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1.
BMC cancer ; 21(1): 575-678, May., 2021. ilus., graf., tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1224518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No biomarker is available for identifying cancer patients at risk of developing nephrotoxicity when treated with cisplatin. METHODS: We performed microRNA (miRNA) sequencing using plasma collected 5 days after cisplatin treatment (D5) from twelve patients with head and neck cancer with and without nephrotoxicity (grade ≥ 2 increased serum creatinine). The most differentially expressed miRNAs between the two groups were selected for quantification at baseline and D5 in a larger cohort of patients. The association between miRNAs and nephrotoxicity was evaluated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) from univariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to estimate the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. RESULTS: MiR-3168 (p = 1.98 × 10− 8 ), miR-4718 (p = 4.24 × 10− 5 ), and miR-6125 (p = 6.60 × 10− 5 ) were the most differentially expressed miRNAs and were further quantified in 43, 48, and 53 patients, respectively. The baseline expression of miR-3168 (p = 0.0456, OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00­1.06) and miR-4718 (p = 0.0388, OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.03­ 2.46) were associated with an increased risk of nephrotoxicity, whereas miR-6125 showed a trend (p = 0.0618, OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 0.98­3.29). MiR-4718 showed the highest AUC (0.77, 95% CI: 0.61­0.93) with sensitivity of 66.76 and specificity of 79.49. CONCLUSIONS: We have provided evidence of baseline plasmatic expression of miR-3168, miR-6125, and miR-4718 as potential predictors of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Cisplatino , MicroRNAs , Nefropatias , Neoplasias
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e56924, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224444

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a incidência de complicações em feridas operatórias de mastectomia e identificar fatores associados. Método: estudo retrospectivo desenvolvido em uma coorte hospitalar de 545 mulheres mastectomizadas por câncer de mama no ano 2018 em um centro de assistência de alta complexidade em oncologia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, após aprovação por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Os dados foram coletados a partir dos prontuários, permitindo cálculos da taxa de incidência e da razão da taxa de incidência para cada complicação. Resultados: a complicação que apresentou maior taxa de incidência foi o sangramento (57,14/100 mastectomias-dia), tendo como fatores associados a raça/cor da pele não branca (Razão da Taxa de Incidência: 3,11) e a diabetes mellitus (Razão da Taxa de Incidência: 0,48). Conclusão: os fatores associados ao sangramento da ferida operatória apontam para a necessidade de novas práticas no cuidado ao pós-operatório de mulheres mastectomizadas.


Objective: to describe the incidence of complications in mastectomy surgical wounds and to identify associated factors. Method: this retrospective study was conducted in a hospital cohort of 545 women mastectomized for breast cancer in 2018 at a high-complexity cancer care center Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, after approval by the research ethics committee. Data were collected from medical records, allowing incidence rate and incidence rate ratio to be calculated for each complication. Results: the complication with the highest incidence rate was bleeding (57.14/100 mastectomies-day), associated factors being non-white race/skin color (incidence rate ratio 3.11) and diabetes mellitus (incidence rate ratio 0.48). Conclusion: the factors associated with bleeding from the surgical wound point to the need for new practices in post-operative care for women with mastectomies.


Objetivo: describir la incidencia de complicaciones en heridas quirúrgicas de mastectomía e identificar factores asociados. Método: estudio retrospectivo desarrollado en una cohorte hospitalaria de 545 mujeres mastectomizadas por cáncer de mama en 2018 en un centro de atención de alta complejidad en oncología de la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, previa aprobación del Comité de Ética en Investigación. Los datos se obtuvieron de las historias clínicas, lo que permitió calcular la tasa de incidencia y el cociente de la tasa de incidencia para cada complicación. Resultados: la complicación que presentó mayor tasa de incidencia fue el sangrado (57,14 / 100 mastectomías-día), con factores asociados a la raza / color de piel no blanca (índice de tasa de incidencia: 3,11) y diabetes mellitus (índice de tasa de incidencia: 0,48). Conclusión: los factores asociados al sangrado de la herida quirúrgica apuntan a la necesidad de nuevas prácticas en el cuidado al postoperatorio de las mujeres con mastectomía.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama , Fatores de Risco , Ferida Cirúrgica , Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Período Pós-Operatório , Brasil , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Mastectomia , Neoplasias
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e52717, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224536

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a construção dos significados da morte pelos profissionais de saúde frente ao cuidado à pessoa com câncer. Método: estudo qualitativo realizado em ambiente online, com a participação de 34 profissionais de saúde. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, interpretadas segundo análise temática. Resultados: duas categorias analíticas emergiram dos dados, indicando que os significados atribuídos à morte pelos participantes foram: como um processo inerente ao ciclo da vida humana, passagem para a outra vida, e fim do sofrimento tanto do paciente quanto dos profissionais de saúde. As dificuldades que apontaram em lidar com a morte se referem à falta de suporte psicológico, escassez de conhecimento sobre morte, cuidados paliativos e comunicação de más notícias. Conclusão: os profissionais construíram diferentes significados à morte de seus pacientes, tais como um processo natural da vida, vontade de um ser superior, passagem para uma nova existência e término do sofrimento dessas pessoas.


Objective: to understand the construction of meanings of death by healthcare professionals caring for people with cancer. Method: this qualitative study was carried out in an online environment through semi-structured interviews of 34 health professionals, which were interpreted using thematic analysis. Results: two analytical categories emerged from the data, indicating that the meanings attributed to death by the participants were: a process inherent in the human life cycle, a transition to the next life, and an end to the suffering of both patient and health professionals. The difficulties they pointed to in dealing with death related to lack of psychological support, lack of knowledge about death, palliative care, and communicating bad news. Conclusion: the professionals constructed different meanings to their patients' deaths: a natural process of life, the will of a higher being, a transition to a new existence, and an end to these people's suffering.


Objetivo: comprender la construcción de los significados de la muerte desde el punto de vista de los profesionales de la salud ante el cuidado a la persona con cáncer. Metodología: estudio cualitativo realizado en un entorno online, con la participación de 34 profesionales de la salud. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, interpretadas según análisis temático. Resultados: de los datos surgieron dos categorías analíticas que indicaron que los significados atribuidos a la muerte por los participantes fueron: como u proceso inherente al ciclo de vida humano, transición a otra vida y fin al sufrimiento tanto del paciente como de los profesionales de la salud. Las dificultades que señalaron para afrontar la muerte se refieren a la falta de apoyo psicológico, escasez de conocimiento sobre la muerte, cuidados paliativos y comunicación de malas noticias. Conclusión: los profesionales han construido diferentes significados para la muerte de sus pacientes: un proceso natural de la vida, la voluntad de un ser superior, un paso a una nueva existencia y el fin del sufrimiento de estas personas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prática Profissional , Atitude Frente a Morte , Pessoal de Saúde , Morte , Oncologia , Neoplasias , Cuidados Paliativos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Hospitais
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e51932, jan.-dez. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224598

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a produção do conhecimento sobre a experiência da família acerca dos cuidados paliativos da criança com câncer hospitalizada na unidade de terapia intensiva e discutir o papel da enfermagem no atendimento à família da criança com câncer frente aos cuidados paliativos. Método: revisão integrativa realizada na PUBMED, LILACS, SCOPUS, SCIELO e CINAHL entre janeiro e março de 2020. Resultados: a amostra foi composta por 13 artigos, originando duas categorias: O impacto do cuidado paliativo da criança com câncer na dinâmica familiar e o cuidado multiprofissional, em especial dos enfermeiros, à família da criança com câncer. Conclusão: os estudos revelaram o panorama nacional e internacional dos cuidados paliativos à criança com câncer e a desestruturação da dinâmica familiar nos aspectos físicos, sociais, psicológicos, e financeiros, caracterizando o período como estressante e doloroso. Os enfermeiros estabelecem condutas terapêuticas objetivando promover qualidade de vida para crianças em cuidados paliativos e seus familiares.


Objective: to examine production of knowledge on families' experience of palliative care for children with cancer hospitalized in an intensive care center and discuss the role of nursing in assisting the family of the child in palliative cancer care. Method: this integrative review was conducted on PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, SciELO and CINAHL between January and March 2020. Results: from the sample of 13 articles, two categories originated: The impact of palliative cancer care for children on family dynamics and multiprofessional care, especially by nurses, for the family of the child with cancer. Conclusion: the studies revealed the national and international panorama of palliative care for children with cancer and the breakdown of physical, social, psychological, and financial family dynamics, characterizing the period as stressful and painful. Nurses establish therapeutic approaches aimed at promoting quality of life for children in palliative care and their families.


Objetivo: analizar la producción de conocimiento sobre la experiencia familiar en los cuidados paliativos de niños con cáncer, hospitalizados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, y discutir el papel de la enfermería en la asistencia a la familia del niño con cáncer frente a los cuidados paliativos. Método: Revisión integradora realizada en PUBMED, LILACS, SCOPUS, SCIELO y CINAHL entre enero y marzo de 2020. Resultados: La muestra estuvo conformada por 13 artículos, originando dos categorías: El impacto de los cuidados paliativos para niños con cáncer en la dinámica familiar y los cuidados multiprofesionales, especialmente de las enfermeras, a la familia del niño con cáncer. Conclusión: Los estudios revelaron el panorama nacional e internacional de los cuidados paliativos para niños con cáncer y la ruptura de la dinámica familiar en aspectos físicos, sociales, psicológicos y económicos, caracterizándolo como un período estresante y doloroso. Las enfermeras establecen enfoques terapéuticos dirigidos a promover la calidad de vida de los niños en cuidados paliativos y sus familias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Cuidados Paliativos , Família , Criança , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Neoplasias , Criança Hospitalizada , Revisão , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente
6.
Infectio ; 25(4): 284-288, oct.-dic. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286723

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo a la infección en cavidad residual post quistectomía hepática en los pacientes del hospital Ramiro Prialé Prialé - EsSalud -Huancayo. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó una cohorte retrospectiva, entre enero del 2014 y enero del 2018. Se utilizó una ficha de recolección de datos. Se obtuvieron los riesgos relativos (RR) crudos y ajustados, con intervalos de confianza al 95%. Resultados: Participaron 83 pacientes. El 41,2% de las mujeres presentaron infección en la cavidad postquistectomía y la mediana de edad de los pacientes infecta dos fue de 33 años. Los antecedentes patológicos que se relacionaron con la infección fueron obesidad o sobrepeso (62,5%), neoplasia previa (100%) y enferme dad inmunológica previa (31%). La infección en cavidad residual postquistectomía estuvo relacionada a la presencia de obesidad o sobrepeso, diabetes mellitus, neoplasia previa , cirugía previa y al uso de antibióticos posteriores a la cirugía. Conclusiones: La obesidad o sobrepeso, diabetes mellitus, haber padecido alguna neoplasia o cirugía previa y el uso de antibióticos luego de la cirugía; son factores de riesgo para la infección en cavidad residual postquistectomía hepática en los pacientes del Hospital Nacional Ramiro Prialé Prialé EsSalud de Huancayo, Perú.


Abstract Objective: To determine the risk factors with the infection in the residual cavity after hepatic cystectomy in the patients of the Ramiro Prialé Prialé hospital - EsSalud -Huancayo. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort was conducted, between January 2014 and January 2018. A data collection sheet was used. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) were obtained, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: 83 patients participated. 41.2% of women infected in the post-cystectomy cavity and the median age of infected patients was 33 years. The pathological antecedents that were related to the infection were obesity or overweight (62.5%), previous neoplasia (100%) and previous immune disease (31%). Post-cystectomy residual cavity infection was affected by the presence of obesity or overweight (aRR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.15-2.13; p value = 0.005), diabetes mellitus (aRR: 2.67; 95% CI : 2.09-3.41; p value <0.001), previous neoplasia (aRR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.94-3.20; p value <0.001), previous surgery (aRR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.36-1.64; p value <0.001) and the use of post-surgery antibiotics (aRR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.30-3.51; p value = 0.003) Conclusions: Obesity or overweight, diabetes mellitus, having suffered some neoplasia or previous surgery and the use of antibiotics after surgery; they are factors associated with infection in the residual post-cystectomy liver cavity in patients of the Ramiro Prialé Prialé EsSalud National Hospital in Huancayo, Peru.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções , Peru , Ranunculaceae , Diabetes Mellitus , Equinococose Hepática , Hospitais , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário , Neoplasias
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 706186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484202

RESUMO

Background: Sargramostim [recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhu GM-CSF)] was approved by US FDA in 1991 to accelerate bone marrow recovery in diverse settings of bone marrow failure and is designated on the list of FDA Essential Medicines, Medical Countermeasures, and Critical Inputs. Other important biological activities including accelerating tissue repair and modulating host immunity to infection and cancer via the innate and adaptive immune systems are reported in pre-clinical models but incompletely studied in humans. Objective: Assess safety and efficacy of sargramostim in cancer and other diverse experimental and clinical settings. Methods and Results: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Cochrane and TRIP databases for clinical data on sargramostim in cancer. In a variety of settings, sargramostim after exposure to bone marrow-suppressing agents accelerated hematologic recovery resulting in fewer infections, less therapy-related toxicity and sometimes improved survival. As an immune modulator, sargramostim also enhanced anti-cancer responses in solid cancers when combined with conventional therapies, for example with immune checkpoint inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Conclusions: Sargramostim accelerates hematologic recovery in diverse clinical settings and enhances anti-cancer responses with a favorable safety profile. Uses other than in hematologic recovery are less-well studied; more data are needed on immune-enhancing benefits. We envision significantly expanded use of sargramostim in varied immune settings. Sargramostim has the potential to reverse the immune suppression associated with sepsis, trauma, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and COVID-19. Further, sargramostim therapy has been promising in the adjuvant setting with vaccines and for anti-microbial-resistant infections and treating autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and gastrointestinal, peripheral arterial and neuro-inflammatory diseases. It also may be useful as an adjuvant in anti-cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 213, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in cancer survivors (CSs) were associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), it was not clear whether their associations were similar among CSs with different number of comorbid chronic diseases (CCDs). This study aimed to investigate the associations between PA, sedentary time and HRQOL in CSs with different number of CCDs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1546 CSs between June and September 2018 in Shanghai, China. Data were collected with a self-reported questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, CCDs, PA, sedentary time and HRQOL. International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core30 were respectively used to measure PA and HRQOL of CSs. Associations of PA and sedentary time with HRQOL among CSs with different number of CCDs were evaluated by using logistic regression, adjusted for confounding factors. RESULTS: About seventy-five percent CSs had at least one CCD. Approximately three fifths CSs had high PA level and < 4 h/day sedentary time. Moderate PA level and high PA level were shown to be associated with better HRQOL among all participants. In CSs with ≤ 2 CCDs, high PA level was significantly associated with higher scores of physical function and lower scores of nausea and vomiting, appetite loss. However, there was a positive association between high PA level and constipation score among CSs with ≥ 3 CCDs. CSs with shorter sedentary time had better HRQOL in those with CCDs. CONCLUSIONS: High PA level and long sedentary time have significant association with worse HRQOL of CSs with ≥ 3 CCDs, while high PA level is positively associated with HRQOL in CSs with ≤ 2 CCDs. Our findings may support further studies of the causal association between PA, sedentary times and HRQOL to provide targeted proposal to improve the HRQOL of CSs according to their number of CCDs.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terapêutica
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049217, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489282

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early phase cancer clinical trials have become increasingly complicated in terms of patient selection and trial procedures-this is reflected in the increasing length of participant information sheets (PIS). Informed consent for early phase clinical trials has been contentious due to the potential ethical issues associated with performing experimental research on a terminally ill population which has exhausted standard treatment options. Empirical studies have demonstrated significant gaps in patient understanding regarding the nature and intent of these trials. This study aims to test whether enhanced informed consent for patient education can improve patient scores on a validated questionnaire testing clinical trial comprehension. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomised controlled trial that will allocate patients who are eligible to participate in one of four investigator-initiated clinical trials at the Royal Marsden Drug Development Unit to either a standard arm or an experimental arm, stratified by age and educational level. The standard arm will involve the full length trial PIS, followed by electronic or paper administration of the Quality of Informed Consent Questionnaire Parts A and B (QuIC-A and QuIC-B). The experimental arm will involve the full length trial PIS, exposure to a two-page study aid and 10 online educational videos, followed by administration of the QuIC-A and QuIC-B. The primary endpoint will be the difference (using a one-sided two-sample t-test) in the QuIC-A score, which measures objective understanding, between the standard and experimental arm. Accrual target is at least 17 patients per arm to detect an 8 point difference (80% power, alpha 0.05). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was granted by the National Health Service Health Research Authority on 15 June 2020-IRAS Project ID 277065, Protocol Number CCR5165, REC Reference 20/EE/0155. Results will be disseminated via publication in a relevant journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04407676; Pre-results.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Neoplasias/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Medicina Estatal , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 622, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Families with minor children affected by parental cancer are at risk of considerable emotional and organizational stress that can severely burden all family members. So far, there has been a lack of comprehensive support services for affected families. The aim of this project is to implement and evaluate a complex psychosocial intervention for these families by providing advice, information, and care on an emotional, psycho-social, and communicative level during and after the cancer experience and across healthcare sectors. METHODS: Family-SCOUT is a project supported by the German Innovation Fund ( https://innovationsfonds.g-ba.de/ ). The evaluation is based on a mixed-methods quasi-experimental design with the intervention and control groups. A standardized postal survey at three measurement points (T0: study enrollment; T1: 3 months of follow-up; T2: 9 months of follow-up), secondary data from the participating health insurance funds, and semi-structured qualitative interviews are used for summative and formative evaluation. The study aim is to include n=560 families. Data will be analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The primary analysis is the comparison of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) response rates (minimal important difference (MID) ≥ 1.6 in at least one of the two parents) at T2 between the intervention and control group using Fisher's exact test. The conduct of the study as well as the development and implementation of the intervention will be accompanied by comprehensive study monitoring following the principles of an effectiveness-implementation hybrid study. DISCUSSION: The results will allow to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the intervention for the target group. The first experience with the implementation of the intervention in model regions will be available. The evaluation results will serve as the basis to assess the need of including the intervention in the catalog of services of the statutory health insurance funds in Germany. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04186923. Retrospectively registered on 4 December 2019.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Pais , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e26752, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477115

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To describe the outcomes of elective cancer surgeries and adverse consequences on the patients and medical staff due to the surgical interventions in children during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.The study included children younger than 15 years who underwent elective cancer surgeries from March 4, 2020 and December 3, 2020.A total of 121 patients (62% male; median age, 3 years) underwent surgery. The surgical procedures included nephrectomies (n = 18), neuroblastoma (n = 26) and soft tissue tumor resections (n = 24) and complex surgical procedures like extended liver resections (n = 2), intra-atrial thrombectomy under cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 2), pancreatoduodenectomy (n = 1), and free microvascular flaps (n = 7). Clavien-Dindo Grade III complications were 5% (n = 6), and there were no postoperative deaths. Preoperative COVID-19 testing was performed in 82% of children, and only 2% showed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positivity. Postoperatively, 26 children were tested because of specific symptoms and, 6 tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Except for a median delay of 23 days in treatment, none of the patients with COVID-19 required critical hospital management. None of the surgical residents or faculty acquired COVID-19, while 4 each medical and support staff were tested positive in the study period.COVID-19 was not a deterrent for continued cancer care, and surgeries could be safely performed adopting universal preventive measures without any added morbidity from COVID-19. Caregivers and centers dealing with childhood cancers can be encouraged to sustain or seek early healthcare.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): e391-e399, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478675

RESUMO

The number of patients with cancer in Africa has been predicted to increase from 844 279 in 2012 to more than 1·5 million in 2030. However, many countries in Africa still lack access to radiotherapy as a part of comprehensive cancer care. The objective of this analysis is to present an updated overview of radiotherapy resources in Africa and to analyse the gaps and needs of the continent for 2030 in the context of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Data from 54 African countries on teletherapy megavoltage units and brachytherapy afterloaders were extracted from the Directory for Radiotherapy Centres, an electronic, centralised, and continuously updated database of radiotherapy centres. Cancer incidence and future predictions were taken from the GLOBOCAN 2018 database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Radiotherapy need was estimated using a 64% radiotherapy utilisation rate, while assuming a machine throughput of 500 patients per year. As of March, 2020, 28 (52%) of 54 countries had access to external beam radiotherapy, 21 (39%) had brachytherapy capacity, and no country had a capacity that matched the estimated treatment need. Median income was an important predictor of the availability of megavoltage machines: US$1883 (IQR 914-3269) in countries without any machines versus $4485 (3079-12480) in countries with at least one megavoltage machine (p=0·0003). If radiotherapy expansion continues at the rate observed over the past 7 years, it is unlikely that the continent will meet its radiotherapy needs. This access gap might impact the ability to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, particularly the target to reduce preventable, premature mortality by a third, and meet the target of the cervical cancer elimination strategy of 90% with access to treatment. Urgent, novel initiatives in financing and human capacity building are needed to change the trajectory and provide comprehensive cancer care to patients in Africa in the next decade.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Radioterapia/tendências , África/epidemiologia , Previsões , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
14.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): e400-e409, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478676

RESUMO

Cancer has not been an explicit priority of Canada's international health and development agenda, but it is key to realising the country's Sustainable Development Goal commitments. Multiple converging political, health, and social forces could now drive support for a more integrated Canadian approach to global cancer control. Success will depend on the extent to which Canadian leaders and institutions can build consensus as a community and agree to work together. Collaboration should include agreement on the framing and prioritisation of the core issues, building a broad coalition base, aligning with priorities of international partners, and on a governance structure that reflects the principles of equity, diversity, and inclusion. This Series paper will discuss global cancer control within Canada's global health agenda, how Canada can address its history of colonisation and present-day disparities in its global work, and the challenges and opportunities of creating a Canadian global cancer control network.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Canadá , Consenso , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Oncologia/organização & administração
15.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): e410-e418, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478677

RESUMO

Cancer mortality rates in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are unacceptably high, requiring both collaborative global effort and in-country solutions. Experience has shown that working together in policy, clinical practice, education, training, and research leads to bidirectional benefit for LMICs and high-income countries. For over 60 years, the UK National Health Service has benefited from recruitment from LMICs, providing the UK with a rich diaspora of trained health-care professionals with links to LMICs. A grassroots drive to engage with partners in LMICs within the UK has grown from the National Health Service, UK academia, and other organisations. This drive has generated a model that rests on two structures: London Global Cancer Week and the UK Global Cancer Network, providing a high-value foundation for international discussion and collaboration. Starting with a historical perspective, this Series paper describes the UK landscape and offers a potential plan for the future UK's contribution to global cancer control. We also discuss the opportunities and challenges facing UK partnerships with LMICs in cancer control. The UK should harness the skills, insights, and political will from all partners to make real progress.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Cooperação Internacional , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Biomédica , Atenção à Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Oncologia/organização & administração , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Reino Unido
16.
Nanoscale ; 13(32): 13681-13692, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477643

RESUMO

A hypoxic environment in tumors hampers the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy. Moreover, radiotherapy, a localized treatment technique, can barely control tumor metastases. Herein, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) was used to encapsulate perfluorocarbon (PFC) for increasing the oxygen level and a lignan-derived compound (Q1) for enhancing IL-25 secretion from fibroblasts, thereby boosting the radiotherapeutic effect on local and distant tumors. The prepared co-delivery nanoplatform, PFC-Q1@PLGA, has a nano-scale size of around 160 nm and a negative zeta potential (about -13 mV). PFC-Q1@PLGA treatment leads to an arrest of the G2 phase (4n) in the cell cycle and reduces the mitochondria membrane potential. A high expression level of IL-25 in fibroblasts is detected after the cells are treated with PFC-Q1@PLGA, which increases the late apoptosis percentage of 4T1 cells after treatment with IL-25-containing conditional medium from fibroblasts. The oxygen level in tumors is significantly promoted to about 52.3% after injection of oxygen-saturated PFC-Q1@PLGA (O2), which is confirmed from the functional magnetic resonance images of the tumor site in mice. The in vivo study demonstrates that the injection of PFC-Q1@PLGA (O2) into local tumors significantly enhances the radiotherapeutic effect on local tumors and also inhibits the growth of remote tumors by an enhanced abscopal effect. This study presents a novel radiotherapy strategy to enable synergistic whole-body therapeutic responses after localized treatment with PFC-Q1@PLGA (O2).


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Lignanas , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Animais , Camundongos , Oxigênio , Microambiente Tumoral
17.
Nanoscale ; 13(32): 13907, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477666

RESUMO

Correction for 'Combining PD-L1 inhibitors with immunogenic cell death triggered by chemo-photothermal therapy via a thermosensitive liposome system to stimulate tumor-specific immunological response' by Jie Yu et al., Nanoscale, 2021, DOI: .


Assuntos
Lipossomos , Neoplasias , Doxorrubicina , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Morte Celular Imunogênica , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Fototérmica
18.
Nanoscale ; 13(33): 13943-13961, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477676

RESUMO

Drug-radiotherapy is a common and effective combinational treatment for cancer. This study aimed to explore the ionizing radiation-optimized drug treatment based on nanomaterials so as to improve the synergistic efficacy of drug-radiotherapy against cancer and limit the adverse effect on healthy organs. In this review, these emerging strategies were divided into four parts. First, the delivery of the drug-loaded nanoparticles was optimized owing to the strengthened passive targeting process, active targeting process, and cell targeting process of nanoparticles after ionizing radiation exposure. Second, nanomaterials were designed to respond to the ionizing radiation, thus leading to the release of the loading drugs controllably. Third, radiation-activated pro-drugs were loaded onto nanoparticles for radiation-triggered drug therapy. In particular, nontoxic nanoparticles with radiosensitization capability and innocuous radio-dynamic contrast agents can be considered as radiation-activated drugs, which were discussed in this review. Fourth, according to the various synergetic mechanisms, radiotherapy could improve the drug response of cancer, obtaining optimized drug-radiotherapy. Finally, relative suggestions were provided to further optimize these aforementioned strategies. Therefore, a novel topic was selected and the emerging strategies in this region were discussed, aiming to stimulate the inspiration for the development of ionizing radiation-optimized drug treatment based on nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Nanoestruturas , Neoplasias , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Radiação Ionizante
19.
Nanoscale ; 13(33): 14245-14253, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477707

RESUMO

The design of multifunctional nanoplatforms is of great importance for improving hypoxia-induced therapeutic outcomes, especially for overcoming radiotherapy (RT) tolerance. Here, two-dimensional intermetallic PtBi/Pt nanoplates (PtBi NPs) were designed as a therapeutic platform to in situ generate oxygen, and thereby overcome tumor hypoxia for boosting photothermal/radiotherapy (PTT/RT). With high X-ray attenuation coefficient, PtBi NPs exhibited outstanding radiotherapy sensitization characteristics. Moreover, the high photothermal effect of PtBi NPs could promote the catalytic activity of PtBi NPs to achieve a synergistic PTT/RT effect. PEGylated PtBi NPs (PtBi-PEG) exhibited excellent biocompatibility, prolonged blood circulation time and enhanced tumor accumulation. Finally, PtBi-PEG showed excellent trimodal contrast enhancement for infrared (IR) imaging, photoacoustic (PA) imaging and X-ray imaging, facilitating imaging-guided cancer therapy. Thus, our work highlights PtBi-PEG as a novel multifunctional theranostic nanoplatform with great potential for future multimodal imaging-guided synergistic cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Fototerapia , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Hipóxia Tumoral
20.
Nanoscale ; 13(34): 14316-14329, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477715

RESUMO

Non-invasive liquid biopsies offer hope for a rapid, risk-free, real-time glimpse into cancer diagnostics. Recently, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was identified as a cancer biomarker due to its continued release from cancer cells compared to normal cells. The precise monitoring and quantification of H2O2 are hindered by its low concentration and the limit of detection (LOD) in traditional sensing methods. Plasmon-assisted electrochemical sensors with their high sensitivity and low LOD make a suitable candidate for effective detection of H2O2, yet their electrical properties need to be improved. Here, we propose a new nanostructured microfluidic device for ultrasensitive, quantitative detection of H2O2 released from cancer cells in a portable fashion. The fluidic device features a series of self-organized gold nanocavities, enhanced with graphene nanosheets having optoelectrical properties, which facilitate the plasmon-assisted electrochemical detection of H2O2 released from human cells. Remarkably, the device can successfully measure the released H2O2 from breast cancer (MCF-7) and prostate cancer (PC3) cells in human plasma. Briefly, direct amperometric detection of H2O2 under simulated visible light illumination showed a superb LOD of 1 pM in a linear range of 1 pM-10 µM. We thoroughly studied the formation of self-organized plasmonic nanocavities on gold electrodes via surface and photo-electrochemical characterization techniques. In addition, the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of the electric field demonstrates the intensity of charge distribution at the nanocavity structure edges under visible light illumination. The superb LOD of the proposed electrode combining gold plasmonic nanocavities and graphene sheets paves the way for the development of non-invasive plasmon-assisted electrochemical sensors that can effectively detect low concentrations of H2O2 released from cancer cells.


Assuntos
Grafite , Neoplasias , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Ouro , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
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