CIgG monoclonal antibody named RP215 exhibits tumor inhibitory effect as well. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that CIgG could be a driver of PCa development, and that targeting the SOX2-CIgG axis may therefore inhibit PCa development after ADT.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/imunologia , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Análise Serial de Tecidos
10.
Prostate ; 80(13): 1108-1117, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Putative castration-resistant (CR) stem-like cells (CRSC) have been identified based on their ability to initiate and drive prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence following castration in vivo. Yet the relevance of these CRSC in the course of the human disease and particularly for the transition from hormone-naive (HN) to castration-resistance is unclear. In this study, we aimed at deciphering the significance of CRSC markers in PCa progression. METHODS: We constructed a tissue microarray comprising 112 matched HN and CR tissue specimens derived from 55 PCa patients. Expression of eight stemness-associated markers (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A3, ALDH3A1, BMI1, NANOG, NKX3.1, OCT4, SOX2) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and scored as a percentage of positive tumor cells. For each marker, the resulting scores were statistically analyzed and compared to pathological and clinical data associated with the samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis was performed to stratify patients according to the expression of the eight CRSC markers. Publicly-available transcriptional datasets comprising HN and CR PCa samples were interrogated to assess the expression of the factors in silico. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical assessment of paired samples revealed atypical patterns of expression and intra- and intertumor heterogeneity for a subset of CRSC markers. While the expression of particular CRSC markers was dynamic over time in some patients, none of the markers showed significant changes in expression upon the development of castration resistance (CR vs HN). Using unsupervised clustering approaches, we identified phenotypic subtypes based on the expression of specific stem-associated markers. In particular, we found (a) patterns of mutual exclusivity for ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 expression, which was also observed at the transcriptomic level in publicly-available PCa datasets, and (b) a phenotypic cluster associated with more aggressive features. Finally, by comparing HN and CR matched samples, we identified phenotypic cluster switches (ie, change of phenotypic cluster between the HN and CR state), that may be associated with clinical and predictive relevance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate stemness-associated patterns that are associated with the development of castration-resistance. These results pave the way toward a deeper understanding of the relevance of CRSC markers in PCa progression and resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Aldeído Desidrogenase 1/genética , Aldeído Desidrogenase 1/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Progressão da Doença , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Retinal Desidrogenase/genética , Retinal Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos
11.
Prostate ; 80(13): 1058-1070, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most prostate cancers express androgen receptor (AR), and our previous studies have focused on identifying transcription factors that modify AR function. We have shown that nuclear factor I/B (NFIB) regulates AR activity in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, the status of NFIB in prostate cancer was unknown. METHODS: We immunostained a tissue microarray including normal, hyperplastic, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, primary prostatic adenocarcinoma, and castration-resistant prostate cancer tissue samples for NFIB, AR, and synaptophysin, a marker of neuroendocrine differentiation. We interrogated publically available data sets in cBioPortal to correlate NFIB expression and AR and neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPCa) activity scores. We analyzed prostate cancer cell lines for NFIB expression via Western blot analysis and used nuclear and cytoplasmic fractionation to assess where NFIB is localized. We performed co-immunoprecipitation studies to determine if NFIB and AR interact. RESULTS: NFIB increased in the nucleus and cytoplasm of prostate cancer samples versus matched normal controls, independent of Gleason score. Similarly, cytoplasmic AR and synaptophysin increased in primary prostate cancer. We observed strong NFIB staining in primary small cell prostate cancer. The ratio of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear NFIB staining was predictive of earlier biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, once adjusted for tumor margin status. Cytoplasmic AR was an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence. There was no statistically significant difference between NFIB and synaptophysin expression in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer, but cytoplasmic AR expression was increased in castration-resistant samples. In primary prostate cancer, nuclear NFIB expression correlated with cytoplasmic NFIB and nuclear AR, while cytoplasmic NFIB correlated with synaptophysin, and nuclear and cytoplasmic AR. In castration-resistant prostate cancer samples, NFIB expression correlated positively with an AR activity score, and negatively with the NEPCa score. In prostate cancer cell lines, NFIB exists in several isoforms. We observed NFIB predominantly in the nuclear fraction of prostate cancer cells with increased cytoplasmic expression seen in castration-resistant cell lines. We observed an interaction between AR and NFIB through co-immunoprecipitation experiments. CONCLUSION: We have described the expression pattern of NFIB in primary and castration-resistant prostate cancer and its positive correlation with AR. We have also demonstrated AR interacts with NFIB.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição NFI/biossíntese , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Transcriptoma
13.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 88: 102057, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574991

RESUMO

Despite advances in metastatic prostate cancer therapy, expected survival for patients in the castration-resistant phase of disease is poor. Immune-checkpoints inhibitors significantly prolonged life expectancy in some solid tumors and have been evaluated also in advanced stage prostate cancer. The majority of data available derive from preliminary phase I and II trials evaluating CTLA-4 and PD-1 as monotherapy or in combination with each other, vaccines, radiotherapy or targeted/hormonal therapy, achieving only limited benefits in terms of biochemical and radiologic responses. There are many reasons that may explain why prostate cancer responds poorly to modern immunotherapies, such as its characteristic low tumor mutational burden or immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment. The present review summarizes the results obtained treating advanced prostate cancer patients with immune-checkpoints inhibitors and analyzes potential mechanisms of both resistance and sensitivity, in order to hypothesize possible avenues of special interest for future research.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2689, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483206

RESUMO

The antiandrogen enzalutamide (Enz) has improved survival in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, most patients eventually develop Enz resistance that may involve inducing the androgen receptor (AR) splicing variant 7 (ARv7). Here we report that high expression of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is associated with positive ARv7 detection in CRPC patients following Enz treatment. Targeting MAO-A with phenelzine or clorgyline, the FDA-approved drugs for antidepression, resensitize the Enz resistant (EnzR) cells to Enz treatment and further suppress EnzR cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that Enz-increased ARv7 expression can transcriptionally enhance MAO-A expression resulting in Enz resistance via altering the hypoxia HIF-1α signals. Together, our results show that targeting the Enz/ARv7/MAO-A signaling with the antidepressants phenelzine or clorgyline can restore Enz sensitivity to suppress EnzR cell growth, which may indicate that these antidepression drugs can overcome the Enz resistance to further suppress the EnzR CRPC.


Assuntos
Clorgilina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Fenelzina/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Monoaminoxidase/química , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12315-12323, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424106

RESUMO

The androgen receptor (AR) antagonist enzalutamide is one of the principal treatments for men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, not all patients respond, and resistance mechanisms are largely unknown. We hypothesized that genomic and transcriptional features from metastatic CRPC biopsies prior to treatment would be predictive of de novo treatment resistance. To this end, we conducted a phase II trial of enzalutamide treatment (160 mg/d) in 36 men with metastatic CRPC. Thirty-four patients were evaluable for the primary end point of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)50 response (PSA decline ≥50% at 12 wk vs. baseline). Nine patients were classified as nonresponders (PSA decline <50%), and 25 patients were classified as responders (PSA decline ≥50%). Failure to achieve a PSA50 was associated with shorter progression-free survival, time on treatment, and overall survival, demonstrating PSA50's utility. Targeted DNA-sequencing was performed on 26 of 36 biopsies, and RNA-sequencing was performed on 25 of 36 biopsies that contained sufficient material. Using computational methods, we measured AR transcriptional function and performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to identify pathways whose activity state correlated with de novo resistance. TP53 gene alterations were more common in nonresponders, although this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.055). AR gene alterations and AR expression were similar between groups. Importantly, however, transcriptional measurements demonstrated that specific gene sets-including those linked to low AR transcriptional activity and a stemness program-were activated in nonresponders. Our results suggest that patients whose tumors harbor this program should be considered for clinical trials testing rational agents to overcome de novo enzalutamide resistance.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/administração & dosagem , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo
16.
Prostate ; 80(11): 799-810, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) is a multifaceted protein with a prognostic value in hormone-naïve prostate cancer (PC). It has previously been associated with the development of castration resistance. However, RGS2 expression in clinical specimens of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and its clinical relevance has not been explored. In the present study, RGS2 was assessed in CRPC and in relation to the development of castration resistance. METHODS: In the present study, RGS2 expression was evaluated with immunohistochemistry in patient materials of hormone-naïve and castration-resistant primary tumors, also in matched specimens before and after 3 months of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate the clinical significance of RGS2 expression. RGS2 expression in association to castration-resistant growth was assessed experimentally in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of CRPC. In vitro, hormone depletion of LNCaP and enzalutamide treatment of LNCaP, 22Rv1, and VCaP was performed to evaluate the association between RGS2 and the androgen receptor (AR). Stable RGS2 knockdown was used to evaluate the impact of RGS2 in association to PC cell growth under hormone-reduced conditions. Gene and protein expression were evaluated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. RESULTS: RGS2 expression is increased in CRPC and enriched under ADT. Furthermore, a high RGS2 level is prognostic for poor cancer-specific survival for CRPC patients and significantly reduced failure-free survival (FFS) after an initiated ADT. Additionally, the prognostic value of RGS2 outperforms prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in terms of FFS. The present study furthermore suggests that RGS2 expression is reflective of AR activity. Moreover, low RGS2-expressing cells display hampered growth under hormone-reduced conditions, in line with the poor prognosis associated with high RGS2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of RGS2 are associated with aggressive forms of castration-resistant PC. The results demonstrate that a high level of RGS2 is associated with poor prognosis in association with castration-resistant PC growth. RGS2 alone, or in association with PSA, has the potential to identify patients that require additional treatment at an early stage during ADT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Proteínas RGS/biossíntese , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Proteínas RGS/genética , Proteínas RGS/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima
17.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(5): 362-365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the present study, cellular or exosomal expression of H19, an oncofetal lncRNA gene, was evaluated during androgen stimulation via dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or AR blockage via enzalutamide in cultured hormone-sensitive Pca cells which overexpres AR (LNCaP-AR+). BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is an androgen-dependent disease. Androgen receptor (AR) antagonists (i.e. enzalutamide) have been used for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Exosomes and their contents (non-coding RNA) play an important role in tumor development and progression. METHODS: Cells were treated with DHT (10 nM) and/or enzalutamide (10 uM) for 24 h. Cellular and exosomal expression of H19 was investigated using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: Our findings reveal that cellular H19 expression decreased approximately 2.3fold in mean upon androgen stimulation of Pca cells. AR blockage using enzalutamide restored DHT effect and we found increased H19 expression (≤ 2.5-fold, p < 0.05) upon the combined use of DHT and enzalutamide compared to control cells. Similar to its cellular effect, DHT treatment also led to declined exosomal expression of H19 (≤ 3-fold, p < 0.0001). Restorative effect of enzalutamide on decreased H19 expression induced by androgen stimulation was not observed in exosomes. CONCLUSION: This experimental study provides evidence that H19 might be involved in androgen receptor pathway. Further research is needed to explore the role of H19 in Pca and intercellular communication via exosomes (Fig. 2, Ref. 32).


Assuntos
Exossomos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , RNA Longo não Codificante , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2089, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350277

RESUMO

The role of dysregulation of mRNA alternative splicing (AS) in the development and progression of solid tumors remains to be defined. Here we describe the first comprehensive AS landscape in the spectrum of human prostate cancer (PCa) evolution. We find that the severity of splicing dysregulation correlates with disease progression and establish intron retention as a hallmark of PCa stemness and aggressiveness. Systematic interrogation of 274 splicing-regulatory genes (SRGs) uncovers prevalent genomic copy number variations (CNVs), leading to mis-expression of ~68% of SRGs during PCa development and progression. Consequently, many SRGs are prognostic. Surprisingly, androgen receptor controls a splicing program distinct from its transcriptional regulation. The spliceosome modulator, E7107, reverses cancer aggressiveness and inhibits castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) in xenograft and autochthonous PCa models. Altogether, our studies establish aberrant AS landscape caused by dysregulated SRGs as a hallmark of PCa aggressiveness and the spliceosome as a therapeutic vulnerability for CRPC.


Assuntos
Íntrons/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2508, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427840

RESUMO

Despite the clinical success of Androgen Receptor (AR)-targeted therapies, reactivation of AR signalling remains the main driver of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. In this study, we perform a comprehensive unbiased characterisation of LNCaP cells chronically exposed to multiple AR inhibitors (ARI). Combined proteomics and metabolomics analyses implicate an acquired metabolic phenotype common in ARI-resistant cells and associated with perturbed glucose and lipid metabolism. To exploit this phenotype, we delineate a subset of proteins consistently associated with ARI resistance and highlight mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (DECR1), an auxiliary enzyme of beta-oxidation, as a clinically relevant biomarker for CRPC. Mechanistically, DECR1 participates in redox homeostasis by controlling the balance between saturated and unsaturated phospholipids. DECR1 knockout induces ER stress and sensitises CRPC cells to ferroptosis. In vivo, DECR1 deletion impairs lipid metabolism and reduces CRPC tumour growth, emphasizing the importance of DECR1 in the development of treatment resistance.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/enzimologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Próstata/enzimologia , Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Res ; 80(13): 2927-2939, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341037

RESUMO

In incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), resistance to the novel androgen receptor (AR) antagonist enzalutamide is driven mainly by AR overexpression. Here we report that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is increased in primary prostate cancer but decreased in CRPC compared with normal prostate tissue. Decreased expression of IRF8 positively associated with CRPC progression and enzalutamide resistance. IRF8 interacted with AR and promoted its degradation via activation of the ubiquitin/proteasome systems. Epigenetic knockdown of IRF8 promoted AR-mediated prostate cancer progression and enzalutamide resistance in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, IFNα increased expression of IRF8 and improved the efficacy of enzalutamide in CRPC by targeting the IRF8-AR axis. We also provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of IFNα with hormonotherapy in a clinical study. Collectively, this study identifies IRF8 both as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer pathogenesis and a potential alternative therapeutic option to overcome enzalutamide resistance. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify IRF8-mediated AR degradation as a mechanism of resistance to AR-targeted therapy, highlighting the therapeutic potential of IFNα in targeting IRF8-AR axis in CRPC. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/13/2927/F1.large.jpg.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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