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1.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 1-70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473848

RESUMO

Exploiting the unique specificity of monoclonal antibodies has revolutionized the treatment and diagnosis of haematological and solid organ malignancies; bringing benefit to millions of patients over the past decades. Recent achievements include conjugating antibodies with toxic payloads resulting in superior efficacy and/or reduced toxicity, development of molecular imaging techniques targeting specific antigens for use as predictive and prognostic biomarkers, the development of novel bi- and tri-specific antibodies to enhance therapeutic benefit and abrogate resistance and the success of immunotherapy agents. In this chapter, we review an overview of antibody structure and function relevant to cancer therapy and provide an overview of pivotal clinical trials which have led to regulatory approval of monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment. We further discuss resistance mechanisms and the unique side effects of each class of antibody and provide an overview of emerging therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos
2.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 93-128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473850

RESUMO

As a specifically programmable, living immunotherapeutic drug, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells are providing an alternative treatment option for a broad variety of diseases including so far refractory cancer. By recognizing a tumor-associated antigen, the CAR triggers an anti-tumor response of engineered patient's T cells achieving lasting remissions in the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma. During the last years, significant progress was made in optimizing the CAR design, in manufacturing CAR-engineered T cells, and in the clinical management of patients showing promise to establish adoptive CAR T cell therapy as an effective treatment option in the forefront.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T/imunologia
3.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 129-151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473851

RESUMO

The adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of genetically engineered T cell receptor (TCR) T cells is one of the burgeoning fields of immunotherapy, with promising results in current clinical trials. Presently, clinicaltrials.gov has over 200 active trials involving adoptive cell therapy. The ACT of genetically engineered T cells not only allows the ability to select for TCRs with desired properties such as high-affinity receptors and tumor reactivity but to further enhance those receptors allowing for better targeting and killing of cancer cells in patients. Moreover, the addition of genetic material, including cytokines and cytokine receptors, can increase the survival and persistence of the T cell allowing for complete and sustained remission of cancer targets. The potential for improvement in adoptive cell therapy is limitless, with genetic modifications targeting to improve weaknesses of ACT and to thus enhance receptor affinity and functional avidity of the genetically engineered T cells.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T/citologia , Humanos
4.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 214: 153-167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473852

RESUMO

After more than a century of efforts to establish cancer immunotherapy in clinical practice, the advent of checkpoint inhibition (CPI) therapy was a critical breakthrough toward this direction (Hodi et al. in Cell Rep 13(2):412-424, 2010; Wolchok et al. in N Engl J Med 369(2):122-133, 2013; Herbst et al. in Nature 515(7528):563-567, 2014; Tumeh et al. in Nature 515(7528):568-571, 2014). Further, CPIs shifted the focus from long studied shared tumor-associated antigens to mutated ones. As cancer is caused by mutations in somatic cells, the concept to utilize these correlates of 'foreignness' to enable recognition and lysis of the cancer cell by T cell immunity seems an obvious thing to do.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Epitopos/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Humanos
5.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 65(3): 239-256, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476991

RESUMO

Development and validation of a questionnaire for patient competence in coping with cancer (PCQ) Objectives: The aim of the study was the development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of a self-assessment questionnaire for resource-orientated coping with cancer (Patient Competence Questionnaire, PCQ). Methods: In 420 patients and members of cancer support-groups item selection and evaluation of item properties, reliability (Cronbach's Alpha), validity (convergent and divergent) and factorial structure were performed in two studies. Results: The final version of the PCQ (18 items) demonstrated a Cronbach's Alpha between 0.71 and 0.91 for five subscales identified with exploratory factor analysis (religious/spiritual coping, coping competence, healthy lifestyle, information seeking, adaptability) and 0.85 for the total score. The PCQ shows a high convergent validity (r = 0.46) with the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness (FKV) and significant correlations with depression (r = -0.23), posttraumatic growth (r = 0.65) and religiosity (r = 0.59). Conclusions: First analyses underline that the PCQ can be regarded as a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' resources in dealing with cancer.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 65(3): 272-287, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477000

RESUMO

Development of an evaluation system for online self-help groups by using the example of German-speaking cancer forums Objectives: This paper pursues the question how the quality of forums can be evaluated. Therefor a grading system was designed and 23 German-speaking cancer forums were evaluated by content and formal criteria Methods: Using a keyword-based internet search, 23 forums were identified. Data was gathered about: number of themes, posts and members, structure, key subjects and type of financing. Furthermore, an evaluation system was developed, with which the forums where assessed. Results: The forums were divided in forums with (n = 10) and without (n = 9) focus on a type of cancer. Four are health portals with forum-function. The quality of online cancer forums is heterogeneous, the evaluation resulted an average quality index of 2.7 for the total cancer forums Conclusion: A good information editing, moderation, data protection and transparency are important quality criteria. The evaluation of forums may help the patients, to autonomously value the quality of the presented information.


Assuntos
Internet , Linguagem , Neoplasias , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Grupos de Autoajuda/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Alemanha , Humanos
7.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1219-1225, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501360

RESUMO

Although local tumor controls in various cancers by radiation therapy(RT)are dose dependent, dose-volume effects on late toxicities of surrounding normal tissues have been also observed. Particle beam therapy(PBT)using protons and carbonions have physical advantages in RT for the treatment of various cancers because they can create a desirable dose distribution to the target volume using fewer portals compared with photon-based RT. Thus, dose-escalation using charged particles is a reasonable approach in RT, theoretically. Based on accumulation of the evidences that PBT shows the efficacy in treatment for several cancers, the number of particle therapy facilities have been rapidly increasing worldwide. The Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology organized a joint effort among research groups to establish standardized treatment policies of particle therapy according to disease through systematic reviews. Furthermore, multicenter prospective studies have been conducted for hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer. At the present, PBT for pediatric tumors, prostate cancer, unresectable bone and soft tissue sarcomas, head and neck non-squamous cell carcinomas is covered by the Japanese national health insurance system. Boron neutron capture therapy(BNCT)is also a promising modality as biochemically targeted RT, but it has been performed in only limited facilities. Recent advances in technology, accelerator-based neutron sources will increase in BNCT facilities and lead to wider application of BNCT for various cancers.


Assuntos
Terapia por Captura de Nêutron de Boro , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
8.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1226-1229, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501361

RESUMO

Under the Cancer Control Act, the patient involvement in cancer policies has been legislated, and the voices of cancer patients have been reflected in the equalization of cancer medical care and the solution of medical drug lag. Decision support for treatment of cancer patients is being provided, including advanced care planning. On the other hand, the Cancer Societies in Japan has established a patient participation program, and the system will be established in which patients can participate in study design and evaluation in the national cancer control basic plan. Efforts to the patient and public involvement are beginning to take place at Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development(AMED)and clinical research groups.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Japão
9.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1230-1234, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501362

RESUMO

Patient participation is defined as incorporation of opinions by patients and citizens when clinical trials are planning. It has been early established in the USA and the UK. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group(JCOG)has recently launched a subcommittee of patient participation and has tried to input opinions of patients and citizens in clinical trials. We, Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology Group in JCOG, has held 3 meetings of patient participation for 3 years. We introduced our policy and clinical trials and discussed off-label drugs or treatments. In the third meeting in 2019, we have discussed precision medicine using genome analysis and clinical trials which are currently planning in our group. There are some significances and expectations to patient participation from the points of views of researchers. It is meaning to pick up clinicalunmet medicalneeds from patient participation and input requests and opinions of patients to a protocol. Opinions of patients and citizens may be useful to make informed consent form easy to read and understand for patients and their family. In order to accelerate recruitment of patients in clinical trials, it is important that patients and citizens understand exactly clinical trials through patient participation. Patient participation has just begun in Japan. It is expected to establish Japanese patient participation in the near future. It is important for not only researchers but also patients to obtain some benefits from patient participation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Japão , Oncologia , Médicos , Medicina de Precisão
10.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1275-1279, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gap between patients' and physicians' expectations from treatment has been a difficult problem in oncology because it affects decision-making. This study identified patients' expectations from their treatment and concerns when palliative chemotherapy was initiated. METHODS: Patients completed a questionnaire, which included open-ended questions about their expectations from the treatment and their biggest concerns at that moment after a clear explanation that the nature of their metastatic or recurrent cancer treatment was palliative and not curative. One hundred and sixty-five consecutive Japanese patients were included in this study. RESULTS: Twenty-nine percent of the patients described their expectation as "symptomatic improvement,"28% as"objective treatment effect,"and 19%as"cure."The most common concern was the toxicity(41%). No significant change was revealed in later-line treatment. CONCLUSION: The patients' expectation from palliative chemotherapy and concerns should be considered more precisely in each phase. Dedicated palliative care and explanation of toxicity controlon the initiation of treatments are essential.


Assuntos
Motivação , Neoplasias , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Registry Manag ; 46(1): 4-14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490916

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As survival rates for individuals with HIV/AIDS diagnoses increase, cancer is becoming a more prevalent disease in this population. Data regarding the concurrent diagnoses of HIV/AIDS and cancer has not previously been examined and analyzed in the state of Iowa. METHODS: The Iowa Cancer Registry and Iowa Department of Public Health's HIV/AIDS surveillance databases were linked, and matches were identified. Characteristics of Iowans with HIV/AIDS later diagnosed with cancer between 1991 and 2015 were compared to Iowans without HIV/AIDS using proportional incidence ratios (PIRs). RESULTS: 490 patients met inclusion criteria; 91% had AIDS and 9% had HIV only. Compared to individuals without HIV/AIDS, significantly higher PIRs for cancer were found in younger persons, males, African Americans, metropolitan (metro) residents, and Iowans with Medicaid or the uninsured. Specifically, PIRs associated with the following cancers were higher in the population with HIV/AIDS: Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), and squamous cell neoplasms of the anus. When stratified by AIDS-defining cancers and non-AIDS-defining cancers, the main differences were individuals with AIDS-defining cancers had elevated PIRs among those diagnosed between 1991-1998 and had Kaposi sarcoma or Burkitt lymphoma, while those with non-AIDS-defining cancers were diagnosed between 2007-2015 and were diagnosed with anal, male or female genital, lymphoma other than NHL, liver, lung, or other squamous cell neoplasm cancers. When comparing nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) vs metro Iowans with HIV/AIDS, PIRs for nonmetro patients were elevated in those diagnosed with cancer between 50-59 years old, whites, and individuals diagnosed with squamous cell neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate Iowans with HIV/AIDS have higher proportions of certain types of cancers compared to the general population and provide baseline information for future initiatives aimed at preventing or detecting cancer among those living with HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Iowa/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Registry Manag ; 46(1): 15-18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490917

RESUMO

Information on cancer stage at diagnosis is largely missing or poorly documented among population-based cancer registries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In an early field trial of Essential TNM staging, it was observed that some training was needed to enable cancer registrars to abstract the correct TNM from case records. In November 2018, the Addis Ababa City Cancer Registry hosted a training course attended by 17 participants from 16 cancer registries in SSA. The participants were asked to stage 16 cancer cases (from anonymized photocopies of case records obtained from the Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development) before and after the training. The discrepancy of the stages from before and after were scored and compared. Results showed that there was a substantial improvement in the participants' performance after the training. The application of the Essential TNM staging system, with training in its use, would allow cancer registrars in SSA to abstract cancer stage at diagnosis in a clinically recognized format, which is crucial for cancer control and public health care policy making.


Assuntos
Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/patologia , África , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Sistema de Registros
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1148: 173-199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482500

RESUMO

Cancer treatment has greatly improved over the last 50 years, but it remains challenging in several cases. Useful therapeutic targets are normally unique peculiarities of cancer cells that distinguish them from normal cells and that can be tackled with appropriate drugs. It is now known that cell metabolism is rewired during tumorigenesis and metastasis as a consequence of oncogene activation and oncosuppressors inactivation, leading to a new cellular homeostasis typically directed towards anabolism. Because of these modifications, cells can become strongly or absolutely dependent on specific substrates, like sugars, lipids or amino acids. Cancer addictions are a relevant target for therapy, as removal of an essential substrate can lead to their selective cell-cycle arrest or even to cell death, leaving normal cells untouched. Enzymes can act as powerful agents in this respect, as demonstrated by asparaginase, which has been included in the treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia for half a century. In this review, a short outline of cancer addictions will be provided, focusing on the main cancer amino acid dependencies described so far. Therapeutic enzymes which have been already experimented at the clinical level will be discussed, along with novel potential candidates that we propose as new promising molecules. The intrinsic limitations of their present molecular forms, along with molecular engineering solutions to explore, will also be presented.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Enzimas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Asparaginase , Terapia Enzimática , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras
14.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 491-498, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013815

RESUMO

RESUMEN La palta es un tipo de fruta tropical autóctona de Guatemala y México, caracterizada por su alto contenido de lípidos, principalmente por ácido oleico (>50% de lípidos totales) y rica en fitoquímicos como vitamina E, carotenoides, polifenoles y luteína, compuestos asociados a una fuerte actividad antioxidante. El consumo mundial de palta muestra un crecimiento exponencial, por lo que resulta relevante aumentar la investigación de este fruto no sólo de la pulpa, sino también de su semilla, e investigar el potencial impacto en la salud cardiovascular, cáncer y otras actividades antipatógenas. El objetivo de esta revisión fue sugerir con fundamento científico el consumo de este fruto, tanto de su pulpa como semilla, principalmente en la prevención y tratamiento de las enfermedades crónicas.


ABSTRACT Avocado is a type of tropical fruit native to Guatemala and Mexico. It is characterized by its high lipid, mainly oleic acid (> 50% of total lipids), content and rich in phytochemicals such as vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols and lutein, compounds associated with strong antioxidant activity. Worldwide avocado consumption shows an exponential growth, therefore it is important to investigate, not only the pulp, but also the seed, of this fruit and its potential impact on cardiovascular health, cancer and other antipathogenic activities. The objective of this review was to suggest with scientific support the consumption of this fruit, both of its pulp and seed, mainly in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Persea , Síndrome Metabólica , Neoplasias , Antioxidantes
16.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 3981-3989, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366479

RESUMO

Uterine sarcomas are rare but very aggressive. Uterine myomas, on the other hand, are the most common benign tumors of the uterus. Currently there is no diagnostic technique available to distinguish them with certainty. This study aimed to summarize the published literature concerning protein-based biomarkers in the peripheral blood that can assist in this difficult differential diagnosis. In total, 48 articles, published between 1990 and 2017, were included. Most studies (n=37) concerned soft tissue sarcomas, while 11 discussed uterine sarcomas specifically. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukins (IL), cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), lactate dehydrogenase, gangliosides (LDH) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) are the most studied proteins in soft tissue sarcomas, including uterine sarcomas. Future research on improving sarcoma diagnosis should include these proteins.


Assuntos
Leiomioma/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Sarcoma/sangue , Neoplasias Uterinas/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leiomioma/patologia , Neoplasias Musculares/sangue , Neoplasias Musculares/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia
17.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4253-4258, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366514

RESUMO

Different entities can be the cause of scalp neoplasia. In a phenotype with multiple cystic scalp lesions, the diagnosis must be made with particular caution because the appearance of apparently benign tumors does not necessarily correspond to the biological behaviour of the lesions. This case report describes diagnosis and therapy of a patient with multiple cystic tumors confined to the scalp. Diagnosis of benign lesions all over the scalp allowed an aesthetically pleasing surgical treatment result. Long-term follow-up control was offered to the patient because the histological diagnosis identified further small tumors of the same type as the large lesions, so further neoplasms are likely to develop.


Assuntos
Cisto Epidérmico/cirurgia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Adulto , Cisto Epidérmico/diagnóstico , Cisto Epidérmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Epidérmico/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico por imagem , Couro Cabeludo/fisiopatologia , Couro Cabeludo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/fisiopatologia
18.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4273-4277, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: For treatment of brain metastases, a patient's survival prognosis should be considered. Existing survival scores appear complex and require complete tumor staging. For many patients, a faster and simpler tool would be helpful. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study investigated the prognostic value of the number of pre-treatment symptoms plus eight other factors on survival of patients irradiated for brain metastases. Other factors included whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) regimen, age, gender, performance score, primary tumor type, number of brain metastases, extracranial metastases, and interval between cancer diagnosis and WBRT. RESULTS: The number of symptoms (p=0.002) and all other factors were significantly associated with survival on univariate analyses. On multivariate analysis, all factors but the number of symptoms (p=0.47) and primary tumor type (p=0.48) were significant. CONCLUSION: Since the number of symptoms was not an independent predictor of survival, it cannot replace existing scoring tools and may only serve for orientation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Prognóstico , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/patologia
19.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4385-4391, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To identify the reason for age and gender differences in cancer risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Age-standardized incidence rates for 17 cancer types were compared between genders in 50 populations. For each cancer type, the female/male rate ratio was listed in fixed order of population. Correlation coefficients were calculated between these lists in all pairwise combinations. For each population, the female/male rate ratio was listed in fixed order of cancer. Correlation coefficients were calculated between lists in all pairwise combinations. RESULTS: Only four pairwise combinations for cancer type gave a correlation coefficient greater than 0.700. For each population, the lowest correlation coefficient was 0.950. CONCLUSION: The reason for the differences in risk of cancer varies with each type of cancer, but remains fixed in all populations. It is suspected that species-specific genes control stem cell telomere dynamics in a fixed strategy at rates that vary among tissues and between genders.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinogênese/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): NP, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366564
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