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1.
Discov Med ; 29(157): 129-137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002409

RESUMO

Sepsis is a life-threatening clinical condition demanding accurate and rapid diagnosis of the culprit pathogen, thereby to improve prognosis. Pathogen determination through blood culture is the gold standard for diagnosis but has limitations due to low sensitivity. Recently, circulating DNAs derived from pathogenic organisms were found in the plasma of patients with sepsis and were further proved to be more sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis of the pathogen origin in sepsis. However, the fundamental molecular characteristics of circulating DNA in patients with sepsis remain unclear. Here, we used specific PCR and Sanger sequencing to verify the microbiology culture results via the corresponding plasma circulating DNA. We analyzed the composition and molecular characteristics of circulating DNA in septic patients using next-generation sequencing technology. We showed the presence of pathogen-derived circulating DNA in the plasma of patients with sepsis. The sizes of circulating DNA fragments derived from pathogenic bacteria showed a skewed unimodal distribution, while those derived from host cells showed a normal unimodal distribution. Lengths of fragments at peak concentration for both origins ranged from 150 bp to 200 bp, and reads mapping to pathogenic bacteria genome distributed uniformly on the reference. Our findings have improved our understanding of microbial circulating DNA in patients with sepsis as a potential methodology for the accurate diagnosis of sepsis, especially in light of an urgent need for such a diagnosis associated with the COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , Sepse/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/análise , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Cultura , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to synthesize the knowledge and to critically evaluate the evidences arising from randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of the complementary therapies in the management of cancer pain in adult patients with cancer in palliative care. METHOD: a systematic review guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The search for articles in the MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, CENTRAL Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases, as well as the manual search, selection of studies, data extraction, and methodological assessment using the Cochrane Bias Risk tool were performed independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: eight hundred and fifteen (815) studies were identified, six of them being selected and analyzed, of which three used massage therapy, one study used a combination of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imaging, and another two studies used acupuncture. Most of the studies had an uncertain risk of bias (n=4; 67%). CONCLUSION: while the evidence from the studies evaluating the use of massage therapy or the use of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imaging for the management of cancer pain in these patients demonstrated significant benefits, the other two studies that evaluated the use of acupuncture as a complementary therapy showed contradictory results, therefore, needing more research studies to elucidate such findings.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Dor do Câncer , Terapias Complementares , Neoplasias , Adulto , Dor do Câncer/terapia , Humanos , Massagem , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos
4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individualized prediction of mortality risk can inform the treatment strategy for patients with COVID-19 and solid tumors and potentially improve patient outcomes. We aimed to develop a nomogram for predicting in-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19 with solid tumors. METHODS: We enrolled patients with COVID-19 with solid tumors admitted to 32 hospitals in China between December 17, 2020, and March 18, 2020. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed via stepwise regression analysis, and a nomogram was subsequently developed based on the fitted multivariate logistic regression model. Discrimination and calibration of the nomogram were evaluated by estimating the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for the model and by bootstrap resampling, a Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and visual inspection of the calibration curve. RESULTS: There were 216 patients with COVID-19 with solid tumors included in the present study, of whom 37 (17%) died and the other 179 all recovered from COVID-19 and were discharged. The median age of the enrolled patients was 63.0 years and 113 (52.3%) were men. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that increasing age (OR=1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16), receipt of antitumor treatment within 3 months before COVID-19 (OR=28.65, 95% CI 3.54 to 231.97), peripheral white blood cell (WBC) count ≥6.93 ×109/L (OR=14.52, 95% CI 2.45 to 86.14), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR; neutrophil count/(WBC count minus neutrophil count)) ≥4.19 (OR=18.99, 95% CI 3.58 to 100.65), and dyspnea on admission (OR=20.38, 95% CI 3.55 to 117.02) were associated with elevated mortality risk. The performance of the established nomogram was satisfactory, with an AUC of 0.953 (95% CI 0.908 to 0.997) for the model, non-significant findings on the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and rough agreement between predicted and observed probabilities as suggested in calibration curves. The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 86.4% and 92.5%. CONCLUSION: Increasing age, receipt of antitumor treatment within 3 months before COVID-19 diagnosis, elevated WBC count and dNLR, and having dyspnea on admission were independent risk factors for mortality among patients with COVID-19 and solid tumors. The nomogram based on these factors accurately predicted mortality risk for individual patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Neoplasias/terapia , Nomogramas , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Modelos Logísticos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Neutrófilos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21897, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871921

RESUMO

Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion (ABT) is 1 of the poor prognostic factors for morbidity and mortality in patients with hip fracture, particularly among elderly patients. This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for ABT and 1-year mortality in elderly patients undergoing surgery for femoral neck fracture.A total of 225 elderly patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery between May 2013 and November 2015 at a tertiary medical center were retrospectively recruited. Medical records were analyzed.The median patient age was 80 years and 28.4% were men. A total of 113 patients received ABT (50.2%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (odds ratio [OR] 2.606, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.283-5.295, P = .008), malignancy (OR 5.098, 95% CI 1.725-15.061, P = .003), chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 3 (OR 3.258, 95% CI 1.603-6.622, P = .001), and anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dL) (OR 4.684, 95% CI 2.230-9.837, P < .001) were significantly associated with ABT. The 1-year mortality rate after surgery was 15.1%. Male sex (OR 2.477, 95% CI 1.101-5.575, P = .028), ABT (OR 2.367, 95% CI 1.036-5.410, P = .041), and intensive care unit admission (OR 5.564, 95% CI 1.457-21.249, P = .012) were significantly associated with 1-year mortality.In this study, underlying comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease and malignancy were associated with ABT. Furthermore, ABT was a significant independent risk factor for 1-year mortality. These findings suggest that underlying comorbidities and the need for ABT should be considered in the risk assessment of elderly patients with femoral neck fracture to improve the outcomes after surgery.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia/complicações , Feminino , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 155(5): 202-204, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188495

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: La pandemia por Covid-19 afecta especialmente a pacientes con cáncer con mayor incidencia y mortalidad según series publicadas de focos originales de pandemia. El estudio pretende conocer la mortalidad en nuestro centro por covid-19 en pacientes con cáncer durante las primeras3 semanas de epidemia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se han revisado los pacientes con cáncer fallecidos por covid-19 durante el periodo de análisis describiendo las características oncológicas, de la infección por covid-19 y de los tratamientos instaurados. RESULTADOS: Casos confirmados covid-19: 1069 con 132 fallecimientos (12,3%). Con cáncer 36 pacientes (3.4%), 15 fallecidos (41,6%). De los fallecidos solo6 pacientes (40%) se encontraban en tratamiento activo. El tumor más frecuente asociado fue pulmón (8/15 pacientes, 53,3%), 11 con enfermedad metastásica (11/15, 73,3%). El 40% (6/15) no recibió tratamiento específico contra covid-19, el resto fue tratado con los protocolos activos. CONCLUSIÓN: La mortalidad por covid-19 en pacientes con cáncer casi cuadriplica la de la población general. Hasta disponer de tratamientos eficaces o una vacuna efectiva la única posibilidad de proteger a nuestros pacientes es impedir el contagio con las medidas adecuadas


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Covid-19 pandemic especially affects cancer patients with higher incidence and mortality according to published series of original pandemic foci. The study aims to determine the mortality in our center due to covid-19 in cancer patients during the first 3 weeks of the epidemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cancer patients who died of covid-19 during the analysis period have been reviewed describing the oncological and the covid-19 infection characteristics and the treatments established. RESULTS: Confirmed cases covid-19: 1069 with 132 deaths (12.3%). With cancer 36 patients (3.4%), 15 deceased (41.6%). Of the deceased, only 6 patients (40%) were in active treatment. The most frequent associated tumor was lung (8/15 patients, 53.3%), 11 with metastatic disease (11/15, 73.3%). No specific treatment wasestablished in 40 % (6/15) of the patients. The rest of them received treatments with the active protocols. CONCLUSION: Covid-19 mortality in cancer patients is almost four times higher than that of the general population. Until we have effective treatments or an effective vaccine, the only possibility to protect our patients is to prevent the infection with the appropriate measures


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Neoplasias/complicações , Febre/complicações , Tosse/complicações , Dispneia/complicações , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Cancer Control ; 27(1): 1073274820960471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938229

RESUMO

Early detection of cancer greatly increases the chances of better survival. The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted several essential health services globally and early detection of cancer services is one of them. The routine cancer screenings have plummeted in many developed countries since the crisis. India has highest estimated lip and oral cavity cancer cases worldwide (119,992, 33.8%) and the secondhighest number of breast (162,468, 17.8%) and cervix uteri (96,922,30.7%) cancers in Asian sub-continent. Not only India has high burden of cancer, but the majority (75-80%) of patients have advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Hence is it imperative that early detection services should be kept functional at out-patient settings so that at least the patients coming to hospitals with early signs and symptoms can be diagnosed as early as possible. Strategies need to be adopted to continue early detection services and ensure safety of patients and health care workers from COVID-19 transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 154: 103074, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911455

RESUMO

Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs) have been considered for treating cancer-related venous thromboembolism (VTE), but safety issues have been raised. We performed a systematic review and pairwise meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of NOACs versus low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in this setting. Four randomized controlled trials were included, providing data on 2894 patients. Compared to LMWH, NOACs were associated with a significantly lower risk of VTE recurrence and were not associated with an increased risk of major bleedings (MB). NOACs were non inferior to LMWH for a composite outcome of VTE recurrence and MB, pulmonary embolism recurrence and all-cause mortality; however, NOACs were associated with an increased risk of clinically relevant nonmajor bleedings (CRNMB) and gastrointestinal MB. In conclusion, in patients with cancer-related VTE, NOACs are effective and safe in reducing VTE recurrence compared to LMWH. An increased risk of CNRMB and GI MB should nonetheless be considered.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos
10.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(706): 1680-1683, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936548

RESUMO

Hypertension is a common clinical problem in patients with cancer. This is explained by its high prevalence in the general population, by the improvement in life expectancy in oncology patients thanks to the progress of anti-cancer therapies, but also by cancer therapy, which is sometimes burdened with cardiovascular toxicity. Early detection of hypertension and proper management are crucial to ensure the continuation of oncology treatment and to protect patients from the consequences of hypertension. Renin-angiotensin system blockers and calcium channel blockers are the first-line treatments.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/complicações , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
11.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(10): e746-e755, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Study-level meta-analyses provide high-certainty evidence that heparin reduces the risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolism for patients with cancer; however, whether the benefits and harms associated with heparin differ by cancer type is unclear. This individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials examines the effect of heparin on survival, venous thromboembolism, and bleeding in patients with cancer in general and by type. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Library for randomised controlled trials comparing parenteral anticoagulants with placebo or standard care in ambulatory patients with solid tumours and no indication for anticoagulation published from the inception of each database to January 14, 2017, and updated it on May 14, 2020, without language restrictions. We calculated the effect of parenteral anticoagulant administration on all-cause mortality, venous thromboembolism occurrence, and bleeding related outcomes through multivariable hierarchical models with patient-level variables as fixed effects and a categorical trial variable as a random effect, adjusting for age, cancer type, and metastatic status. Interaction terms were tested to investigate effects in predefined subgroups. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42013003526. FINDINGS: We obtained individual participant data from 14 of 20 eligible randomised controlled trials (8278 [79%] of 10 431 participants; 4139 included in the low-molecular-weight heparin group and 4139 in the control group). Meta-analysis showed an adjusted relative risk (RR) of mortality at 1 year of 0·99 (95% CI 0·93-1·06) and a hazard ratio of 1·01 (95% CI 0·96-1·07). The number of patients with venous thromboembolic events was 158 (4·0%) of 3958 with available data in the low-molecular-weight heparin group compared with 279 (7·1%) of 3957 in the control group. Major bleeding events occurred in 71 (1·7%) of 4139 patients in the control population and 88 (2·1%) in the low-molecular-weight heparin group, and minor bleeding events in 478 (12·1%) of 3945 patients with available data in the control group and 652 (16·6%) of 3937 patients in the low-molecular-weight heparin group. The adjusted RR was 0·58 (95% CI 0·47-0·71) for venous thromboembolism, 1·27 (0·92-1·74) for major bleeding, and 1·34 (1·19-1·51) for minor bleeding. Prespecified subgroup analysis of venous thromboembolism occurrence by cancer type identified the most certain benefit from heparin treatment in patients with lung cancer (RR 0·59 [95% CI 0·42-0·81]), which dominated the overall reduction in venous thromboembolism. Certainty of the evidence for the outcomes ranged from moderate to high. INTERPRETATION: Low-molecular-weight heparin reduces risk of venous thromboembolism without increasing risk of major bleeding compared with placebo or standard care in patients with solid tumours, but it does not improve survival. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Life Sci ; 258: 118163, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738363

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) provides a guarantee for the survival and development of solid tumors. In recent years, treatment strategies for TME have set off a great upsurge in the field of cancer research. Tumor angiogenesis and tumor immune microenvironment are two important research branches of TME, and antiangiogenic therapy and immunotherapy have gradually become one important focus of cancer treatment research. More interestingly, increasing number of studies have indicated that there are complex regulatory interactions between the two treatment strategies, with multiple regulatory mechanisms involved. Based on these findings, clinical studies on the combination of immunotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy have also been carried out gradually. This combination strategy has shown good results in many types of tumors, but it also faces many challenges. The paper analysed the potential mechanism of the immunotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy combination, discussed the latest significant clinical trial progress and the existing challenges and problems, aiming to offer some available insights on the effective clinical application of this combination pattern.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Neovascularização Patológica/terapia , Animais , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/complicações , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(10): 5037-5044, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734394

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was first reported as a respiratory illness in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, the World Health Organization (WHO) Emergency Committee declared a global health. COVID-19 has now spread worldwide and is responsible of more than 472,216 persons, out of 9,100,090 officially diagnosed worldwide since 23 of June. In the context of cancer patients, COVID-19 has a severe impact, regarding pulmonary infection but also cancer treatments in this fragile and immunocompromised population, and ICU admission for cancer patients in the context of COVID-19 requires ethical and clinical consideration. In our cancer center, intensivists, oncologists, pharmacists, and hospital administrators had to prepare for a substantial increase in critical care bed capacity (from 10 ICU beds, 6 medical intensive care beds, and 12 surgical intensive care beds, bed capacity was increased to 28 medical intensive care beds with ventilating capacity) and to adapt infrastructure (i.e., ICU beds), supplies (i.e., drugs, ventilators, protective materials), and staff (i.e., nurses and medical staff). Overall, thirty-three COVID-19 patients were admitted in our ICU, 17 cancer-free and 16 with cancer, and 23 required mechanical ventilation, resulting in 4 deaths (of them two patients with cancer). We report here management of a dedicated intensive care unit of a cancer center during the COVID-19 infection pandemic, considering resource allocation and redistribution of healthcare workers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21899, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846853

RESUMO

Although a strong association between idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) and malignancy has been widely reported, few studies have solely focused on the concurrence of dermatomyositis (DM) and malignancies (DM-malignancy).We conducted a retrospective analysis of 37 DM-malignancy cases among 363 DM patients admitted to our hospital between January 2012 and December 2017.(1) The mean age at DM diagnosis was higher for DM-malignancy patients than for DM-non-malignancy patients [(54.76 ±â€Š9.77) years vs (48.57 ±â€Š12.82) years, t = 2.84, P = .005]. (2) Gynecological malignancies (35.90%/14 cases) were the most common malignancies. Malignancies were diagnosed before DM for 7 DM-malignancy patients. The interval between the DM and malignancy diagnoses for the remaining 32 DM-malignancy patients was less than 6 months for 18 patients (46.15%), less than 1 years for 23 patients (58.9%), and less than 2 years for 29 patients (74.26%). (3) There was no significant difference either in antinuclear antibody or anti-Ro-52 positivity between the 2 groups (P > .05). (4) Multivariate analysis demonstrated that DM onset age ≥50 years and concurrence with ILD increased the risk of death for DM patients [hazard ratio (HR): 1.62 and 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.08-2.43) and (1.47-5.02); P = .02 and 0.001, respectively], and male gender decreased the risk of death [HR 0.66, 95% CI (0.44-0.98), P = .04]. DM-malignancy patients were older than DM-non-malignancy patients. Gynecological malignancies were the most common malignancies among these patients. A DM onset age ≥50 years, female sex and the presence of ILD were independent risk factors for death.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Dermatomiosite/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idade de Início , Anticorpos Antinucleares , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dermatomiosite/mortalidade , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 558, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) infections are frequent and highly impact cancer patients. We developed and validated a scoring system to identify cancer patients harboring ESBL-PE at the National Institute of Cancer of Colombia. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 1695 cancer patients. Derivation phase included 710 patients admitted between 2013 to 2015, ESBL-PE positive culture (n = 265) paired by month and hospitalization ward with Non-ESBL-PE (n = 445). A crude and weighted score was developed by conditional logistic regression. The model was evaluated in a Validation cohort (n = 985) with the same eligibility criteria between 2016 to 2017. RESULTS: The score was based on eight variables (reported with Odds Ratio and 95% confidence interval): Hospitalization ≥7 days (5.39 [2.46-11.80]), Hospitalization during the previous year (4, 87 [2.99-7.93]), immunosuppressive therapy during the previous 3 months (2.97 [1.44-6.08]), Neutropenia (1.90 [1.12-3.24]), Exposure to Betalactams during previous month (1.61 [1.06-2.42]), Invasive devices (1.51 [1.012-2.25]), Neoplasia in remission (2.78 [1.25-1.17]), No chemotherapy during the previous 3 months (1.90 [1.22-2.97]). The model demonstrated an acceptable discriminatory capacity in the Derivation phase, but poor in the Validation phase (Recipient Operating Characteristic Curve: 0.68 and 0.55 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients have a high prevalence of risk factors for ESBL-PE infection. The scoring system did not adequately discriminate patients with ESBL-PE. In a high-risk population, other strategies should be sought to identify patients at risk of resistant ESBL-PE infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/etiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Neoplasias/complicações , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1431-1437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMSBACKGROUND: Currently there is limited knowledge on cancer and COVID-19; we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of cancer on serious events including ICU admission rate and mortality in COVID 19. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials were searched on April 16, 2020, to extract published articles that reported the outcomes of cancer in COVID-19 patients. The search terms were "coronavirus" and "clinical characteristics" with no language or time restrictions. We identified 512 published results and 13 studies were included in the analysis. RESULTS: There were 3775 patients, of whom 63 (1·66%) had a cancer. The pooled estimates of ICU admission in COVID 19 patients with and without cancer were 40% versus 8·42%.The odds ratio of ICU admission rates between the cancer and non-cancer groups was 2.88 with a 95% CI of 1·18 to 7·01 (p = 0·026). The pooled estimates of death rate in COVID -19 patients with and without cancer were 20·83% versus 7·82%. The odds ratio of death rates between the cancer and non-cancer groups was 2.25 with a 95% CI ranging from 0·71 to 7·10 with p value of 0·166. The pooled prevalence of cancer patients was 2% (95 CI 1-4). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of cancer in COVID-19 leads to higher risk of developing serious events i.e. ICU admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality. The presence of cancer has a significant impact on mortality rate in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Neoplasias/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prevalência
18.
BMJ ; 370: m2177, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759284

RESUMO

Pulmonary embolism is a common and potentially fatal cardiovascular disorder that must be promptly diagnosed and treated. The diagnosis, risk assessment, and management of pulmonary embolism have evolved with a better understanding of efficient use of diagnostic and therapeutic options. The use of either clinical probability adjusted or age adjusted D-dimer interpretation has led to a reduction in diagnostic imaging to exclude pulmonary embolism. Direct oral anticoagulation therapies are safe, effective, and convenient treatments for most patients with acute venous thromboembolism, with a lower risk of bleeding than vitamin K antagonists. These oral therapeutic options have opened up opportunities for safe outpatient management of pulmonary embolism in selected patients. Recent clinical trials exploring the use of systemic thrombolysis in intermediate to high risk pulmonary embolism suggest that this therapy should be reserved for patients with evidence of hemodynamic compromise. The role of low dose systemic or catheter directed thrombolysis in other patient subgroups is uncertain. After a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, all patients should be assessed for risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism to guide duration of anticoagulation. Patients with a venous thromboembolism associated with a strong, transient, provoking risk factor can safely discontinue anticoagulation after three months of treatment. Patients with an ongoing strong risk factor, such as cancer, or unprovoked events are at increased risk of recurrent events and should be considered for extended treatment. The use of a risk prediction score can help to identify patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism who can benefit from extended duration therapy. Despite major advances in the management of pulmonary embolism, up to half of patients report chronic functional limitations. Such patients should be screened for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, but only a small proportion will have this as the explanation of their symptoms. In the remaining patients, future studies are needed to understand the pathophysiology and explore interventions to improve quality of life.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imagem de Perfusão , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Filtros de Veia Cava , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237296, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To avoid a surge of demand on the healthcare system due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we must reduce transmission to individuals with chronic conditions who are at risk of severe illness with COVID-19. We aimed at understanding the perceptions, context and attitudes of individuals with chronic conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic to clarify their potential risk of infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was nested in ComPaRe, an e-cohort of adults with chronic conditions, in France. It assessed participants' perception of their risk of severe illness with COVID-19; their context (i.e., work, household, contacts with external people); and their attitudes in situations involving frequent or occasional contacts with symptomatic or asymptomatic people. Data were collected from March 23 to April 2, 2020, during the lockdown in France. Analyses were weighted to represent the demographic characteristics of French patients with chronic conditions. The subgroup of participants at high risk according to the recommendations of the French High Council for Public Health was examined. RESULTS: Among the 7169 recruited participants, 63% patients felt at risk because of severe illness. About one quarter (23.7%) were at risk of infection because they worked outside home, had a household member working outside home or had regular visits from external contacts. Less than 20% participants refused contact with symptomatic people and <20% used masks when in contact with asymptomatic people. Among patients considered at high risk according to the recommendations of the French High Council for Public Health, 20% did not feel at risk, which led to incautious attitudes. CONCLUSION: Individuals with chronic conditions have distorted perceptions of their risk of severe illness with COVID-19. In addition, they are exposed to COVID-19 due to their context or attitudes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/complicações , Asma/patologia , Asma/psicologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Crônica , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Complicações do Diabetes/psicologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(13): 2464-2476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760213

RESUMO

In 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused infections worldwide. However, the correlation between the immune infiltration and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility or severity in cancer patients remains to be fully elucidated. ACE2 expressions in normal tissues, cancers and cell lines were comprehensively assessed. Furthermore, we compared ACE2 expression between cancers and matched normal tissues through Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). In addition, we performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to investigate the related signaling pathways. Finally, the correlations between ACE2 expression and immune infiltration were investigated via Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) and GEPIA. We found that ACE2 was predominantly expressed in both adult and fetal tissues from the digestive, urinary and male reproductive tracts; moreover, ACE2 expressions in corresponding cancers were generally higher than that in matched healthy tissues. GSEA showed that various metabolic and immune-related pathways were significantly associated with ACE2 expression across multiple cancer types. Intriguingly, we found that ACE2 expression correlated significantly with immune cell infiltration in both normal and cancer tissues, especially in the stomach and colon. These findings proposed a possible fecal-oral and maternal-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and suggested that cancers of the respiratory, digestive or urinary tracts would be more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Túbulos Renais/embriologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Prognóstico , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais
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