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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2022(59): 4-11, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health economics research is an integral part of the transdisciplinary research supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). To better understand NCI activities in this area, we conducted a portfolio analysis of funded NCI grants including health economics research. METHODS: We examined all competitive grants funded by NCI from fiscal years 2015 to 2020 that included economic analyses or outcomes. Grant titles, abstracts, and specific aims were independently reviewed by 2 study team members; content of included grants was then coded for analysis. RESULTS: A total 212 grants were identified from searches; 146 of these included economic analyses and were included in the portfolio analysis. These 146 grants represent approximately 0.9% of all NCI competitively funded grants awarded 2015-2020. Of these grants, 100 were R01 awards, representing approximately 2.4% of all NCI R01 grants funded 2015-2020. The most common study type was interventional randomized controlled-trial, followed by simulation or model. Screening and prevention were the most frequent grant cancer continuum topic; survivorship was included in only 16 grants (11.0%). Cost-effectiveness analysis was the most frequently listed economic outcome (97 grants, 66.4%), whereas policy impact (20 grants, 13.7%) and financial hardship (15 grants, 10.3%) were less-frequently included economic outcomes. However, economic outcomes differed by cancer control continuum topic, with financial hardship being included in a greater proportion of treatment and survivorship grants. CONCLUSIONS: Although relatively small, the NCI portfolio of funded grants including economic analyses is diverse, covering a range of cancer types, methods, and economic outcomes, and increasing over time.


Assuntos
Organização do Financiamento , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Neoplasias , Análise Custo-Benefício , Organização do Financiamento/economia , Humanos , National Cancer Institute (U.S.)/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 303, 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317774

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: A desire for better outcome influences cancer patients' willingness to pay. Whilst cancer-related costs are known to have a u-shaped distribution, the actual level of healthcare utilized by patients may vary depending on income and ability to pay. This study examined patterns of healthcare expenditures in the last year of life in patients with gastric, colorectal, lung, and liver cancer and analyzed whether differences exist in the level of end-of-life costs for cancer care according to economic status. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study which used data from the Korean National Elderly Sampled Cohort, 2002 to 2015. End-of-life was defined as 1 year before death. Economic status was classified into three categorical variables according to the level of insurance premium (quantiles). The relationship between the dependent and independent variables were analyzed using multiple gamma regression based on the generalized estimated equation (GEE) model. RESULTS: This study included 3083 cancer patients, in which total healthcare expenditure was highest in the high-income group. End-of-life costs increased the most in the last 3 months of life. Compared to individuals in the 'middle' economic status group, those in the 'high' economic status group (RR 1.095, 95% CI 1.044-1.149) were likely to spend higher amounts. The percentage of individuals visiting a general hospital was highest in the 'high' economic status group, followed by the 'middle' and 'low' economic status groups. CONCLUSION: Healthcare costs for cancer care increased at end-of-life in Korea. Patients of higher economic status tended to spender higher amounts of end-of-life costs for cancer care. Further in-depth studies are needed considering that end-of-life medical costs constitute a large proportion of overall expenditures. This study offers insight by showing that expenditures for cancer care tend to increase noticeably in the last 3 months of life and that differences exist in the amount spent according economic status.


Assuntos
Status Econômico , Gastos em Saúde , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/terapia , Assistência Terminal/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Anticancer Res ; 42(3): 1433-1437, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35220236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Immunotherapy with PD-1/PDL1 blocking monoclonal antibodies has improved survival compared to the standard-of-care chemotherapy for several malignancies at different stages of these malignancies. Due to several reasons, many cancer patients in medical need have no access to these drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a low dose of nivolumab could also lead to a therapeutic response. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced cancer were treated with a flat low dose of 10 mg of nivolumab IV every two weeks at no drug cost. RESULTS: Disease control was noted in nine of the 18 patients. Two patients achieved complete remission, two had prolonged partial remission, and five had stable disease, of these only two experienced adverse events. CONCLUSION: A flat low dose of nivolumab may have clinical activity and is a cheap therapeutic option in patients in medical need for whom standard-dose immune checkpoint inhibitors are not accessible for any reason.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/economia , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 121, 2022 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between insurance status and interhospital transfers has not been adequately researched among cancer patients. Hence this study aimed for understanding this relationship using a nationally representative database. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data collected during 2010-2016 and included all cancer hospitalization between 18 and 64 years of age. Interhospital transfers were compared based on insurance status (Medicare, Medicaid, private, and uninsured). Weighted multivariable logistic regressions were used to calculate the odds of interhospital transfers based on insurance status, after adjusting for many covariates. RESULTS: There were 3,580,908 weighted cancer hospitalizations, of which 72,353 (2.02%) had interhospital transfers. Uninsured patients had significantly higher rates of interhospital transfers, compared to those with Medicare (P = 0.005) and private insurance (P < 0.001). Privately insured patients had significantly lower rates of interhospital transfers, compared to those with Medicare (P < 0.001) and Medicaid (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of having interhospital transfers were significantly higher among uninsured (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.57, 95% CI: 1.45-1.69), Medicare (aOR, 1.38, 95% CI: 1.32-1.45) and Medicaid (aOR, 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16-1.30) patients when compared to those with private insurance coverages. CONCLUSION: Among cancer patients, uninsured and Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries were more likely to experience interhospital transfers. In addition to medical reasons, factors such as affordability and socioeconomic status are influencing interhospital transfer decisions, indicating existing healthcare disparities. Further studies should focus on identifying the causal associations between factors explored in this study as well as additional unexplored factors.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/economia , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
9.
Health Serv Res ; 57(1): 159-171, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To (1) characterize change in type of insurance coverage among childhood cancer survivors from diagnosis to survivorship and (2) examine whether insurance change is associated with cancer-related follow-up care utilization. DATA SOURCES: Participants in this study were derived from the Project Forward study, a population-based, observational study of childhood cancer survivors in Los Angeles County that used California Cancer Registry data to identify participants. STUDY DESIGN: Multivariable logistic regression models incorporating survey nonresponse weights estimated the change in the marginal predicted probabilities of insurance change and survivorship care, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical covariates and clustering by treating hospital. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Study participants were diagnosed with cancer who were younger than age 20 years while living in Los Angeles County from 1996 to 2010 and were older than the age 18 years at the time of survey participation, from 2015 to 2017 (N = 1106). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Most participants were 18-26 years of age, male, diagnosed before 2004, Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity, single, without children, highly educated, not employed full time, and lived with their parents at survey. Almost half (N = 529) of participants experienced insurance change from diagnosis to survivorship. Insurance change was associated with insurance coverage at diagnosis, as those who were uninsured were most likely to experience change and gain coverage during survivorship (by 51 percentage points [ppt], standard error [SE] of 0.05). Survivors who experienced any change had decreased probability of reporting a recent cancer-related follow-up care visit, a disparity that was magnified for those who lost insurance coverage (-5 ppt, SE 0.02 for those who gained coverage; -15 ppt, SE 0.04 for those who lost coverage). CONCLUSIONS: Insurance coverage change was associated with lower cancer-related follow-up care utilization. Indeed, survivors who experienced any insurance coverage change had decreased probability of having a cancer-related follow-up care visit, and this was magnified for those who lost their insurance coverage.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Sobrevivência , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Cancer ; 150(4): 580-593, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569617

RESUMO

When someone dies prematurely from cancer this represents a loss of productivity for society. This loss can be valued and provides a measure of the cancer burden. We estimated paid and unpaid productivity lost due to cancer-related premature mortality in 31 European countries in 2018. Lost productivity was estimated for all cancers combined and 23 cancer sites, overall, by region and country. Deaths aged 15 to 64 were abstracted from GLOBOCAN 2018. Unpaid time lost (housework, caring, volunteering) was derived from Eurostat. Paid and unpaid productivity losses were valued using the human capital approach. In total, 347,149 premature cancer deaths occurred (60% male). The total value of cancer-related lost productivity was €104.6 billion. Of this, €52.9 billion (50.6%) was due to lost paid work, and €51.7 billion (49.4%) to unpaid work. Females accounted for 36.7% of paid work costs but half (51.1%) of the unpaid work costs. Costs were highest in Western Europe (€52.0 billion). The most costly cancer was lung (€21.7 billion), followed by breast (€10.6 billion). The average loss per premature death was highest for Hodgkin's lymphoma (€506 345), melanoma (€450 694), brain cancer (€428 449) and leukaemia (€378 750). Cancer-related lost productivity costs are significant. Almost half are due to unpaid work losses, indicating the importance of considering both paid and unpaid labour in assessing the cancer economic burden. The high cost per premature death of some less common cancers illustrates the potential benefits that could accrue from investment in prevention and control of these cancers.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Eficiência , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/economia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Nutr ; 41(1): 186-191, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34891021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Disease-related malnutrition (DRM) coding rate is usually low in hospitalised patients. The objective of our study was to estimate the percentage of correct DRM coding in cancer inpatients and to calculate the economic losses caused by such lack of coding. METHODS: This was an observational, prospective study that was conducted in patients hospitalised in the Medical Oncology Unit of our hospital. A nutritional assessment was performed through subjective global assessment (SGA). The all patient refined-diagnosis related group (APR-DRG) weights were obtained at the moment of discharge; moreover, recalculation was done after including the diagnosis of malnutrition in the medical record of those patients in whom it had not been initially coded. The associated cost reimbursement were calculated based on the weight before and after revising the diagnosis of DRM. RESULTS: A total of 266 patients were evaluated. From them, 220 (82.7%) suffered from DRM according to the SGA. In 137 (51.5%) of these patients, diagnosis was coded, as opposed to 83 (31.2%) cases (33 subjects with moderate and 50 with severe DRM) in whom it was not coded. The sum of the APR-DRG weights before revising the diagnosis of malnutrition was 343.4 points (mean: 1.29 ± 0.89). Whereas, after revising the diagnosis, it increased up to 384.3 (1.44 ± 0.96). The total cost reimbursement for the hospital before revising the diagnosis of malnutrition was 1,607,861.21€ and after revision it increased up to 1,799,199.69€, which means that 191,338.48€ were not reimbursed to the hospital due to the lack of coding of malnutrition. The cost reimbursement for each admission increased an average of 719.32€. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of DRM in cancer inpatients is high. Nevertheless, the diagnosis is not coded in one third of patients, which results in important economic losses for the hospitals.


Assuntos
Codificação Clínica/economia , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/economia , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Avaliação Nutricional , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Int J Cancer ; 150(9): 1497-1503, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927724

RESUMO

COVID-19 disruptions severely impacted access to health services for noncommunicable diseases, including cancer, but few studies have examined patient perspectives of COVID-19-induced barriers to care in low/middle-income countries. Data come from a survey completed online, over the phone or in person of 284 adult people with cancer in Kenya. One-third (36%) of participants had primary or no education and 34% had some or complete secondary education. Half of the participants (49%) were aged 40 to 59, 21% were 18 to 39 and 23% were 60 or older. Two-thirds were female (65%) and most visited a national referral hospital in Nairobi to receive care (84%). Mean travel time to Nairobi from the respondent county of residence was 2.47 hours (±2.73). Most participants reported decreased household income (88%) and were worried about their ability to afford cancer treatment due to COVID-19 (79%). After covariate adjustment, participants who lost access to hospitals due to COVID-19 travel restrictions were 15 times more likely to experience a cancer care delay (OR = 14.90, 95% CI: 7.44-29.85) compared to those with continued access to hospitals. Every additional hour of travel time to Nairobi from their county of residence resulted in a 20% increase in the odds of a cancer care delay (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.36). Transportation needs and uninterrupted access to cancer care and medicines should be accounted for in COVID-19 mitigation strategies. These strategies include permits for cancer patients and caregivers to travel past curfew time or through block posts to receive care during lockdowns, cash assistance and involving patient navigators to improve patient communication.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tempo para o Tratamento , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(12): e541-e549, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856151

RESUMO

Although financial toxicity is widely acknowledged to be a potential consequence of costly cancer treatment, little is known about its prevalence and outcome among the Indian population. In this study, we systematically reviewed the prevalence, determinants, and consequences of financial toxicity among patients with cancer in India. 22 studies were included in the systematic review. The determinants of financial toxicity include household income, type of health-care facility used, stage of disease, area of residence, age at the time of diagnosis, recurrent cancer, educational status, insurance coverage, and treatment modality. Financial toxicity was associated with poor quality of life, accumulation of debts, premature entry into the labour market, and non-compliance with therapy. Our findings emphasise the need for urgent strategies to mitigate financial toxicity among patients with cancer in India, especially in the most deprived sections of society. The qualitative evidence synthesised in this systematic review could provide a basis for the development of such interventions to reduce financial toxicity among patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Estresse Financeiro/epidemiologia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/terapia , Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2134282, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935922

RESUMO

Importance: The financial burden of a cancer diagnosis is increasing rapidly with advances in cancer care. Simultaneously, more individuals are enrolling in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) vs traditional insurance than ever before. Objective: To characterize the out-of-pocket costs (OOPCs) of cancer care for individuals in HDHPs vs traditional insurance plans. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used the administrative claims data of a single national insurer in the US for 134 826 patients aged 18 to 63 years with a new diagnosis of breast, colorectal, lung, or other cancer from 2008 to 2018 with 24 months or more of continuous enrollment. Propensity score matching was performed to create comparator groups based on the presence or absence of an incident cancer diagnosis. Exposures: A new cancer diagnosis and enrollment in an HDHP vs a traditional health insurance plan. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was OOPCs among individuals with breast, colon, lung, or all other types of cancer combined compared with those with no cancer diagnosis. A triple difference-in-differences analysis was performed to identify incremental OOPCs based on cancer diagnosis and enrollment in HDHPs vs traditional plans. Results: After propensity score matching, 134 826 patients remained in each of the cancer (73 572 women [55%]; median age, 53 years [IQR, 46-58 years]; 110 071 non-Hispanic White individuals [82%]) and noncancer (66 619 women [49%]; median age, 53 years [IQR, 46-59 years]; 105 023 non-Hispanic White individuals [78%]) cohorts. Compared with baseline costs of medical care among individuals without cancer, a breast cancer diagnosis was associated with the highest incremental OOPC ($714.68; 95% CI, $664.91-$764.45), followed by lung ($475.51; 95% CI, $340.16-$610.86), colorectal ($361.41; 95% CI, $294.34-$428.48), and all other types of cancer combined ($90.51; 95% CI, $74.22-$106.79). Based on the triple difference-in-differences analysis, compared with patients without cancer enrolled in HDHPs, those with breast cancer paid $1683.36 in additional yearly OOPCs (95% CI, $1576.66-$1790.07), those with colorectal cancer paid $1420.06 more (95% CI, $1232.31-$1607.80), those with lung cancer paid $467.25 more (95% CI, $130.13-$804.37), and those with other types of cancer paid $550.87 more (95% CI, $514.75-$586.99). Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with cancer and private insurance experienced sharp increases in OOPCs compared with those without cancer, which was amplified among those with HDHPs. These findings illustrate the degree to which HDHPs offer poorer protection than traditional insurance against unexpected health care expenses. Coupled with the increasing cost of cancer care, higher cost sharing in the form of increasing enrollment in HDHPs requires further research on the potential clinical consequences through delayed or foregone care.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Neoplasias do Colo/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(12): 3755-3762, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rising cost of cancer diagnosis and treatment has imposed a huge financial burden on the affected households. Understanding the nature of this burden will help us to formulate plans to avoid financial distress among the same. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to estimate the Out of Pocket Expenditure (OOPE) for the management of selected solid cancers among the Out-Patient Department (OPD) of Regional Cancer Centre in South India and to determine the proportion of families experiencing Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) due to the same. METHODS: A hospital based cross sectional analytical study was undertaken in the authors' institute in South India. 474 solid cancer patients were interviewed in OPD of Radiation Oncology by a trained data collector. Sociodemographic variables, costs incurred under various headings and expenditure details of participants were obtained. Direct Medical and Direct Non-Medical costs were calculated, and its total was used as the OOPE. Costs were presented as mean with its standard error. Incidence of CHE was calculated using the 40% threshold on the Capacity to pay and was expressed as proportions with 95% confidence interval. Appropriate statistical tests were used to look for statistically significant differences in the study groups. RESULTS: The average OOP expenditure incurred by a cancer patient was INR 35,817 (USD 523.6) for male and INR 20,496 (USD 299.6) for female. Males had a significantly higher OOPE than females. The prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) was 61.6% at the 40% CTP threshold. Patients who used insurance schemes had higher prevalence of CHE than those who did not use insurance schemes (65.5% vs 60.7%, p value 0.351). CONCLUSION: Cancer care provided through public institutions had a low direct medical cost, but the indirect cost seemed to be extremely high. Public based financial assistance is the need of the hour to help the cancer affected families.


Assuntos
Doença Catastrófica/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estresse Financeiro/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estresse Financeiro/etiologia , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259936, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780556

RESUMO

Increasing oncological treatment costs are a major global concern with the risk of entailing two-tiered health care. Among cost determining factors is the price of individual drugs. In recognition of the central role of this factor, we present a comprehensive overview of the development of monthly prices of oncological drugs introduced over the last 15 years in Switzerland. We identified all oncological drugs newly reimbursed by mandatory health insurance in 2005-2019, and searched public repositories for their package prices, indications with approval dates, and treatment regimens for the calculation of (indication-specific) monthly prices. We found 81 products covering 77 different substances (39.5% protein kinase inhibitors, 21.0% monoclonal antibodies). Most indications related to the topography "blood", followed by "lung and thorax" and "digestive tract". From 2005­2009 to 2015­2019, the median monthly product price over all distinct indications of all products decreased by 7.56% (CHF 5,699 [interquartile range 4,483­7,321] to CHF 5,268 [4,019­6,967]), whereas it increased by 73.7% for monoclonal antibodies. In December 2019, six products had monthly prices over CHF 10,000, all approved for hematological or dermatological cancers. Our analysis suggests that individual price developments of oncological drugs are presently not the major driver of rising cancer treatment costs. However, rising launch prices of some new, mostly hematological drugs are of concern and require continued monitoring.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/tendências , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/classificação , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Neoplasias/economia , Suíça
18.
JAMA ; 326(18): 1829-1839, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751709

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: In 2016, the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services initiated the Oncology Care Model (OCM), an alternative payment model designed to improve the value of care delivered to Medicare beneficiaries with cancer. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of the OCM with changes in Medicare spending, utilization, quality, and patient experience during the OCM's first 3 years. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Exploratory difference-in-differences study comparing care during 6-month chemotherapy episodes in OCM participating practices and propensity-matched comparison practices initiated before (January 2014 through June 2015) and after (July 2016 through December 2018) the start of the OCM. Participants included Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with cancer treated at these practices through June 2019. EXPOSURES: OCM participation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Total episode payments (Medicare spending for Parts A, B, and D, not including monthly payments for enhanced oncology services); utilization and payments for hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) visits, office visits, chemotherapy, supportive care, and imaging; quality (chemotherapy-associated hospitalizations and ED visits, timely chemotherapy, end-of-life care, and survival); and patient experiences. RESULTS: Among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, 483 319 beneficiaries (mean age, 73.0 [SD, 8.7] years; 60.1% women; 987 332 episodes) were treated at 201 OCM participating practices, and 557 354 beneficiaries (mean age, 72.9 [SD, 9.0] years; 57.4% women; 1 122 597 episodes) were treated at 534 comparison practices. From the baseline period, total episode payments increased from $28 681 for OCM episodes and $28 421 for comparison episodes to $33 211 for OCM episodes and $33 249 for comparison episodes during the intervention period (difference in differences, -$297; 90% CI, -$504 to -$91), less than the mean $704 Monthly Enhanced Oncology Services payments. Relative decreases in total episode payments were primarily for Part B nonchemotherapy drug payments (difference in differences, -$145; 90% CI, -$218 to -$72), especially supportive care drugs (difference in differences, -$150; 90% CI, -$216 to -$84). The OCM was associated with statistically significant relative reductions in total episode payments among higher-risk episodes (difference in differences, -$503; 90% CI, -$802 to -$204) and statistically significant relative increases in total episode payments among lower-risk episodes (difference in differences, $151; 90% CI, $39-$264). The OCM was not significantly associated with differences in hospitalizations, ED visits, or survival. Of 22 measures of utilization, 10 measures of quality, and 7 measures of care experiences, only 5 were significantly different. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this exploratory analysis, the OCM was significantly associated with modest payment reductions during 6-month episodes for Medicare beneficiaries receiving chemotherapy for cancer in the first 3 years of the OCM that did not offset the monthly payments for enhanced oncology services. There were no statistically significant differences for most utilization, quality, and patient experience outcomes.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Medicare/economia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Mecanismo de Reembolso , Idoso , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Redução de Custos , Atenção à Saúde , Cuidado Periódico , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia , Neoplasias/economia , Estados Unidos
19.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(12): e1750-e1757, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inclusive universal health coverage requires access to quality health care without financial barriers. Receipt of palliative care after advanced cancer diagnosis might reduce household poverty, but evidence from low-income and middle-income settings is sparse. METHODS: In this prospective study, the primary objective was to investigate total household costs of cancer-related health care after a diagnosis of advanced cancer, with and without the receipt of palliative care. Households comprising patients and their unpaid family caregiver were recruited into a cohort study at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Malawi, between Jan 16 and July 31, 2019. Costs of cancer-related health-care use (including palliative care) and health-related quality-of-life were recorded over 6 months. Regression analysis explored associations between receipt of palliative care and total household costs on health care as a proportion of household income. Catastrophic costs, defined as 20% or more of total household income, sale of assets and loans taken out (dissaving), and their association with palliative care were computed. FINDINGS: We recruited 150 households. At 6 months, data from 89 (59%) of 150 households were available, comprising 89 patients (median age 50 years, 79% female) and 64 caregivers (median age 40 years, 73% female). Patients in 55 (37%) of the 150 households died and six (4%) were lost to follow-up. 19 (21%) of 89 households received palliative care. Catastrophic costs were experienced by nine (47%) of 19 households who received palliative care versus 48 (69%) of 70 households who did not (relative risk 0·69, 95% CI 0·42 to 1·14, p=0·109). Palliative care was associated with substantially reduced dissaving (median US$11, IQR 0 to 30 vs $34, 14 to 75; p=0·005). The mean difference in total household costs on cancer-related health care with receipt of palliative care was -36% (95% CI -94 to 594; p=0·707). INTERPRETATION: Vulnerable households in low-income countries are subject to catastrophic health-related costs following a diagnosis of advanced cancer. Palliative care might result in reduced dissaving in these households. Further consideration of the economic benefits of palliative care is justified. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust; National Institute for Health Research; and EMMS International.


Assuntos
Doença Catastrófica/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Financiamento Pessoal/economia , Neoplasias/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Malaui , Masculino , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Pobreza/economia , Estudos Prospectivos , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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