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1.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 93: 102152, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of the hormonal treatment sequencing including abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP) and enzalutamide (ENZ) in mCRPC, and determine which sequence provides more benefits for patients. METHODS: Studies published in English between 1 January 2013 and 30 September 2017 were identified in PubMed and EMBASE electronic databases. Studies assessing the efficacy of treatment sequences, based on AAP and ENZ, in mCRPC patients, were eligible for analysis. RESULTS: Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Two assessed both treatment sequences AAP â†’ ENZ and ENZ â†’ AAP; it was found that sequence of AAP â†’ ENZ showed a statistically significantly longer PSA-PFS than the observed in ENZ â†’ AAP (pooled HR: 0,54; 95% CI; 0,36-0,82; p < 0,05). The nine studies analysing Doc â†’ AAP â†’ ENZ sequence, revealed favourable results in terms of PFS. The 5 studies which analysed AAP â†’ ENZ sequence, show a decrease in PSA levels ≥ 50% in 11-41% of patients treated with enzalutamide after previous treatment with AAP. In the two studies that analysed the Doc â†’ ENZ â†’ AAP sequence, PSA response rates were much lower than those reported with Doc â†’ AAP â†’ ENZ, with decreases in PSA ≥ 30 of 3-18% and PSA ≥ 50 of 8-11%. CONCLUSION: Significant clinical efficacy of AAP administered as the first-line treatment in mCRPC patients followed by enzalutamide, delaying disease progression, compared with the ENZ â†’ AAP sequence. However, more studies and randomized trials are needed, to validate the best treatment sequencing.


Assuntos
Acetato de Abiraterona/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 157: 103198, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316417

RESUMO

Although both docetaxel and androgen-receptor-axis-targeted (ARAT) agents have yielded survival improvements in combination with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) compared to ADT alone in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) patients, the optimal therapeutic choice remains to be established. We analyzed estimates of the hazard ratios for death (OS-HRs) in patients treated in the first-line setting enrolled in the GETUG-AFU15, CHAARTED, STAMPEDE, LATITUDE, ENZAMET, and TITAN trials. Overall, men with mCSPC receiving ADT with vs. without either an ARAT agent or docetaxel as first-line systemic therapy showed a pooled OS-HR of 0.69 (95 % CI: 0.61-0.78), with significant heterogeneity (p = 0.045, I2 = 52.5 %). Network meta-analysis showed an OS-HR in patients receiving an ARAT agent vs. docetaxel of 0.78 (95 %CI: 0.67-0.91). In conclusion, the evidence analysed indicates that an ARAT agent may provide improved OS outcomes compared to docetaxel. Prospective randomized trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Castração , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Urologe A ; 60(2): 212-221, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346857

RESUMO

The treatment of advanced prostate cancer is changing. New study data and the resulting new therapeutic options have led to increasingly differentiated treatment decisions. Despite the changing therapy landscape, taxane-based chemotherapy-being a life-prolonging treatment-remains an indispensable therapeutic component for chemotherapy-fit patients in the metastatic setting. The current results of the randomized study CARD show that cabazitaxel has a higher oncological effectiveness, including a significant survival benefit and no negative impact on quality of life parameters, compared to a second androgen receptor targeted agent (ARTA) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who progressed after treatment with docetaxel and an androgen receptor-targeted agent (ARTA). In mCNPC the combination therapies of ADT (androgen deprivation therapy) plus docetaxel or of ADT plus ARTA have been established. In addition, three ARTAs tested in recent phase III studies in a clinical setting for patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) showed that their use significantly prolongs metastasis-free survival and overall survival. The potential early use of ARTAs also has implications for the treatment of mCNPC. The aim of this publication is to provide guidance for clinical routine and to develop criteria for individual therapy decisions with a special focus on the use of chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Receptores Androgênicos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 157: 103185, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341506

RESUMO

In last years several improvements have been made in the management of prostate cancer (PCa). Androgen receptor (AR) is considered the main driver in PCa growth and progression and most drugs are directed against AR pathway. Once PCa spreads outside the prostate, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) represents the cornerstone of treatment in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC). Unfortunately, the response is only transient and most patients eventually develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Most resistance mechanisms depend on maintenance of AR signalling in castration environment. Recent discoveries of multiple growth-promoting and survival pathways in PCa suggest the importance of alternative mechanisms involved in disease progression, such as DNA damage response pathway, PTEN/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, cell cycle pathway, WNT pathway, TMPRSS2/ETS fusion, neuroendocrine pattern and immune system response. In this review, we discuss the interplay between AR signaling and other molecular pathways involved in PCa pathogenesis and their therapeutic implication in advanced disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Receptores Androgênicos , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética
5.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(4): 364-368, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351306

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common tumors in male. Castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) refers to the prostate malignancy with a PSA increase or imaging progression after androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), which is divided into metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) and non-metastatic CRPC (nmCRPC) based on the presence or absence of imaging metastasis. Two second-generation antiandrogens, enzuramide and abiraterone, were approved for the treatment of nmCRPC in 2018. A recently completed three-stage large-scale clinical ARAMIS trial shows that the new drug, darolutamide, compared with the placebo, could prolong the metastasis-free survival (MFS) of nmCRPC patients. Darolutamide is now an anti-androgen drug available for patients with nmCRPC. This review focuses on the clinical trial of darolutamide and comparison of its therapeutic effect with that of another two second-generation antiandrogens.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(9): 788-792, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377700

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect and safety of the 3-week paclitaxel liposome protocol in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). METHODS: This retrospective study included 40 cases of CRPC treated by the 3-week paclitaxel liposome protocol from February 2014 to February 2019, which involved intravenous injection of 10 mg dexamethasone in 100 ml normal saline on the first day and that of metoclopramide and panxi tora azole on the second day, followed by about 3 hours of intravenous drip of paclitaxel liposome at 135 mg/m2 for a course of 3 weeks. During the follow-up period, the patients received detection of the serum PSA level before treatment and chest x-ray and whole-body bone scan every six months. After two courses of treatment, the patients were observed for the changes in the serum PSA level, relief of bone pain, quality of survival, overall survival rate, overall survival time and toxic reactions. The protocol was continued unless the patient underwent progression, refused for unacceptable toxicity, or died. RESULTS: The patients were aged 59 to 79 (mean 68.80±5.67) years old, with the serum PSA level of (28.05 ± 3.22) µg/L at the baseline and (4.12 ± 0.23) µg/L after treatment. Thirty-eight of the patients were followed up for 3 to 33 (mean 12.2) months. PSA-based evaluation showed therapeutic effectiveness in 14 cases (35%), stable condition in 21 (52.5 %) and progression in 5 (12.5 %). Of the 18 patients with bone metastasis and pain, 16 (88.9 %) experienced relief of the symptoms and reduced the use of painkillers, with the bone pain scores of 5.20 ± 1.22 vs 2.79 ± 0.57 before and after treatment. By the end of the follow-up, the overall survival rate was 55.0% (22/40) and the median survival time was 17 months (95% CI: 13.4-24.6). During the treatment, no obvious adverse reactions were observed except for anemia in 1 case and hair loss in another. CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of CRPC in China, the 3-week paclitaxel liposome protocol has the advantages of desirable safety, low toxicity, acceptable drug tolerance and improved quality of survival, but its curative effect needs to be verified with more randomized clinical trials with larger samples and longer follow-ups.


Assuntos
Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , China , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5107-5114, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling may be one of the mechanisms of progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In this study, we investigated the possible therapeutic effect of vismodegib, a new Shh inhibitor, in a mouse CRPC model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined cell proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of EMT-related genes for three prostate cancer cell lines; androgen-dependent LNCaP and independent C4-2B and PC-3 in the presence of vismodegib in vitro. Fifty mg/kg of vismodegib were orally administered into mice bearing C4-2B and PC-3 tumors, respectively every other week for 3 weeks. RESULTS: Vismodegib significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in all cell lines in vitro (p<0.05). Vismodegib significantly inhibited EMT in CRPC cells and tumor growth in C4-2B-bearing mice compared to controls in vivo (p<0.05). Higher expression of caspase-3 and lower expression of vimentin in PC-3 and C4-2B tumors were induced by vismodegib in immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION: Vismodegib inhibited cell proliferation via apoptosis and also suppressed EMT, showing anti-tumor effects in mice. Further mechanistic studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of vismodegib for CRPC treatment.


Assuntos
Anilidas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5229-5235, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The prolactin receptor (PRLR) is implicated in the tumorigenesis of breast and prostate cancers where it drives cell proliferation, survival, and migration. LFA102 is a humanized monoclonal antibody against PRLR with promising preclinical antitumor activity. To determine the maximum tolerated dose or a recommended dose, and to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile of LFA102 in Japanese patients, we conducted a phase I study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: LFA102 was intravenously infused every 4 weeks to patients with advanced breast or castration-resistant prostate cancer, and the dose increased from 3 to 40 mg/kg. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were treated, and toxicities were reported in 9 (64%) patients. They were all grade 1 or 2, and the most frequently observed toxicity was nausea (3 patients, 21%). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. LFA102 did not show antitumor activity as a single agent. CONCLUSION: Treatment with LFA102 was well tolerated.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/etiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4822, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973149

RESUMO

Abiraterone acetate (AA) is an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, though this cannot fully explain its efficacy against androgen-independent prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate that androgen deprivation therapy depletes androgen-utilizing Corynebacterium spp. in prostate cancer patients and that oral AA further enriches for the health-associated commensal, Akkermansia muciniphila. Functional inferencing elucidates a coinciding increase in bacterial biosynthesis of vitamin K2 (an inhibitor of androgen dependent and independent tumor growth). These results are highly reproducible in a host-free gut model, excluding the possibility of immune involvement. Further investigation reveals that AA is metabolized by bacteria in vitro and that breakdown components selectively impact growth. We conclude that A. muciniphila is a key regulator of AA-mediated restructuring of microbial communities, and that this species may affect treatment response in castrate-resistant cohorts. Ongoing initiatives aimed at modulating the colonic microbiota of cancer patients may consider targeted delivery of poorly absorbed selective bacterial growth agents.


Assuntos
Acetato de Abiraterona/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Verrucomicrobia/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetato de Abiraterona/metabolismo , Acetato de Abiraterona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Androgênios/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Verrucomicrobia/genética , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2/farmacologia
11.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1513-1525, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CARD study, cabazitaxel significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival versus abiraterone or enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel and the alternative androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. Here, we report the quality-of-life outcomes from the CARD study. METHODS: CARD was a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 4 study involving 62 clinical sites across 13 European countries. Patients (aged ≥18 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤2) with confirmed metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) by means of an interactive voice-web response system to receive cabazitaxel (25 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks, 10 mg daily prednisone, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) versus abiraterone (1000 mg orally once daily plus 5 mg prednisone twice daily) or enzalutamide (160 mg orally daily). Stratification factors were ECOG performance status, time to disease progression on the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor, and timing of the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. The primary endpoint was radiographic progression-free survival; here, we present more detailed analyses of pain (assessed using item 3 on the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form [BPI-SF]) and symptomatic skeletal events, alongside preplanned patient-reported outcomes, assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions, 5 level scale (EQ-5D-5L). Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. Pain response was analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of BPI-SF item 3, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of either FACT-P or EQ-5D-5L (PRO population). Analyses of skeletal-related events were also done in the intention-to-treat population. The CARD study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02485691, and is no longer enrolling. FINDINGS: Between Nov 17, 2015, and Nov 28, 2018, of 303 patients screened, 255 were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel (n=129) or abiraterone or enzalutamide (n=126). Median follow-up was 9·2 months (IQR 5·6-13·1). Pain response was observed in 51 (46%) of 111 patients with cabazitaxel and 21 (19%) of 109 patients with abiraterone or enzalutamide (p<0·0001). Median time to pain progression was not estimable (NE; 95% CI NE-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·5 months (4·9-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (hazard ratio [HR] 0·55, 95% CI 0·32-0·97; log-rank p=0·035). Median time to symptomatic skeletal events was NE (95% CI 20·0-NE) with cabazitaxel and 16·7 months (10·8-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·59, 95% CI 0·35-1·01; log-rank p=0·050). Median time to FACT-P total score deterioration was 14·8 months (95% CI 6·3-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·9 months (6·3-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·72, 95% CI 0·44-1·20; log-rank p=0·21). There was a significant treatment effect seen in changes from baseline in EQ-5D-5L utility index score in favour of cabazitaxel over abiraterone or enzalutamide (p=0·030) but no difference between treatment groups for change from baseline in EQ-5D-5L visual analogue scale (p=0·060). INTERPRETATION: Since cabazitaxel improved pain response, time to pain progression, time to symptomatic skeletal events, and EQ-5D-5L utility index, clinicians and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer can be reassured that cabazitaxel will not reduce quality of life when compared with treatment with a second androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. FUNDING: Sanofi.


Assuntos
Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/genética , Androstenos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
N Engl J Med ; 383(11): 1040-1049, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Darolutamide is a structurally distinct androgen-receptor inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. In the planned primary analysis of a phase 3 trial, the median metastasis-free survival was significantly longer with darolutamide (40.4 months) than with placebo (18.4 months). The data for the analysis of overall survival were immature at the time of the primary analysis. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 1509 men, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive darolutamide (955 patients) or placebo (554 patients) while they continued to receive androgen-deprivation therapy. After the results of the primary end-point analysis were found to be positive, unblinding of the treatment assignments occurred, and patients in the placebo group were permitted to cross over to receive open-label darolutamide treatment. At the time of this prespecified final analysis, which had been planned to be performed after approximately 240 deaths had occurred, overall survival and all other secondary end points were evaluated. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 29.0 months. At the time of unblinding of the data, all 170 patients who were still receiving placebo crossed over to receive darolutamide; 137 patients who had discontinued placebo before unblinding had occurred received at least one other life-prolonging therapy. Overall survival at 3 years was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80 to 86) in the darolutamide group and 77% (95% CI, 72 to 81) in the placebo group. The risk of death was significantly lower, by 31%, in the darolutamide group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.88; P = 0.003). Darolutamide was also associated with a significant benefit with respect to all other secondary end points, including the time to first symptomatic skeletal event and the time to first use of cytotoxic chemotherapy. The incidence of adverse events after the start of treatment was similar in the two groups; no new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Among men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, the percentage of patients who were alive at 3 years was significantly higher among those who received darolutamide than among those who received placebo. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. (Funded by Bayer HealthCare and Orion Pharma; ARAMIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02200614.).


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Fraturas Ósseas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239686, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997692

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) harbor mutations in homologous recombination (HR) repair genes, with some of these mutations associating with increased tumor susceptibility to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and platinum-based chemotherapy. While mutations in some HR repair genes (e.g., BRCA1/2) have been associated with a more aggressive clinical course, prior studies correlating HR mutational status with treatment response to androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitors (ARSIs) or taxane-based chemotherapy have yielded conflicting results. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis to assess clinical outcomes to conventional, regulatory-approved therapies in mCRPC patients with somatic (monoallelic and biallelic) and/or germline HR repair mutations compared to patients without alterations as determined by clinical-grade next-generation sequencing assays. The primary endpoint was PSA30/PSA50 response, defined as ≥30%/≥50% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) reduction from baseline. Secondary endpoints of PSA progression-free survival (pPFS) and clinical/radiographic progression-free survival (crPFS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. RESULTS: A total of 90 consecutively selected patients were included in this analysis, of which 33 (37%) were identified to have HR repair gene mutations. Age, race, Gleason score, prior surgery, and receipt of prior radiation therapy were comparable between carriers and non-carriers. There was no evidence that PSA30/PSA50 differed by HR gene mutational status. Median pPFS and crPFS ranged 3-14 months across treatment modalities, but there was no evidence either differed by HR gene mutational status (all p>0.05). There was also no difference in outcomes between those with BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations (n = 17) compared to those without HR repair mutations. CONCLUSION: HR gene mutational status was associated with comparable clinical outcomes following treatment with ARSIs or taxane-based chemotherapy. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Mutação , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/genética , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Humanos , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Inibidores da Síntese de Esteroides/uso terapêutico
15.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 34(8): 317-319, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785928

RESUMO

A 78-year-old man had a medical history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). He had progressed to first-line therapy for CRPC with abiraterone plus androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and as second-line therapy he was being treated with docetaxel, with biochemical progression in his last prostate specific antigen measurement. He was admitted to the hospital on April 2020, in the middle of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, because of painful bone lesions and deterioration of renal function.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androstenos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Dor do Câncer/complicações , Dor do Câncer/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Definição da Elegibilidade , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/provisão & distribução , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/complicações , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Insuficiência Renal , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ácido Zoledrônico/uso terapêutico
16.
Life Sci ; 259: 118208, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763294

RESUMO

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide, with prostate cancer, the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among men. Prostate cancer develops in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland, and the initial progression largely depends on androgens, the male reproductive hormone that regulates the growth and development of the prostate gland and testis. The currently available treatments for androgen dependent prostate cancer are, however, effective for a limited period, where the patients show disease relapse, and develop androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC). Studies have shown various intricate cellular processes such as, deregulation in multiple biochemical and signaling pathways, intra-tumoral androgen synthesis; AR over-expression and mutations and AR activation via alternative growth pathways are involved in progression of AIPC. The currently approved treatment strategies target a single cellular protein or pathway, where the cells slowly develop resistance and adapt to proliferate via other cellular pathways over a period of time. Therefore, an increased research aims to understand the efficacy of combination therapy, which targets multiple interlinked pathways responsible for acquisition of resistance and survival. The combination therapy is also shown to enhance efficacy as well as reduce toxicity of the drugs. Thus, the present review focuses on the signaling pathways involved in the progression of AIPC, comprising a heterogeneous population of cells and the advantages of combination therapy. Several clinical and pre-clinical studies on a variety of combination treatments have shown beneficial outcomes, yet further research is needed to understand the potential of combination therapy and its diverse strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Androgênios/metabolismo , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4291-4297, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tolerability of 2-weekly docetaxel at 25-35 mg/m2 for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate its tolerability compared to 3-weekly docetaxel at 60-75 mg/m2 in patients with CRPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, data were compared with respect to efficacy and safety between 2-weekly and 3-weekly docetaxel regimens in patients with CRPC. RESULTS: Time to treatment failure and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate did not differ significantly between the two regimens. Compared to 3-weekly administration, incidence of severe leukopenia and febrile neutropenia was significantly lower (p<0.05), and relative dose intensity was significantly higher (p<0.05) for the 2-weekly schedule. Docetaxel dosage and PSA response were identified as independent risk factors for severe leukopenia. CONCLUSION: Two-weekly treatment seems better tolerated than three-weekly treatment in Japanese patients with CRPC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Prostate ; 80(12): 950-961, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is characterized by aberrant lipid metabolism, including elevated fatty acid oxidation. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of fatty acid oxidation. This study aimed to determine if CPT1B has a critical role in prostate cancer progression and to identify its regulatory mechanism. METHODS: CPT1B expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases was compared with patient survival data. A tissue microarray was constructed with 60 samples of prostate cancer and immunohistochemically stained for CPT1B. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cell lines 22RV1 and C4-2 in which CPT1B expression had been stably knocked down were established; and cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and invasion were investigated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and colony formation assays, flow cytometry, and Transwell assays, respectively. To examine the impact of androgen receptor (AR) inhibition on CPT1B expression, JASPAR CORE was searched to identify AR-binding sites in CPT1B. Dual luciferase and ChIP assays were performed to confirm CPT1B activity and AR binding, respectively. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in prostate cancer underwent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Enzalutamide-resistant C4-2 cells were generated and the mechanism of enzalutamide resistance and downstream signaling pathway changes of CPT1B to C4-2 was explored through CCK-8 test. RESULTS: CPT1B expression was upregulated in human prostate cancer compared with normal prostate tissue and was associated with poor disease-free survival and overall survival. Silencing of CPT1B resulted in downregulated cell proliferation, reduced S-phase distribution, and lower invasive ability, whereas the opposite was observed in CRPC cells overexpressing CPTB1. DEGS in prostate cancer were correlated with G-protein-coupled receptor signaling, molecular transducer activity, and calcium ion binding. AR may regulate CPT1B expression and activity via specific binding sites, as confirmed by dual luciferase and ChIP assays. The CCK-8 experiment demonstrated that CPT1B overexpression in C4-2 cells did not significantly increase the ability of enzalutamide resistance. However, overexpression of CPT1B in C4-2R cells significantly increased the enzalutamide resistance. Upregulation of CPT1B expression increased AKT expression and phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: CPT1B is upregulated in prostate cancer and is correlated with poor prognosis, indicating its potential as a biomarker. AR inhibits the transcription of CPT1B. In the CRPC cell line, overexpression of CPT1B alone cannot promote enzalutamide resistance, but in the drug-resistant line C4-2R, overexpression of CPT1B can promote the resistance of C4-2R to enzalutamide.


Assuntos
Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/enzimologia , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(9): 1695-1703, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present guidelines for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), it is unclear who benefits most from androgen receptor axis-targeted agents (ARATs) or docetaxel as the first-line treatment. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study to explore new treatment-specific biomarkers in mCRPC. A total of 211 patients with mCRPC who received either ARAT or docetaxel as first-line treatment were included. Patients were compared for radiographic progression and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the association between pretreatment biomarkers and risk of events. The statistical interaction between biomarkers and clinical outcomes was also evaluated. RESULTS: Of all analyzed biomarkers, multivariable Cox regression models identified MPV [≤ median (9.7 fL)] as an independent prognostic factor of radiographic progression [hazard ratio (HR), 2.35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-4.80; P = 0.019] and PSA progression (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.01-3.95; P = 0.048) in patients treated with ARAT, whereas such associations were not observed in those treated with docetaxel. Interaction analyses showed that those initially treated with docetaxel have lower risk of radiographic progression (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13-0.79; P = 0.014) and PSA progression (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-0.98; P = 0.044) than ARAT when MPV was small. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified pretreatment MPV as a significant treatment-specific prognostic factor of PSA and radiographic progression in patients with mCRPC who received first-line treatment. Furthermore, our results suggested that those with small MPV may better be treated initially with docetaxel than ARAT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Androstenos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Eritrócitos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2689, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483206

RESUMO

The antiandrogen enzalutamide (Enz) has improved survival in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, most patients eventually develop Enz resistance that may involve inducing the androgen receptor (AR) splicing variant 7 (ARv7). Here we report that high expression of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is associated with positive ARv7 detection in CRPC patients following Enz treatment. Targeting MAO-A with phenelzine or clorgyline, the FDA-approved drugs for antidepression, resensitize the Enz resistant (EnzR) cells to Enz treatment and further suppress EnzR cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that Enz-increased ARv7 expression can transcriptionally enhance MAO-A expression resulting in Enz resistance via altering the hypoxia HIF-1α signals. Together, our results show that targeting the Enz/ARv7/MAO-A signaling with the antidepressants phenelzine or clorgyline can restore Enz sensitivity to suppress EnzR cell growth, which may indicate that these antidepression drugs can overcome the Enz resistance to further suppress the EnzR CRPC.


Assuntos
Clorgilina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Fenelzina/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Monoaminoxidase/química , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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