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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 622, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Families with minor children affected by parental cancer are at risk of considerable emotional and organizational stress that can severely burden all family members. So far, there has been a lack of comprehensive support services for affected families. The aim of this project is to implement and evaluate a complex psychosocial intervention for these families by providing advice, information, and care on an emotional, psycho-social, and communicative level during and after the cancer experience and across healthcare sectors. METHODS: Family-SCOUT is a project supported by the German Innovation Fund ( https://innovationsfonds.g-ba.de/ ). The evaluation is based on a mixed-methods quasi-experimental design with the intervention and control groups. A standardized postal survey at three measurement points (T0: study enrollment; T1: 3 months of follow-up; T2: 9 months of follow-up), secondary data from the participating health insurance funds, and semi-structured qualitative interviews are used for summative and formative evaluation. The study aim is to include n=560 families. Data will be analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The primary analysis is the comparison of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) response rates (minimal important difference (MID) ≥ 1.6 in at least one of the two parents) at T2 between the intervention and control group using Fisher's exact test. The conduct of the study as well as the development and implementation of the intervention will be accompanied by comprehensive study monitoring following the principles of an effectiveness-implementation hybrid study. DISCUSSION: The results will allow to test the effectiveness and efficiency of the intervention for the target group. The first experience with the implementation of the intervention in model regions will be available. The evaluation results will serve as the basis to assess the need of including the intervention in the catalog of services of the statutory health insurance funds in Germany. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04186923. Retrospectively registered on 4 December 2019.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Pais , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Nanoscale ; 13(34): 14316-14329, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477715

RESUMO

Non-invasive liquid biopsies offer hope for a rapid, risk-free, real-time glimpse into cancer diagnostics. Recently, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was identified as a cancer biomarker due to its continued release from cancer cells compared to normal cells. The precise monitoring and quantification of H2O2 are hindered by its low concentration and the limit of detection (LOD) in traditional sensing methods. Plasmon-assisted electrochemical sensors with their high sensitivity and low LOD make a suitable candidate for effective detection of H2O2, yet their electrical properties need to be improved. Here, we propose a new nanostructured microfluidic device for ultrasensitive, quantitative detection of H2O2 released from cancer cells in a portable fashion. The fluidic device features a series of self-organized gold nanocavities, enhanced with graphene nanosheets having optoelectrical properties, which facilitate the plasmon-assisted electrochemical detection of H2O2 released from human cells. Remarkably, the device can successfully measure the released H2O2 from breast cancer (MCF-7) and prostate cancer (PC3) cells in human plasma. Briefly, direct amperometric detection of H2O2 under simulated visible light illumination showed a superb LOD of 1 pM in a linear range of 1 pM-10 µM. We thoroughly studied the formation of self-organized plasmonic nanocavities on gold electrodes via surface and photo-electrochemical characterization techniques. In addition, the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of the electric field demonstrates the intensity of charge distribution at the nanocavity structure edges under visible light illumination. The superb LOD of the proposed electrode combining gold plasmonic nanocavities and graphene sheets paves the way for the development of non-invasive plasmon-assisted electrochemical sensors that can effectively detect low concentrations of H2O2 released from cancer cells.


Assuntos
Grafite , Neoplasias , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Ouro , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
3.
Nanoscale ; 13(35): 14760-14776, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473170

RESUMO

Given the emerging diagnostic utility of extracellular vesicles (EVs), it is important to account for non-EV contaminants. Lipoprotein present in EV-enriched isolates may inflate particle counts and decrease sensitivity to biomarkers of interest, skewing chemical analyses and perpetuating downstream issues in labeling or functional analysis. Using label free surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), we confirm that three common EV isolation methods (differential ultracentrifugation, density gradient ultracentrifugation, and size exclusion chromatography) yield variable lipoprotein content. We demonstrate that a dual-isolation method is necessary to isolate EVs from the major classes of lipoprotein. However, combining SERS analysis with machine learning assisted classification, we show that the disease state is the main driver of distinction between EV samples, and largely unaffected by choice of isolation. Ultimately, this study describes a convenient SERS assay to retain accurate diagnostic information from clinical samples by overcoming differences in lipoprotein contamination according to isolation method.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias , Cromatografia em Gel , Humanos , Lipoproteínas , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Análise Espectral Raman , Ultracentrifugação
4.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500838

RESUMO

Phenolic acids comprise a class of phytochemical compounds that can be extracted from various plant sources and are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A few of the most common naturally occurring phenolic acids (i.e., caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) have been identified as ingredients of edible botanicals (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, etc.). Over the last decade, clinical research has focused on a number of in vitro (in human cells) and in vivo (animal) studies aimed at exploring the health protective effects of phenolic acids against the most severe human diseases. In this review paper, the authors first report on the main structural features of phenolic acids, their most important natural sources and their extraction techniques. Subsequently, the main target of this analysis is to provide an overview of the most recent clinical studies on phenolic acids that investigate their health effects against a range of severe pathologic conditions (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and viral infections-including coronaviruses-based ones).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200518, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the diagnosis of cancer during pregnancy occurred and assess its repercussions on the family experience of maternity. METHOD: Qualitative research, based on Symbolic Interactionism and conducted according to the Grounded Theory method. Twelve women diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy and 19 of their family members participated in the study. Data was collected from March 2018 to March 2019, using an identification form and an in-depth interview. The analysis followed the stages of open substantive coding. RESULTS: Data were organized into two categories of analysis: Being surprised by the discovery of cancer during pregnancy, which reveals the course of experiencing pregnancy and being diagnosed with cancer, Suffering from the repercussions of cancer on pregnancy and birth, which describes the repercussions of illness in the experience of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Cancer during pregnancy was diagnosed in young women based on signs and symptoms that were confused with those of pregnancy and postpartum. The illness brought anxiety, impotence, fear and affected the experience of maternity, as it prevented women from having their pregnancy as planned and required routines different from those of low-risk pregnancies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Parto , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Talanta ; 235: 122727, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517595

RESUMO

An end-modified 2'-O-methyl molecular beacon (eMB) with unique nuclease resistance was designed and prepared. The eMB can resist the enzymatic digestion by DNase I, which would otherwise occur upon the hybridization of the eMB with a complementary sequence. As a result, the coupling use of eMBs and DNase I allows highly sensitive detection of miRNA with a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 pM. The analytical strategy was further used for detection of tumor exosomal microRNA-21, and down to 0.86 µg mL-1 A375 exosomes were detected. Overall, the present method can effectively quantify tumor-derived exosomes for cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias , Desoxirribonuclease I , Exossomos/genética , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética
7.
Anal Chem ; 93(36): 12434-12440, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473470

RESUMO

The ability to accurately diagnose cancer is the cornerstone of early cancer treatment. The mitochondria in cancer cells maintain a higher pH and lower polarity relative to that in normal cells. A probe that reports signals only when both conditions are met may provide a reliable method for cancer detection with reduced false positives. Here, we construct an AND logic gate fluorescent probe using mitochondrial microenvironments as inputs. Utilizing the hydrolysis of a coumarin scaffold, the probe generates fluorescence signals ("ON") only when high pH (>7.0) and low polarity conditions exist simultaneously. Additionally, the higher mitochondrial membrane potential in cancer cells provides an additional level of selectivity because probe has increased affinity for cancer cell mitochondria. These capabilities endow the probe with a high contrast fluorescence diagnosis ability of cancer at cellular and tissue levels (as high as 51.9 fold), which is far exceeding the clinic threshold of 2.0 fold.


Assuntos
Lógica , Neoplasias , Cumarínicos , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes , Hidrólise , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
8.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 150: 109885, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489038

RESUMO

The application of ß-galactosidase enzyme ranges from industrial use as probiotics to medically important application such as cancer detection. The irregular activities of ß-galactosidase enzyme are directly related to the development of cancers. Identifying the location and expression levels of enzymes in cancer cells have considerable importance in early-stage cancer diagnosis and monitoring the efficacy of therapies. Most importantly, the knowledge of the efficient method of detection of ß-galactosidase enzyme will help in the early-stage treatment of the disease. In this review paper, we provide an overview of recent advances in the detection methods of ß-galactosidase enzyme in the living cells, including the detection strategies, and approaches in human beings, plants, and microorganisms such as bacteria. Further, we emphasized on the challenges and opportunities in this rapidly developing field of development of different biomarkers and fluorescent probes based on ß-galactosidase enzyme. We found that previously used chromo-fluorogenic methods have been mostly replaced by the new molecular probes, although they have certain drawbacks. Upon comparing the different methods, it was found that near-infrared fluorescent probes are dominating the other detection methods.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Neoplasias , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , beta-Galactosidase
9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1180: 338856, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538322

RESUMO

Single atom nanozymes (SAzymes) represent the state-of-the-art technology in nanomaterial-based catalysis, which have attracted attentions in catalysis, cancer treatment, disinfection and biosensing fields. However, numerous SAzymes suffered from low aqueous dispersion and without recognition capacity, which impeded their applications in bioanalysis. Herein, we engineered DNA onto SAzymes to obtain the DNA/SAzymes conjugates, which significantly improved the aqueous dispersion and recognition ability of SAzymes. We synthesized iron SAzymes (Fe-N-C SAzymes) as the catalytic nanomaterials, and investigated the interactions between Fe-N-C SAzymes and DNA. We compared A15, T15 and C15 adsorption of Fe-N-C SAzymes in HEPES containing 2 mM MgCl2. We found that 50 µg mL-1 Fe-N-C SAzymes produced nearly 100% A15 adsorption, 90% T15 adsorption and only 69% C15 adsorption, indicating that adenine and thymine had higher adsorption affinity on Fe-N-C SAzymes. More importantly, DNA modification did not affect the peroxidase-like activity of Fe-N-C SAzymes and the bioactivity of the adsorbed DNA. Taking the advantage of the diblock DNA with one DNA sequence (adenine) binding to Fe-N-C SAzymes and the other DNA sequence (i.e., aptamer) binding to cancer cells, we designed Apt/Fe-N-C SAzymes for colorimetric detection of cancer cells, which offered new insights for the use of SAzymes in biomedicine.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanoestruturas , Neoplasias , Catálise , Colorimetria , DNA , Ferro , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 204: 114285, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333453

RESUMO

Lateral flow assay (LFA) is a flexible, simple, low-costpoint-of-care platform for rapid detection of disease-specific biomarkers. Importantly, the ability of the assay to capture the circulating bio-molecules has gained significant attention, as it offers a potential minimal invasive system for early disease diagnosis and prognosis. In the present article, we review an innovative concept of LFA-based detection of circulating long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), one of the key regulators of fundamental biological processes. In addition, their disease-specific expression pattern and presence in biological fluids at differential levels make them excellent biomarker candidates for cancer detection. Our article also provides an update on the requirements for developing and improving such systems and discusses the key aspects of material selection, operational concepts, principles and conceptual design. We assume that the reviewed points will be helpful to improve the diagnostic applicability of LFA based lncRNA detection in cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , RNA Longo não Codificante , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Prognóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
11.
Anal Chem ; 93(32): 11298-11304, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369142

RESUMO

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), often referred to as exosomes, are potential biomarkers for noninvasive cancer diagnosis. However, because of their phenotype heterogeneity, precise detection of tumor-derived sEVs is a great challenge. Herein, a dual-aptamer-assisted AND logic gate was fabricated for sensitive electrochemical detection of tumor-derived sEVs based on a cyclic enzymatic signal amplification strategy. Four different tumor-derived sEVs were used to verify the feasibility of the AND logic gate, and CCRF-CEM sEVs were successfully detected by this assay. The electrochemical assay shows a good linear response from 4 × 103 to 8 × 107 particles/µL, with a detection limit of 920 particles/µL, for CCRF-CEM sEVs, indicating potential application in accurate cancer diagnostics.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Exossomos , Vesículas Extracelulares , Neoplasias , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
13.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2021: 276-285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457142

RESUMO

This paper describes an initial dataset and automatic natural language processing (NLP) method for extracting concepts related to precision oncology from biomedical research articles. We extract five concept types: Cancer, Mutation, Population, Treatment, Outcome. A corpus of 250 biomedical abstracts were annotated with these concepts following standard double-annotation procedures. We then experiment with BERT-based models for concept extraction. The best-performing model achieved a precision of 63.8%, a recall of 71.9%, and an F1 of 67.1. Finally, we propose additional directions for research for improving extraction performance and utilizing the NLP system in downstream precision oncology applications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Publicações
14.
Anal Chem ; 93(34): 11826-11835, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461732

RESUMO

Cancer ranks as a leading cause of death in every country of the world. However, if they are discovered early, a lot of cancers can be prevented or cured. Discovering and monitoring cancer markers are the main methods for early diagnosis of cancer. To date, many fluorescent probes designed and used for early cancer diagnosis can only react with a single marker, which always causes insufficient accuracy in complex systems. Herein, a novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (CyO-DNP) for the sequential detection of H2S and H+ is synthesized. In this probe, a heptamethine dye is selected as the fluorophore and a 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) ether is chosen as recognition group. In the presence of H2S, CyO-DNP is transformed into CyO, which exhibits an intense fluorescence at 663 nm. Then, H+ induces the protonation of CyO to obtain CyOH, and the final fluorescence emission at 793 nm significantly enhances. Owing to the low cytotoxicity and the NIR fluorescence emission, CyO-DNP can sequentially monitor endogenous H2S and H+ in cancer cells and image exogenous and endogenous H2S and H+ in mice. It is worth mentioning that CyO-DNP can effectively avoid the false positive signal caused by the liver and kidney and discriminate normal mice and tumor mice accurately. For all we know, CyO-DNP is the first fluorescent probe for early accurate diagnosis of cancer by sequentially detecting H2S and H+.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Neoplasias , Animais , Corantes Fluorescentes , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
15.
S Afr Med J ; 111(6): 570-574, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted cancer diagnostic services. A decline in the number of new cancers being diagnosed over a relatively short term implies a delay in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. This delay is expected to have a negative effect on cancerrelated morbidity and mortality. The impact of the pandemic on the number of new cancer diagnoses in our setting is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of COVID-19 on the number of new cancers diagnosed at our institution in the first 3 months following the implementation of lockdown restrictions, by focusing on common non-cutaneous cancers. METHODS: A retrospective laboratory-based audit was performed at a large anatomical pathology laboratory in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The numbers of new diagnoses for six common cancers (breast, prostate, cervix, large bowel, oesophagus and stomach) from 1 April 2020 to 30 June 2020 were compared with the corresponding period in 2019. RESULTS: Histopathological diagnoses for the six cancers combined decreased by 192 (-36.2%), from 531 new cases in the 2019 study period to 339 in the corresponding period in 2020. Substantial declines were seen for prostate (-58.2%), oesophageal (-44.1%), breast (-32.9%), gastric (-32.6%) and colorectal cancer (-29.2%). The smallest decline was seen in cervical cancer (-7%). New breast cancers diagnosed by cytopathology declined by 61.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated response resulted in a substantial decline in the number of new cancer diagnoses, implying a delay in diagnosis. Cancer-related morbidity and mortality is expected to rise as a result, with the greatest increase in mortality expected from breast and colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
Lab Chip ; 21(17): 3219-3243, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352059

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by cells into the bloodstream and other bodily fluids, including exosomes, have been demonstrated to be a class of significant messengers that mediate intercellular communications. Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles are enriched in a selective set of biomolecules from original cells, including proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, and thus offer a new perspective of liquid biopsy for cancer diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. Owing to the heterogeneity of their biogenesis, physical properties, and molecular constituents, isolation and molecular characterization of EVs remain highly challenging. Microfluidics provides a disruptive platform for EV isolation and analysis owing to its inherent advantages to promote the development of new molecular and cellular sensing systems with improved sensitivity, specificity, spatial and temporal resolution, and throughput. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art advances in the development of microfluidic principles and devices for EV isolation and biophysical or biochemical characterization, in comparison to the conventional counterparts. We will also survey the progress in adapting the new microfluidic techniques to assess the emerging EV-associated biomarkers, mostly focused on proteins and nucleic acids, for clinical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. Lastly, we will discuss the current challenges in the field of EV research and our outlook on future development of enabling microfluidic platforms for EV-based liquid biopsy.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Microfluídica , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 894, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461888

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer diagnosis is known to affect the family; however, administrative claims data are not commonly used to evaluate the broader impact of cancer diagnosis. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using claims data to explore the impact of cancer diagnosis on the caregiver. METHODS: IBM Marketscan data were used to identify eligible cancer patients, who were required to have a second adult over the age of 18 (defined as "caregiver" for this study) covered by the same the healthcare policy. Eligible control pairs included any two adults in the same policy with no evidence of cancer; for each pair one adult was randomly assigned to be the "patient control" while their partner was assigned as "caregiver control". Probabilistic stratified sampling was used select control pairs for analysis by matching the relative frequencies within sex and age group strata to those of patient/caregiver pairs. Eligible control pairs were probabilistically sampled without replacement until the stratum with at least 0.5 % relative frequency had been completely sampled. Caregiver and caregiver control healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), new diagnoses, and healthcare costs were compared during the 12-month post-diagnosis period. Subgroup analyses were conducted by cancer subtypes (breast, colorectal, lung, gastric, sarcoma) and by sex of the patient and caregiver. RESULTS: A total of 62,893 patient/caregiver pairs and 449,177 control pairs were included. Overall, caregivers used slightly fewer healthcare resources and expended less costs during the 12-month period after the cancer diagnosis than controls (physician visits; 85.8 % vs. 95.7 %; hospitalizations 5.4 % vs. 7.0 %; emergency room visits 15.7 % versus 16.2 %, all p ≤ 0.001). This finding was consistent in all subgroup analyses. New diagnoses were lower in the caregiver cohort, except for mental disorders, which were higher than controls (14.3 % vs. 9.9 %, p < 0.0001). Psychotherapeutic/antidepressant utilization occurred among 21.0 % of caregivers versus 17.2 % of caregiver controls during this period. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to use administrative claims data to evaluate the impact of a cancer diagnosis on the caregiver to evaluate outcomes such as HCRU, diagnoses and costs. These findings raise hypotheses about deferment of health care and increased mental distress during the caregiving period.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Neoplasias , Adulto , Atenção à Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(9): 60-617, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463104

RESUMO

Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a non-classical MHC class I molecule that regulates many immune functions. The physiologic HLA-G expression is restricted to foetal tissues such as: amniotic cells, erythroid precursors, and cytotrophoblasts, and, in adults, to immune-privileged organs. The ectopic expression in tumours could point out to a strategy used by malignant cells to escape the immune surveillance. There are two forms of HLA-G, membrane-bound and soluble. The structure of the soluble and membrane bound isoforms differs at the C-terminus. The extracellular domain and the intracytoplasmic tail are replaced in the secreted isoforms by a short hydrophilic tail. These differences could serve as a marker to distinguish shed or proteolytically cleaved HLA-G isoforms from secreted HLA-G isoforms. HLA-G induces tolerance by inhibiting different cells and this function is mediated by binding of both soluble and membrane-bound HLA-G to the inhibitory receptors. There exists a consistent evidence in literature that HLA-G represents an important factor in determining prognosis in various types of cancer. In this review, we will focus on soluble form of HLA-G (sHLA-G) in cancers and its association with the prognosis of cancer patients, because this immune check-point molecule appears as a promising relevant target for cancer immunotherapy (Fig. 2, Ref. 115). Keywords: cancer, diagnosis, HLA-G, soluble HLA-G, tumour.


Assuntos
Antígenos HLA-G , Neoplasias , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Prognóstico
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