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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 642, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggested that vaginal microbiome played a functional role in the progression of cervical lesions in female infected by HPV. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of common vaginal infection on the carcinogenicity of high risk HPV (hr-HPV). METHODS: From January 15, 2017 to December 31, 2017, 310,545 female aged at least 30 years old had been recruited for cervical cancer screening from 9 clinical research centers in Central China. All the recruited participants received hr-HPV genotyping for cervical cancer screening and vaginal microenvironment test by a high vaginal swab. Colposcopy-directed biopsy was recommended for female who were infected with HPV 16 and HPV 18, and other positive hr-HPV types through test had undertaken triage using liquid-based cytology, cases with the results ≥ ASCUS among them were referred to colposcopy directly, and cervical tissues were taken for pathology examination to make clear the presence or absence of other cervical lesions. RESULTS: Among 310,545 female, 6067 (1.95%) were tested with positive HPV 16 and HPV 18, 18,297 (5.89%) were tested with other positive hr-HPV genotypes, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) were detected in 861 cases, 377 cases, 423 cases, and 77 cases, respectively. Candida albicans and Gardnerella were not associated with the detection of cervical lesions. Positive trichomonas vaginitis (TV) was correlated with hr-HPV infection (p < 0.0001). Co-infection with TV increased the risk of CIN 1 among female infected with hr-HPV (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.42-2.31). Co-infection with TV increased the risk of CIN 2-3 among female infected with HPV 16 (OR 1.71, 95% CI: 1.16-2.53). CONCLUSIONS: Co-infection of TV and HPV 16 is a significant factor for the detection of cervical lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/complicações , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 18/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Vaginite por Trichomonas/complicações , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Colposcopia , Estudos Transversais , Citodiagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Vaginite por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginite por Trichomonas/parasitologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
3.
N Engl J Med ; 383(14): 1340-1348, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and effectiveness of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in preventing high-grade cervical lesions have been shown. However, data to inform the relationship between quadrivalent HPV vaccination and the subsequent risk of invasive cervical cancer are lacking. METHODS: We used nationwide Swedish demographic and health registers to follow an open population of 1,672,983 girls and women who were 10 to 30 years of age from 2006 through 2017. We assessed the association between HPV vaccination and the risk of invasive cervical cancer, controlling for age at follow-up, calendar year, county of residence, and parental characteristics, including education, household income, mother's country of birth, and maternal disease history. RESULTS: During the study period, we evaluated girls and women for cervical cancer until their 31st birthday. Cervical cancer was diagnosed in 19 women who had received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and in 538 women who had not received the vaccine. The cumulative incidence of cervical cancer was 47 cases per 100,000 persons among women who had been vaccinated and 94 cases per 100,000 persons among those who had not been vaccinated. After adjustment for age at follow-up, the incidence rate ratio for the comparison of the vaccinated population with the unvaccinated population was 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.82). After additional adjustment for other covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.21 to 0.57). After adjustment for all covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 0.12 (95% CI, 0.00 to 0.34) among women who had been vaccinated before the age of 17 years and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.75) among women who had been vaccinated at the age of 17 to 30 years. CONCLUSIONS: Among Swedish girls and women 10 to 30 years old, quadrivalent HPV vaccination was associated with a substantially reduced risk of invasive cervical cancer at the population level. (Funded by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research and others.).


Assuntos
Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18 , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Incidência , Invasividade Neoplásica , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21146, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the common malignancies that afflict women worldwide. In rare cases, cervical cancer leads to ovarian metastasis (OM), resulting in poor outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of OM in patients with adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix. METHODS: We searched articles focused on OM in cervical carcinoma in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A meta-analysis was performed including selected publications. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using random-effects models. The heterogeneity was evaluated by the I test. I > 50% was considered high heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies with 18,389 patients with cervical cancer in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IA to IIB were included in the meta-analysis. The overall incidence of OM was 3.61% among patients with ADC and 1.46% among patients with SCC (ADC vs SCC: OR 3.89, 95% CI 2.62-5.78; P < .001). Risk factors for OM were age >40 years (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.02-3.13), bulky tumor (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.77-3.95), pelvic lymph node involvement (PLNI; OR 9.33, 95% CI 6.34-13.73), lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI; OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.86-10.31), parametrial invasion (PMI; OR 7.87, 95% CI 5.01-12.36), and corpus uteri invasion (CUI; OR 7.64, 95% CI 2.51-23.24). PLNI, LVSI, and PMI were the leading risk factors, contributing to OM with respective population attributable fractions of 64.8%, 58.8%, and 51.5%. CONCLUSION: The incidence of OM is relatively low in ADC and SCC patients. Risk factors for OM include PLNI, LVSI, PMI, bulky tumor, CUI, or age over 40 years, with the first 3 contributing more to risk of OM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Metástase Linfática , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/secundário , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 629, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical cancer and vaginal microbiome was evaluated in Chinese cohorts. METHODS: The vaginal bacterial composition of five groups, HPV-infected women without CINs (HPV, n = 78), women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, n = 51), women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, n = 23), women with invasive cervical cancer (Cancer, n = 9) and healthy women without HPV infection (Normal, n = 68), was characterized by deep sequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene fragments (V3-4) using Illumina MiSeq. RESULTS: HPV infection increased vaginal bacterial richness and diversity regardless of the status of CINs. The vaginal bacterial richness and diversity were further augmented in women with cervical cancer. Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus in all groups. HPV infection had a negative influence on the abundances of Lactobacillus, Gardnerella and Atopobium. Accordingly, HPV infection increased the relative abundance of Prevotella, Bacillus, Anaerococcus, Sneathia, Megasphaera, Streptococcus and Anaerococcus. The increased proportions of Bacillus, Anaerococcus and the reduced abundance of Gradnerella vaginalis were probably related with the progression of CINs severity. HPV infection without CINs or cancerous lesions was strongly associated with Megasphaera. The most abundant bacterium in the LSIL group was Prevotella amnii. However, Prevotella timonensis, Shuttleworthia and Streptococcaceae at the family level were three taxa related to HSIL. Furthermore, more taxa were associated with the Cancer group including Bacillus, Sneathia, Acidovorax, Oceanobacillus profundus, Fusobacterium, Veillonellaceae at the family level, Anaerococcus and Porphyromonas uenonis. Samples in the Normal group were mostly assigned to CST III. HPV infection converted the vaginal bacterial community structure from CST III to CST IV. Furthermore, the proportions of CST IV were gradually augmented with the progression of the severity of CINs. CONCLUSIONS: This work interpreted the differential vaginal bacteria under HPV infection and various precancerous or cancerous lesions in a Chinese cohort. We distinguished the specific microbes and the vaginal bacterial structure that were related with the progression of CINs severity in Chinese women.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Microbiota/genética , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactobacillus/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
6.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520940875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women in China. This analysis is a quantitative evidence synthesis pooling information about each cervical cancer risk factor. METHODS: A meta-model was developed to estimate the risk of cervical cancer for a woman aged 18-85 years in Mainland China based on her risk profile at the time of assessment. The meta-model was built using findings of a systematic literature review that identified 21 case-control studies reporting data on 105 groups of cervical cancer risk factors in Chinese women. Extracted risk factors were ranked, and 17 were selected by Chinese clinical experts for inclusion in the meta-model. Risk equations were developed for each selected study. Predicted risks for each study were dependent on the risk profile under consideration and study-specific risks were pooled to an overall risk estimate using a random-effects meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using 100 artificial patient profiles (in the absence of patient data). RESULTS: Predicted risks for the 100 profiles suggested that the model had good face validity and could differentiate between high and non-high cervical cancer risk profiles. CONCLUSION: This innovative meta-model approach assesses cervical cancer risk in Chinese women from a holistic perspective and could be adapted for other diseases and settings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237988, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 9-year incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) and cumulative adherence to perform a next test in a cohort of women aged 40+ years with no cervical screening cytology within a window of 5 years (underscreened women), after baseline cervical cytology and HPV tests. METHODS: In Catalonia, Spain, co-testing with cytology and HPV test has been recommended in the Public Health system since 2006 for underscreened women. In 2007, 1,594 women with underscreened criteria were identified and followed through medical records form Pathological Department. 9-year cumulative incidence of histologically confirmed CIN2+ and cumulative adherence to perform a next test were estimated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. RESULTS: Follow-up was available for 1,009 women (63.3%) resulting in 23 women with. CIN2+ (2.3%). Of them, 4 women (17%) had both tests negative at baseline (3CIN2 and 1CIN3) with cumulative incidence of CIN2+ of 0.4% (95% CI: 0.1-1.4) at 5-years and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.4-3.7) at 9-years. During the first year, the prevalence among women with both tests positive was 27.0% (95% CI: 13.0-50.6) for CIN2+. Lost to follow-up was higher among women with both tests negative compared to those with both positive tests (38.7% vs 4.2%, p-value <0.001). 40.5% of the women HPV-/cyto- had a re-screening test during the 4 years following the baseline, increasing until 53.5% during the 6 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection shows a high longitudinal predictive value at 9-year to identify women at risk to develop CIN2+. The data validate a safe extension of the 3-year screening intervals (current screening interval) to 5-year intervals in underscreened women that had negative HPV result at baseline. It is necessary to establish mechanisms to ensure screening participation and adequate follow-up for these women.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the second most common female reproductive cancer after breast cancer with 84% of the cases in developing countries. A high uptake of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and screening, and early diagnosis leads to a reduction of incidence and mortality rates. Yet uptake of screening is low in Sub-Saharan Africa and there is an increasing number of women presenting for treatment with advanced disease. Nine women in their twenties die from cervical cancer in Kenya every day. This paper presents the biopsychosocial risk factors that impact on cervical cancer knowledge among Kenyan women aged 15 to 24 years. The findings will highlight opportunities for early interventions to prevent the worrying prediction of an exponential increase by 50% of cervical cancer incidences in the younger age group by 2034. METHODS: Data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) was analysed using complex sample logistic regression to assess biopsychosocial risk factors of knowledge of cervical cancer among young women aged 15 to 24 years (n = 5398). FINDINGS: Close to one third of the participants were unaware of cervical cancer with no difference between participants aged 15-19 years (n = 2716) and those aged 20-24 years (n = 2691) (OR = 1; CI = 0.69-1.45). Social predisposing factors, such as lack of education; poverty; living further from a health facility; or never having taken a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test, were significantly associated with lack of awareness of cervical cancer (p<0.001). Young women who did not know where to obtain condoms had an OR of 2.12 (CI 1.72-2.61) for being unaware of cervical cancer. Psychological risk factors, such as low self-efficacy about seeking medical help, and an inability to refuse unsafe sex with husband or partner, perpetuated the low level of awareness about cervical cancer (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of young women in Kenya are unaware of cervical cancer which is associated with a variety of social and psychological factors. We argue that the high prevalence of cervical cancer and poor screening rates will continue to prevail among older women if issues that affect young women's awareness of cervical cancer are not addressed. Given that the Kenyan youth are exposed to HPV due to early sexual encounters and a high prevalence of HIV, targeted interventions are urgently needed to increase the uptake of HPV vaccination and screening.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Autoeficácia , Parceiros Sexuais , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação/métodos , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
11.
ESMO Open ; 5(Suppl 3)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718919

RESUMO

The rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and its related disease (COVID-19) has required an immediate and coordinate healthcare response to face the worldwide emergency and define strategies to maintain the continuum of care for the non-COVID-19 diseases while protecting patients and healthcare providers. The dimension of the COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented risk especially for the more vulnerable populations. To manage patients with cancer adequately, maintaining the highest quality of care, a definition of value-based priorities is necessary to define which interventions can be safely postponed without affecting patients' outcome. The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) has endorsed a tiered approach across three different levels of priority (high, medium, low) incorporating information on the value-based prioritisation and clinical cogency of the interventions that can be applied for different disease sites. Patients with gynaecological cancer are at particular risk of COVID-19 complications because of their age and prevalence of comorbidities. The definition of priority level should be based on tumour stage and histology, cancer-related symptoms or complications, aim (curative vs palliative) and magnitude of benefit of the oncological intervention, patients' general condition and preferences. The decision-making process always needs to consider the disease-specific national and international guidelines and the local healthcare system and social resources, and a changing situation in relation to COVID-19 infection. These recommendations aim to provide guidance for the definition of deferrable and undeferrable interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic for ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancers within the context of the ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Oncologia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Neoplasias do Endométrio/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oncologia/organização & administração , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sociedades Médicas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify health systems-level barriers to treatment for women who screened positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) in a cervical cancer prevention program in Kenya. METHODS: In a trial of implementation strategies for hrHPV-based cervical cancer screening in western Kenya in 2018-2019, women underwent hrHPV testing offered through community health campaigns, and women who tested positive were referred to government health facilities for cryotherapy. The current analysis draws on treatment data from this trial, as well as two observational studies that were conducted: 1) periodic assessments of the treatment sites to ascertain availability of resources for treatment and 2) surveys with treatment providers to elicit their views on barriers to care. Bivariate analyses were performed for the site assessment data, and the provider survey data were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: Seventeen site assessments were performed across three treatment sites. All three sites reported instances of supply stockouts, two sites reported treatment delays due to lack of supplies, and two sites reported treatment delays due to provider factors. Of the 16 providers surveyed, ten (67%) perceived lack of knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer as the main barrier in women's decision to get treated, and seven (47%) perceived financial barriers for transportation and childcare as the main barrier to accessing treatment. Eight (50%) endorsed that providing treatment free of cost was the greatest facilitator of treatment. CONCLUSION: Patient education and financial support to reach treatment are potential areas for intervention to increase rates of hrHPV+ women presenting for treatment. It is also essential to eliminate barriers that prevent treatment of women who present, including ensuring adequate supplies and staff for treatment.


Assuntos
Crioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Crioterapia/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Feminino , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/economia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/economia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233986, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: China carries a heavy burden of cervical cancer and has an alarmingly low cervical cancer screening rate. In order to achieve the goal of cervical cancer elimination, there is an urgent need for suitable methods and strategies in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total 9972 woman who received cervical cancer screening services of National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 8 project counties participated in this study. TruScreen, HPV test and LBC test were performed in all participants. A total of 1945women had one or more than one positive or abnormal screening results of the above three screening tests subsequently received colposcopy. The detection rate of CIN2+ between the three tests were compared. RESULTS: No matter what kind of screening method is used, the CIN2+ detection rate in the eastern regions was much higher than that in the central and western regions. The total detection rate of CIN2+ in HPV group was highest (0.73%), following in LBC group (0.44%) and TS group (0.31%). There was statistically significant difference in the total detection rate of CIN2+ between TS and HPV groups, LBC and HPV groups, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the total detection rate of CIN2+ between TS and LBC screening groups. Moreover, except for the eastern regions, there was no statistical difference in the detection rate of CIN2+ between TS group and the other two groups in central and western regions. CONCLUSION: If it can meet the requirements of the laboratory and personnel, HPV test seems to be the preferred method for cervical cancer screening in rural areas of China. The characteristics of minimal training requirements, simple operation, real-time results obtained without the collection of cervical cell samples and the help of laboratory equipment and cytologists of TS make it ideal for cervical cancer screening in low-resource regions.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Alphapapillomavirus , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Colposcopia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , População Rural , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(9): 839-850, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) provided millions of people with health insurance coverage and facilitated routine cancer screening by requiring insurers to cover preventive services without cost-sharing. Despite greater access to affordable cancer screening, Pap testing has declined over time. The aim of this study is to assess participation in Pap test and HPV vaccination, and adherence to guidelines as outlined by the American Cancer Society (ACS) from the 2010 ACA provision eliminating cost-sharing for preventive services. METHODS: Using multi-year responses from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the association between the ACA and participation in and adherence to Pap testing and HPV vaccination behaviors as set by the ACS. The sample included women aged 21-29 who completed the survey between 2008 and 2018 (every other year) and who live in 24 US States (N = 37,893). RESULTS: Results showed significant decreases in Pap testing rates but increases in the uptake of the HPV vaccine series for all age groups and across all demographics. Post-ACA year significantly predicted increases in HPV + Pap co-testing participation and adherence. Women with health insurance coverage were more likely to engage in both behaviors. CONCLUSION: Findings raise concerns around declines in the proportion of women receiving and adhering to Pap testing guidelines. A need exists for research to examine the role of increases in HPV vaccination uptake on decreases in Pap testing. Moreover, effective strategies should target increases in cervical cancer screening uptake among women vaccinated against HPV.


Assuntos
Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Papanicolaou/economia , Teste de Papanicolaou/métodos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/economia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234536, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542004

RESUMO

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (collectively, Indigenous Australian) women experience a higher burden of cervical cancer than other women. The National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP) is failing to meet the needs of Indigenous Australian women, resulting in many women not regularly participating in cervical screening. However, one third of Indigenous Australian women do participate in cervical screening. The reasons that some women in this population commence and continue to screen remain unheard but could provide insights to support women who currently do not participate. We aimed to describe Indigenous Australian women's experiences and views of participation in cervical screening by yarning (a culturally-appropriate interview technique) with 50 Indigenous Australian women aged 25-70 years who had completed cervical screening in the past five years, recruited via Primary Health Care Centres (PHCCs) from three jurisdictions. Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander women researchers conducted the interviews. Thematic analysis identified six themes: screening as a means of staying strong and in control; overcoming fears, shame, and negative experiences of screening; needing to talk openly about screening; the value of trusting relationships with screening providers; logistical barriers; and overcoming privacy concerns for women employed at PHCCs. Despite describing screening as shameful, invasive, and uncomfortable, women perceived it as a way of staying healthy and exerting control over their health. This ultimately supported their participation and a sense of empowerment. Women valued open discussion about screening and strong relationships with health providers. We identified logistical barriers and specific barriers faced by women employed at PHCCs. This study is strengthened by a research approach that centred Indigenous Australian women's voices. Understanding the experiences of Indigenous Australian women who participate in screening will help screening providers support women to start and continue to screen regularly. Recommendations for practice are provided.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Gravidez , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(6): 809-812, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564540

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer in women globally, with the number of new cases accounted for 18.6% among all the cancer patients, in China. It is well known that the situation of prevention and control programs are quite challenging. Based on the efforts being made in the last 20 years, the etiology and carcinogenesis on cervical cancer had been clearly understood. Breakthroughs had been achieved in the development of prophylactic human papillomovirus vaccine and the technology of in screening. Various screening strategies are already available in areas with different economic status. Nevertheless, the capacity of health care services at the primary care clinics needs to be improved to narrow the gap between the reality and the demands.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(9): 801-814, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Compared to US urban populations, rural residents have a higher incidence of HPV-related cancer and lower HPV vaccine coverage. This study determined what is known about barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake in US rural settings. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to describe individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community/societal barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccine initiation and completion among US rural populations and to identify gaps in the current research. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. RESULTS: A total of 1,083 abstracts were reviewed and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. Major themes at the individual-level included caregiver and vaccine-recipient demographics, other immunizations received, pap test history, awareness/knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV vaccine, or HPV infection, attitudes and motivation to vaccinate, STD diagnosis, sexual behavior, cervical cancer history, contraceptive use, and cancer fatalism. Interpersonal themes focused on provider influence and communication, caregiver and peer influence, and social support for the caregiver. At the organizational-level, themes included health insurance, provider characteristics, school-based interventions, and provider/practice-based interventions. The only community/societal factor examined related to a social marketing campaign. CONCLUSION: Additional research is needed on interpersonal, organizational, and community/societal factors, as well as an expanded focus on rural males. Future studies should account for rural heterogeneity by expanding the geographic areas studied. Our findings detailing factors found to be associated with HPV vaccine uptake will help inform future clinical, health services, and community research, as well as interventions and policy efforts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2649-2657, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583161

RESUMO

Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection. According to the 2019 WHO cancer report, cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women. However, previous research, which has not included a large-scale study to date, has revealed that Trichomonas vaginalis increases cervical cancer risk. In this study, we investigated a group of Asian females in Taiwan to determine the association between trichomoniasis and the risk of developing cervical lesions, including cancer, neoplasm, and dysplasia. We conducted a nested case-control study by using the National Health Insurance (NHI) program database in Taiwan. The International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision classifications (ICD-9-CM) was used to categorize all of the medical conditions for each patient in the case and control groups. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between trichomoniasis and cervical lesions were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression to adjust for all comorbidities and variables. In total, 54,003 individuals were enrolled in the case group and 216,012 were enrolled in the control group. Trichomonas vaginalis exposure had a significant association with cervical lesions (AOR 2.656, 95% CI = 1.411-5.353, p = 0.003), especially cervical cancer (AOR 3.684, 95% CI = 1.622-6.094, p = 0.001). In patients with both trichomoniasis and depression, the relative risk increased 7.480-fold compared to those without trichomoniasis or depression. In conclusion, female patients with Trichomonas vaginalis exposure had a significantly higher risk of developing cervical lesions (especially cervical cancer) than those without exposure.


Assuntos
Tricomoníase/complicações , Trichomonas vaginalis/patogenicidade , Doenças do Colo do Útero/patologia , Doenças do Colo do Útero/parasitologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Doenças do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Doenças do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/parasitologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia
19.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(9): 1304-1313, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV), one of the most common sexually transmitted viral infections worldwide, is the leading cause of cervical cancer. In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region HPV data is at scarce, and most of the countries haven't implemented any vaccination programs. This present meta-analysis and systematic review aimed to describe human papillomavirus (HPV) epidemiology by clinical subgroups in the (MENA) region. METHODS: Studies assessing HPV prevalence rates were systematically reviewed, and the selected articles were reported following the PRISMA guideline. Random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression were used to estimate HPV pooled mean prevalence rates and their association with other factors. RESULTS: For the cervical cancer population in the MENA region, the pooled HPV prevalence rate was 81% (95% CI, 70%-90%). HPV detected in cervical cancer samples was most prevalent in the Maghreb countries (88%; 95% CI, 78%-96%) and least prevalent in Iran (73%; 95% CI, 62%-83%).For the subgroup with abnormal-cervical cytology in the MENA region, the pooled HPV prevalence rate was 54% (95% CI, 41%-67%), with the highest prevalence reported in Northeast Africa (94%; 95% CI, 91%-96%), and the lowest prevalence in the Levant region (31%; 95 CI, 16%-49%). In the general population subgroup in the MENA region, the pooled HPV prevalence rate was 16% (95% CI, 14%-17%), HPV was most prevalent in the Northeast Africa region (21%; 95 CI, 7%-40%) and least prevalent in the Levant region (7%; 95 CI, 2%-14%). CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis comprehensively described the current HPV prevalence rates in the MENA region and found that the rates have continued to increase with time, especially in African regions. Designing personalized awareness and vaccination programs that respect the various cultural and religious values remains the main challenge in prevention of cervical cancer in the MENA region.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Vacinação
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428033

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is a health issue that disproportionately affects developing countries, where the Papanicolaou test (Pap smear) remains an important screening tool. Brazilian government recommendations have focused screening on the female population aged from 25 to 64 years old. In this study, we examined the incidence and mortality rates of invasive cervical cancer lesions and the incidence rates of in situ precancerous cervical lesions, aiming to calculate their respective statistics over time in a mid-sized Brazilian city, Aracaju. The 1996-2015 database from the Aracaju Cancer Registry and Mortality Information System was used to calculate age standardized rates for all invasive cervical tumors (International code of diseases, ICD-10: C53) and preinvasive cervical lesions (ICD-10: D06) in the following patient age ranges; ≤ 24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64 and ≥ 65 years old. We identified 1,030 cancer cases, 1,871 in situ lesions and 334 deaths. Using the Joinpoint Regression Program, we calculated the annual percentage incidence changes and our analyses show that cervical cancer incidence decreased up to 2008, increased up to 2012 and decreased again thereafter, a significant trend in all age groups from 25 years. The incidence of precursor lesions increased from 1996 to 2005 and has since decreased, a result significant in all age groups until 64 years. Cervical cancer mortality has decreased by 3.8% annually and trend analysis indicates that Pap smears have been effective in decreasing cancer incidence and mortality. However, recent trends shown here show a decreasing incidence of in situ lesions and may indicate either a real decrease or incomplete catchment. Thus, we suggest health policies should be re-considered and include sufficient screening and HPV vaccination strategies to avoid cervical cancer resurgence in the population.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo , Esfregaço Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos
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