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1.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) as an adjuvant therapy in antitumor treatment is not well established. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to investigate the efficacy of LCKD as an adjuvant therapy in antitumor treatment compared to non-ketogenic diet in terms of lipid profile, body weight, fasting glucose level, insulin, and adverse effects; Methods: In this study, databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, and Cochrane trials were searched. Only RCTs that involved cancer participants that were assigned to dietary interventions including a LCKD group and a control group (any non-ketogenic dietary intervention) were selected. Three reviewers independently extracted the data, and the meta-analysis was performed using a fixed effects model or random effects model depending on the I2 value or p-value; Results: A total of six articles met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the overall analysis, the post-intervention results = standard mean difference, SMD (95% CI) showed total cholesterol (TC) level = 0.25 (-0.17, 0.67), HDL-cholesterol = -0.07 (-0.50, 0.35), LDL-cholesterol = 0.21 (-0.21, 0.63), triglyceride (TG) = 0.09 (-0.33, 0.51), body weight (BW) = -0.34 (-1.33, 0.65), fasting blood glucose (FBG) = -0.40 (-1.23, 0.42) and insulin = 0.11 (-1.33, 1.55). There were three outcomes showing significant results in those in LCKD group: the tumor marker PSA, p = 0.03, the achievement of ketosis p = 0.010, and the level of satisfaction, p = 0.005; Conclusions: There was inadequate evidence to support the beneficial effects of LCKDs on antitumor therapy. More trials comparing LCKD and non-KD with a larger sample size are necessary to give a more conclusive result.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Dieta Cetogênica , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Cetogênica/efeitos adversos , Jejum/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Razão de Chances , Satisfação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808957

RESUMO

Cancer cachexia subsequently shifts to refractory cachexia, however, it is not easy to properly differentiate them in clinical settings. Patients considered refractory cachexia may include cachectic patients with starvation. This study aimed to identify these cachectic patients and to evaluate the effect of nutritional intervention for them. Study subjects were terminal cancer patients admitted for palliative care and were judged refractory cachexia in the last five years. We retrospectively examined to find useful indices for identifying such cachectic patients and for evaluating the effect of nutritional intervention. Out of 223 patients in refractory cachexia, 26 were diagnosed cachexia with starvation after symptom management. Comparing before and one week after this management, Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) and transthyretin significantly improved (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0002, respectively) Then, we started nutritional intervention for these cachectic patients and divided into effective group (n = 17) and non-effective group (n = 9) using the criteria for cachexia. Comparing between the two groups, PPS significantly improved2 weeks after intervention in effective group (p = 0.006). Survival time was significantly longer in effective group (p = 0.008). PPS and transthyretin were useful for differential diagnosis of cachexia and refractory cachexia. PPS was useful for evaluating nutritional intervention for cachectic patients. Appropriate nutritional intervention improved survival.


Assuntos
Caquexia/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/complicações , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Adulto , Caquexia/dietoterapia , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Nutrição Parenteral , Falha de Tratamento
3.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799580

RESUMO

Postbiotics are health-promoting microbial metabolites delivered as a functional food or a food supplement. They either directly influence signaling pathways of the body or indirectly manipulate metabolism and the composition of intestinal microflora. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and even though the prognosis of patients is improving, it is still poor in the substantial part of the cases. The preventable nature of cancer and the importance of a complex multi-level approach in anticancer therapy motivate the search for novel avenues of establishing the anticancer environment in the human body. This review summarizes the principal findings demonstrating the usefulness of both natural and synthetic sources of postbotics in the prevention and therapy of cancer. Specifically, the effects of crude cell-free supernatants, the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, lactic acid, hydrogen sulfide, and ß-glucans are described. Contradictory roles of postbiotics in healthy and tumor tissues are highlighted. In conclusion, the application of postbiotics is an efficient complementary strategy to combat cancer.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Butiratos/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Metaboloma , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prebióticos/microbiologia , Probióticos/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808586

RESUMO

Here, a novel strategy of formulating efficient polymeric carriers based on the already described INU-IMI-DETA for gene material whose structural, functional, and biological properties can be modulated and improved was successfully investigated. In particular, two novel derivatives of INU-IMI-DETA graft copolymer were synthesized by chemical functionalisation with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or polyethylenglycol (PEG), named INU-IMI-DETA-EGF and INU-IMI-DETA-PEG, respectively, in order to improve the performance of already described "inulin complex nanoaggregates" (ICONs). The latter were thus prepared by appropriately mixing the two copolymers, by varying each component from 0 to 100 wt% on the total mixture, named EP-ICONs. It was seen that the ability of the INU-IMI-DETA-EGF/INU-IMI-DETA-PEG polymeric mixture to complex siGL3 increases with the increase in the EGF-based component in the EP-ICONs and, for each sample, with the increase in the copolymer:siRNA weight ratio (R). On the other hand, the susceptibility of loaded siRNA towards RNase decreases with the increase in the pegylated component in the polymeric mixture. At all R values, the average size and the zeta potential values are suitable for escaping from the RES system and suitable for prolonged intravenous circulation. By means of biological characterisation, it was shown that MCF-7 cells are able to internalize mainly the siRNA-loaded into EGF-decorated complexes, with a significant difference from ICONs, confirming its targeting function. The targeting effect of EGF on EP-ICONs was further demonstrated by a competitive cell uptake study, i.e., after cell pre-treatment with EGF. Finally, it was shown that the complexes containing both EGF and PEG are capable of promoting the internalisation and therefore the transfection of siSUR, a siRNA acting against surviving mRNA, and to increase the sensitivity to an anticancer agent, such as doxorubicin.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Inulina , Nanoestruturas , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Humanos , Inulina/química , Inulina/farmacocinética , Inulina/farmacologia , Células MCF-7 , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacocinética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia
5.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920079

RESUMO

Cancer is considered the second leading cause of death worldwide and in 2018 it was responsible for approximately 9.6 million deaths. Globally, about one in six deaths are caused by cancer. A strong correlation was found between diabetes mellitus and carcinogenesis with the most evident correlation was with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Research has proven that elevated blood glucose levels take part in cell proliferation and cancer cell progression. However, limited studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of conventional therapies in diabetic cancer patients. In this review, the correlation between cancer and diabetes will be discussed and the mechanisms by which the two diseases interact with each other, as well as the therapeutics challenges in treating patients with diabetes and cancer with possible solutions to overcome these challenges. Natural products targeting both diseases were discussed with detailed mechanisms of action. This review will provide a solid base for researchers and physicians to test natural products as adjuvant alternative therapies to treat cancer in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Glicemia/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of dietary interventions for cancer survivors have been based on the behaviour change theory framework. The purpose of this study is to review the use and implementation of behaviour change theories in dietary interventions for people after cancer and assess their effects on the reported outcomes. METHODS: The search strategy from a Cochrane review on dietary interventions for cancer survivors was expanded to incorporate an additional criterion on the use of behaviour change theory and updated to September 2020. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) testing a dietary intervention compared to the control were included. Standard Cochrane methodological procedures were used. RESULTS: Nineteen RCTs, with 6261 participants (age range 44.6 to 73.1 years), were included in the review. The Social Cognitive Theory was the most frequently used theory (15 studies, 79%). Studies included between 4 to 17 behaviour change techniques. Due to limited information on the mediators of intervention and large heterogeneity between studies, no meta-analyses was conducted to assess which theoretical components of the interventions are effective. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst researchers have incorporated behaviour change theories into dietary interventions for cancer survivors, due to inconsistencies in design, evaluation and reporting, the effect of theories on survivors' outcomes remains unclear.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Dietoterapia/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Modelo Transteórico , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(6): 2885-2893, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638747

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality of published clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) regarding the nutritional risk screening and assessment of cancer patients and to identify high-quality CPGs for clinical healthcare professionals. METHODS: Guidelines for the nutritional risk screening and assessment of cancer patients were comprehensively searched in eight electronic databases, including The Lancet, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc), and Wan Fang Data, through August 2020. Six relevant guideline databases, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC), the Guideline International Network (GIN), the New Zealand Guidelines Group (NZGG), the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC), and Medlive, and relevant nutrition society websites, were also searched through August 2020. The methodological quality of the included CPGs was appraised independently by three assessors using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation, 2nd edition (AGREE II) tool. RESULTS: Seven CPGs were located, and the domain with the highest percentage was "clarity of presentation" (85.44%), while the domain with the lowest percentage was "applicability" (40.26%). From the AGREE II results, two guidelines were rated as "strongly recommended," three were assessed as "recommended with modifications," and two were deemed as "not recommended." CONCLUSION: Considering that the two "strongly recommended" guidelines were developed within the American and European contexts, translation, validation, and cultural adaptation are recommended prior to implementing these guidelines in other countries or healthcare contexts to improve their effectiveness and sensitivity for local cancer patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration of the study protocol: CRD42020177390 (July 5, 2020).


Assuntos
Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Avaliação Nutricional , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 366, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446657

RESUMO

Many tumour cells show dependence on exogenous serine and dietary serine and glycine starvation can inhibit the growth of these cancers and extend survival in mice. However, numerous mechanisms promote resistance to this therapeutic approach, including enhanced expression of the de novo serine synthesis pathway (SSP) enzymes or activation of oncogenes that drive enhanced serine synthesis. Here we show that inhibition of PHGDH, the first step in the SSP, cooperates with serine and glycine depletion to inhibit one-carbon metabolism and cancer growth. In vitro, inhibition of PHGDH combined with serine starvation leads to a defect in global protein synthesis, which blocks the activation of an ATF-4 response and more broadly impacts the protective stress response to amino acid depletion. In vivo, the combination of diet and inhibitor shows therapeutic efficacy against tumours that are resistant to diet or drug alone, with evidence of reduced one-carbon availability. However, the defect in ATF4-response seen in vitro following complete depletion of available serine is not seen in mice, where dietary serine and glycine depletion and treatment with the PHGDH inhibitor lower but do not eliminate serine. Our results indicate that inhibition of PHGDH will augment the therapeutic efficacy of a serine depleted diet.


Assuntos
Glicina/metabolismo , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Serina/biossíntese , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Glicina/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Serina/análise
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513799

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a combination of foods mainly rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory nutrients that have been shown to have many health-enhancing effects. Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an important component of the MD. The importance of EVOO can be attributed to phenolic compounds, represented by phenolic alcohols, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol, and to secoiridoids, which include oleocanthal, oleacein, oleuropein, and ligstroside (along with the aglycone and glycosidic derivatives of the latter two). Each secoiridoid has been studied and characterized, and their effects on human health have been documented by several studies. Secoiridoids have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and, therefore, exhibit anti-cancer activity. This review summarizes the most recent findings regarding the pharmacological properties, molecular targets, and action mechanisms of secoiridoids, focusing attention on their preventive and anti-cancer activities. It provides a critical analysis of preclinical, in vitro and in vivo, studies of these natural bioactive compounds used as agents against various human cancers. The prospects for their possible use in human cancer prevention and treatment is also discussed.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Iridoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Aldeídos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos/química , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Ciclopentânicos/uso terapêutico , Dieta Mediterrânea , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Iridoides/química , Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Iridoides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Álcool Feniletílico/uso terapêutico , Piranos/química , Piranos/farmacologia , Piranos/uso terapêutico
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 253: 117308, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278957

RESUMO

Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a particular group of gram-positive bacteria that are usually involved in natural ferments and widely used in food manufacture industry. Most of them can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS), surface carbohydrate polymers with diverse biological functions. LAB EPS are potentially complementary and alternative medicines against cancer. EPS show anti-proliferative effects on a variety of tumor cells from intestine, liver, breast, etc. They modulate the development of tumors through various mechanisms including promoting apoptosis, inducing cell cycle arrest as well as anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory effects. Bacterial origin, existence form, chemical structure, purity et al. are important factors affecting the anticancer effects of EPS. The future challenge lies in elucidating the precise structure-function relationship of LAB EPS. Besides, more in vivo studies and further clinical trials are indispensable to confirm the anticancer effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antimutagênicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia
11.
Cancer Sci ; 112(2): 498-504, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340176

RESUMO

Cancer metabolism is influenced by availability of nutrients in the microenvironment and can to some extent be manipulated by dietary modifications that target oncogenic metabolism. As yet, few dietary interventions have been scientifically proven to mitigate disease progression or enhance any other kind of therapy in human cancer. However, recent advances in the understanding of cancer metabolism enable us to predict or devise effective dietary interventions that might antagonize tumor growth. In fact, evidence emerging from preclinical models suggests that appropriate combinations of specific cancer therapies with dietary interventions could critically impact therapeutic efficacy. Here, we review the potential benefits of precision nutrition approaches in augmenting the efficacy of cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Animais , Humanos
12.
Postepy Biochem ; 66(3): 270-286, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315315

RESUMO

Ketogenic diet is a high fat and very low-carbohydrate nutritional approach that induces increased production of ketone bodies, which serve as an alternative to glucose energetic substrates. Since almost a century ketogenic diet has been used in the therapy of refractory epilepsy, especially in children. Because of the pleiotropic effect of ketogenic diet on physiology, including inflammation, oxidative stress, energy balance and signaling pathways, in recent years scientists have been intensively exploring the use of it in the treatment of other diseases. In the present article current clinical studies regarding the possibility of using the ketogenic diet in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, neurological disorders and cancer has been reviewed alongside with potential mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effect of ketogenic diet in these diseases. The metabolic processes engaged in nutritional ketosis and practicals aspects of ketogenic dieting have been also discussed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/dietoterapia , Dieta Cetogênica , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Humanos , Corpos Cetônicos/metabolismo , Cetose
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Nutrition impact symptoms (NIS) are common in cancer patients and the negative impacts on nutritional status indicate the need for research, diagnosis and nutritional intervention in order to reduce the risk of malnutrition. We aimed to verify the presence of malnutrition, the need for nutritional intervention, NIS and their influence on the nutritional status of surgical patients with cancer. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a public tertiary hospital, from March 2017 to October 2019. Nutritional status, the need for nutritional intervention and NIS were assessed through the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in the first 48 hours of hospital admission. RESULTS: Among the 135 patients evaluated, 55.6% were elderly and 51.1% were male; patients had a median age of 62 years and a predominance of cancer located in the lower gastrointestinal tract (35.6%). Malnutrition and the need for nutritional intervention were identified in 60.0% and 90.4% of cases, respectively. The presence of three or more NIS was reported by 51.9% of patients. Significant differences in NIS were observed according to sex, PG-SGA classification and PG-SGA score. After logistic regression analysis, it was determined that the symptoms that increased the chances of malnutrition were anorexia, constipation, strange taste, mouth sores and others (depression, dental or financial problems). CONCLUSION: Malnutrition, the need for nutritional intervention and the presence of three or more NIS were elevated in the patients evaluated. Malnutrition was associated with the presence of NIS, indicating the need for attention and care in antineoplastic treatment.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/complicações , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Science ; 369(6506): 936-942, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820119

RESUMO

Intestinal microbiota have been proposed to induce commensal-specific memory T cells that cross-react with tumor-associated antigens. We identified major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-binding epitopes in the tail length tape measure protein (TMP) of a prophage found in the genome of the bacteriophage Enterococcus hirae Mice bearing E. hirae harboring this prophage mounted a TMP-specific H-2Kb-restricted CD8+ T lymphocyte response upon immunotherapy with cyclophosphamide or anti-PD-1 antibodies. Administration of bacterial strains engineered to express the TMP epitope improved immunotherapy in mice. In renal and lung cancer patients, the presence of the enterococcal prophage in stools and expression of a TMP-cross-reactive antigen by tumors correlated with long-term benefit of PD-1 blockade therapy. In melanoma patients, T cell clones recognizing naturally processed cancer antigens that are cross-reactive with microbial peptides were detected.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Bacteriófagos/imunologia , Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteínas da Cauda Viral/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Epitopos/imunologia , Fezes/virologia , Antígenos H-2/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Proteínas da Cauda Viral/uso terapêutico
15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67 Suppl 3: e28324, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614139

RESUMO

Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) strategies are commonly used by pediatric cancer patients. Nutritional approaches to T&CM include bioactive compounds, supplements, and herbs as well as dietary approaches. Pediatric cancer patients and their families commonly request and use nutritional T&CM strategies. We review the potential risks and benefits of nutritional T&CM use in pediatric cancer care and provide an overview of some commonly used and requested supplements, including probiotics, antioxidants, cannabinoids, vitamins, turmeric, mistletoe, Carica papaya, and others. We also discuss the role of specific diets such as the ketogenic diet, caloric restriction diets, whole-food diets, and immune modulating diets. There is a growing body of evidence to support the use of some T&CM agents for the supportive care of children with cancer. However, further study is needed into these agents and approaches. Open communication with families about T&CM use is critical.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Pediatria/métodos , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67 Suppl 3: e28378, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614140

RESUMO

Nutrition therapy is a therapeutic approach to treating medical conditions and symptoms via diet, which can be done by oral, enteral or parenteral routes. It is desirable to include nutritional interventions as a standard of care in pediatric cancer units (PCUs) at all levels of care. The interventions are dependent on available resources and personnel across all clinical settings. Enteral nutrition is easy, inexpensive, uses the gastrointestinal tract, maintains gut mucosal integrity, and allows for individualized nutritional strategies. This narrative review describes enteral nutritional interventions for children undergoing cancer treatment and is aimed at PCUs of all levels of care located in a low- and middle-income country.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Desnutrição/terapia , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Nutrição Enteral/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1259: 125-153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578175

RESUMO

Patients with cancer frequently overexpress inflammatory cytokines with an associated neutrophilia both of which may be downregulated by diets with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA). The anti-inflammatory activity of dietary ω-3 PUFA has been suggested to have anticancer properties and to improve survival of cancer patients. Currently, the majority of dietary research efforts do not differentiate between obesity and dietary fatty acid consumption as mediators of inflammatory cell expansion and tumor microenvironmental infiltration, initiation, and progression. In this chapter, we discuss the relationships between dietary lipids, inflammation, neoplasia and strategies to regulate these relationships. We posit that dietary composition, notably the ratio of ω-3 vs. ω-6 PUFA, regulates tumor initiation and progression and the frequency and sites of metastasis that, together, impact overall survival (OS). We focus on three broad topics: first, the role of dietary lipids in chronic inflammation and tumor initiation, progression, and regression; second, lipid mediators linking inflammation and cancer; and third, dietary lipid regulation of murine and human tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/patologia
19.
Mol Cell ; 78(6): 1034-1044, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504556

RESUMO

Malignant cells remodel their metabolism to meet the demands of uncontrolled cell proliferation. These demands lead to differential requirements in energy, biosynthetic precursors, and signaling intermediates. Both genetic programs arising from oncogenic events and transcriptional programs and epigenomic events are important in providing the necessary metabolic network activity. Accumulating evidence has established that environmental factors play a major role in shaping cancer cell metabolism. For metabolism, diet and nutrition are the major environmental aspects and have emerged as key components in determining cancer cell metabolism. In this review, we discuss these emerging concepts in cancer metabolism and how diet and nutrition influence cancer cell metabolism.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Dieta/tendências , Dietoterapia/tendências , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
20.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(10): 4575-4583, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Loss of appetite is a common side effect of cancer and cancer treatments resulting in risk of malnutrition and cancer cachexia. This review aimed to systematically determine nutrition interventions that improve appetite and nutrition-related outcomes of adults with cancer undergoing cancer treatments, and to identify appetite assessment tools used to measure appetite. METHODS: Inclusion criteria included randomised controlled trials of adults with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or immunotherapy treatments, nutrition interventions and appetite assessed by an appetite assessment tool or quality of life tool. The search strategy was applied to four databases and two researchers systematically assessed for eligibility. Following data extraction, quality of the included library was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist: Primary Research. A narrative synthesis of results was undertaken. RESULTS: After title/abstract screening, 24 full texts were assessed for eligibility; five trials of n = 472 participants were included in the final library. Nutrition interventions that improved appetite were oral nutrition supplements, fish oil supplements and dietary counselling. Appetite was assessed via visual analogue scales (n = 1) and EORTC QLQ C30 questionnaire (n = 4). Quality was assessed as neutral in 2 studies and positive in 3 studies. CONCLUSION: The use of oral nutrition supplements and dietary counselling and increases in EPA from fish oil supplementation improved the appetite and nutrition outcomes of patients with cancer undergoing cancer treatments. Validated assessment tools in the oncology setting are needed to determine which nutrition interventions positively influence appetite outcomes.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Humanos
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