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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1255: 165-173, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949399

RESUMO

PI3K inhibitors are a common area of research in finding a successful treatment of cancer. The PI3K pathway is important for cell growth, apoptosis, cell metabolism, cell survival, and a multitude of other functions. There are multiple isoforms of PI3K that can be broken down into three categories: class I, II, and III. Each isoform has at least one subunit that helps with the functionality of the isoform. Mutations found in the PI3K isoforms are commonly seen in many different types of cancer and the use of inhibitors is being tested to stop the cell survival of cancer cells. Individual PI3K inhibitors have shown some inhibition of the pathway; however, there is room for improvement. To better treat cancer, PI3K inhibitors are being combined with other pathway inhibitors. These combination therapies have shown better results with cancer treatments. Both the monotherapy and dual therapy treatments are still currently being studied and data collected to better understand cancer and other treatment options.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/farmacologia , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Isoformas de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Life Sci ; 259: 118387, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890603

RESUMO

Telomerase is a nucleoprotein reverse transcriptase that maintains the telomere, a protective structure at the ends of the chromosome, and is active in cancer cells, stem cells, and fetal cells. Telomerase immortalizes cancer cells and induces unlimited cell division by preventing telomere shortening. Immortalized cancer cells have unlimited proliferative potential due to telomerase activity that causes tumorigenesis and malignancy. Therefore, telomerase can be a lucrative anti-cancer target. The regulation of catalytic subunit of telomerase (TERT) determines the extent of telomerase activity. miRNAs, as an endogenous regulator of gene expression, can control telomerase activity by targeting TERT mRNA. miRNAs that have a decreasing effect on TERT translation mediate modulation of telomerase activity in cancer cells by binding to TERT mRNA and regulating TERT translation. In this review, we provide an update on miRNAs that influence telomerase activity by regulation of TERT translation.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Telomerase/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1274: 203-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894512

RESUMO

The lipid kinases that generate the lipid signalling phosphoinositides have been established as fundamental signalling enzymes that control numerous aspects of how cells respond to their extracellular environment. In addition, they play critical roles in regulating membrane trafficking and lipid transport within the cell. The class I phosphoinositide kinases which generate the critical lipid signal PIP3 are hyperactivated in numerous human pathologies including cancer, overgrowth syndromes, and primary immunodeficiencies. The type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta isoform (PI4KB), which are evolutionarily similar to the class I PI3Ks, have been found to be essential host factors mediating the replication of numerous devastating pathogenic viruses. Finally, targeting the parasite variant of PI4KB has been established as one of the most promising strategies for the development of anti-malarial and anti-cryptosporidium strategies. Therefore, the development of targeted isoform selective inhibitors for these enzymes are of paramount importance. The first generation of PI3K inhibitors have recently been clinically approved for a number of different cancers, highlighting their therapeutic value. This review will examine the history of the class I PI3Ks, and the type III PI4Ks, their relevance to human disease, and the structural basis for their regulation and inhibition by potent and selective inhibitors.


Assuntos
1-Fosfatidilinositol 4-Quinase/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , 1-Fosfatidilinositol 4-Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/enzimologia , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Doenças Parasitárias/enzimologia , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/farmacologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/enzimologia , Viroses/enzimologia
4.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(11): 2721-2730, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772231

RESUMO

Activation Induced cytidine Deaminase (AID) is an essential enzyme of the adaptive immune system. Its canonical activity is restricted to B lymphocytes, playing an essential role in the diversification of antibodies by enhancing specificity and changing affinity. This is possible through its DNA deaminase function, leading to mutations in DNA. In the last decade, AID has been assigned an additional function: that of a powerful DNA demethylator. Adverse cellular conditions such as chronic inflammation can lead to its deregulation and overexpression. It is an important driver of B-cell lymphoma due to its natural ability to modify DNA through deamination, leading to mutations and epigenetic changes. However, the deregulation of AID is not restricted to lymphoid cells. Recent findings have provided new insights into the role that this protein plays in the development of non-lymphoid cancers, with some research shedding light on novel AID-driven mechanisms of cellular transformation. In this review, we provide an updated narrative of the normal physiological functions of AID. Additionally, we review and discuss the recent research studies that have implicated AID in carcinogenesis in varying tissue types including lymphoid and non-lymphoid cancers. We review the mechanisms, whereby AID promotes carcinogenesis and highlight important areas of future research.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/fisiologia , Citidina Desaminase/fisiologia , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Animais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia
5.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 504-520.e9, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707033

RESUMO

Protein kinases are essential for signal transduction and control of most cellular processes, including metabolism, membrane transport, motility, and cell cycle. Despite the critical role of kinases in cells and their strong association with diseases, good coverage of their interactions is available for only a fraction of the 535 human kinases. Here, we present a comprehensive mass-spectrometry-based analysis of a human kinase interaction network covering more than 300 kinases. The interaction dataset is a high-quality resource with more than 5,000 previously unreported interactions. We extensively characterized the obtained network and were able to identify previously described, as well as predict new, kinase functional associations, including those of the less well-studied kinases PIM3 and protein O-mannose kinase (POMK). Importantly, the presented interaction map is a valuable resource for assisting biomedical studies. We uncover dozens of kinase-disease associations spanning from genetic disorders to complex diseases, including cancer.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/enzimologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Distrofias Musculares/enzimologia , Distrofias Musculares/genética , Distrofias Musculares/patologia , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/enzimologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/classificação , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(1): 1-19, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621419

RESUMO

Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are the major components of ubiquitin-proteasome system, responsible for ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of thousands of cellular proteins. CRLs play vital roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, including cell cycle, cell apoptosis, DNA replication, signalling transduction among the others, and are frequently dysregulated in many human cancers. The discovery of specific neddylation inhibitors, represented by MLN4924, has validated CRLs as promising targets for anti-cancer therapies with a growing market. Recent studies have focused on the discovery of the CRLs inhibitors by a variety of approaches, including high through-put screen, virtual screen or structure-based drug design. The field is, however, still facing the major challenging, since CRLs are a large multi-unit protein family without typical active pockets to facilitate the drug design, and enzymatic activity is mainly dependent on undruggable protein-protein interactions and dynamic conformation changes. Up to now, most reported CRLs inhibitors are aiming at targeting the F-box family proteins (e.g., SKP2, ß-TrCP and FBXW7), the substrate recognition subunit of SCF E3 ligases. Other studies reported few small molecule inhibitors targeting the UBE2M-DCN1 interaction, which specifically inhibits CRL3/CRL1 by blocking the cullin neddylation. On the other hand, several CRL activators have been reported, such as plant auxin and immunomodulatory imide drugs, thalidomide. Finally, proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) has emerged as a new technology in the field of drug discovery, specifically targeting the undruggable protein-protein interaction. The technique connects the small molecule that selectively binds to a target protein to a CRL E3 via a chemical linker to trigger the degradation of target protein. The PROTAC has become a hotspot in the field of E3-ligase-based anti-cancer drug discovery.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Descoberta de Drogas , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4547-4556, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K), a cancer therapeutic target, has been exploited for cancer therapy. The natural compounds flavonoids have increasingly been shown to possess anticancer activity. The current study aimed to explore all known flavonoids for their ability to inhibit PI3Kγ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virtual screening of flavonoids using molecular docking to the ATP binding site of PI3Kγ was performed. The top 10 scoring flavonoids were selected for pose analysis and binding strength scores. RESULTS: Molecular docking revealed that the 10 selected flavonoids might inhibit PI3Kγ kinase activity. Literature search did not identify studies reporting a bioassay activity for any of these compounds. CONCLUSION: All 10 selected flavonoids are potential PI3Kγ kinase inhibitors and anticancer agents. Interestingly, one of the 10 least scoring flavonoids has been reported to be inactive, as expected, and thus validating the accuracy of the results.


Assuntos
Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/química , Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação por Computador , Regulação para Baixo , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Flavonoides/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 89: 102070, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711246

RESUMO

RAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers, with mutations in about 30% of all cancers. RAS exists in three different isoforms (K-RAS, H-RAS and N-RAS) with high sequence homology. K-RAS is the most commonly mutated RAS isoform. The Ras protein is a membrane bound protein with inherent GTPase activity and is activated by numerous extracellular stimuli, cycling between an inactive (GDP-bound) and active (GTP-bound) form. When bound to GTP, it is switched "on" and activates intracellular signaling pathways, critical for cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Mutated RAS is constitutively activated and persistently turned "on" thereby enhancing downstream signaling and leading to tumorigenesis. Various attempts to inhibit Kras in the past were unsuccessful. Recently, several small molecules (AMG510, MRTX849, JNJ-74699157, and LY3499446) have been developed to specifically target K-RAS G12C. Additionally, various other approaches including, SHP2, SOS1 and eIF4 inhibition, have been utilized to abrogate tumor growth in K-RAS mutant cells, resulting in a renewed interest in this pathway. In this review article, we provide an overview on the role of K-RAS in tumorigenesis, past approaches to inhibiting Kras, and current and future prospects for targeting Kras.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Animais , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Life Sci ; 257: 118115, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698073

RESUMO

Telomerase plays a significant role to maintain and regulate the telomere length, cellular immortality and senescence by the addition of guanine-rich repetitive sequences. Chronic inflammation or oxidative stress-induced infection downregulates TERT gene modifying telomerase activity thus contributing to the early steps of gastric carcinogenesis process. Furthermore, telomere-telomerase system performs fundamental role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes mellitus as well as in its vascular intricacy. The cessation of cell proliferation in cultured cells by inhibiting the telomerase activity of transformed cells renders the rationale for culling of telomerase as a target therapy for the treatment of metabolic disorders and various types of cancers. In this article, we have briefly described the role of immune system and malignant cells in the expression of telomerase with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future studies. The key findings regarding the secrets of the telomerase summarized in this article will help in future treatment modalities for the prevention of various types of cancers and metabolic disorders notably diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Telomerase/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/enzimologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Telomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Telomerase/fisiologia , Encurtamento do Telômero
10.
Adv Cancer Res ; 148: 147-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723562

RESUMO

The mammalian cell cycle is driven by a complex of cyclins and their associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Abnormal dysregulation of cyclin-CDK is a hallmark of cancer. D-type cyclins and their associated CDKs (CDK4 and CDK6) are key components of cell cycle machinery in driving G1 to S phase transition via phosphorylating and inactivating the retinoblastoma protein (RB). A body of evidence shows that the cyclin Ds-CDKs axis plays a critical role in cancer through various aspects, such as control of proliferation, senescence, migration, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. CDK4/6 dual-inhibitors show significant efficacy in pre-clinical or clinical cancer therapies either as single agents or in combination with hormone, chemotherapy, irradiation or immune treatments. Of note, as the associated partner of D-type cyclins, CDK6 shows multiple distinct functions from CDK4 in cancer. Depletion of the individual CDK may provide a therapeutic strategy for patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Ciclina D/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ciclina D/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Fosforilação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
11.
Nature ; 585(7824): 288-292, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641834

RESUMO

The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is necessary for tumour growth1-6 and its inhibition has demonstrated anti-tumour efficacy in combination with targeted therapies7-9. Furthermore, human brain and lung tumours display robust glucose oxidation by mitochondria10,11. However, it is unclear why a functional ETC is necessary for tumour growth in vivo. ETC function is coupled to the generation of ATP-that is, oxidative phosphorylation and the production of metabolites by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Mitochondrial complexes I and II donate electrons to ubiquinone, resulting in the generation of ubiquinol and the regeneration of the NAD+ and FAD cofactors, and complex III oxidizes ubiquinol back to ubiquinone, which also serves as an electron acceptor for dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)-an enzyme necessary for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Here we show impaired tumour growth in cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III. This phenotype was rescued by ectopic expression of Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX)12, which also oxidizes ubiquinol to ubiquinone. Loss of mitochondrial complex I, II or DHODH diminished the tumour growth of AOX-expressing cancer cells deficient in mitochondrial complex III, which highlights the necessity of ubiquinone as an electron acceptor for tumour growth. Cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III but can regenerate NAD+ by expression of the NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis (LbNOX)13 targeted to the mitochondria or cytosol were still unable to grow tumours. This suggests that regeneration of NAD+ is not sufficient to drive tumour growth in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that tumour growth requires the ETC to oxidize ubiquinol, which is essential to drive the oxidative TCA cycle and DHODH activity.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Ciona intestinalis/enzimologia , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Citosol/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus brevis/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19221-19227, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719139

RESUMO

Despite the outstanding success of the cancer drug imatinib, one obstacle in prolonged treatment is the emergence of resistance mutations within the kinase domain of its target, Abl. We noticed that many patient-resistance mutations occur in the dynamic hot spots recently identified to be responsible for imatinib's high selectivity toward Abl. In this study, we provide an experimental analysis of the mechanism underlying drug resistance for three major resistance mutations (G250E, Y253F, and F317L). Our data settle controversies, revealing unexpected resistance mechanisms. The mutations alter the energy landscape of Abl in complex ways: increased kinase activity, altered affinity, and cooperativity for the substrates, and, surprisingly, only a modestly decreased imatinib affinity. Only under cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations, these changes cumulate in an order of magnitude increase in imatinib's half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). These results highlight the importance of characterizing energy landscapes of targets and its changes by drug binding and by resistance mutations developed by patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Proteínas Oncogênicas v-abl/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas v-abl/química , Proteínas Oncogênicas v-abl/metabolismo
13.
Life Sci ; 255: 117866, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479955

RESUMO

The PIM Kinases belong to the family of a proto-oncogene that essentially phosphorylates the serine/threonine residues of the target proteins. They are primarily categorized into three types PIM-1, PIM-2, PIM-3 which plays an indispensable regulatory role in signal transduction cascades, by promoting cell survival, proliferation, and drug resistance. These kinases are overexpressed in several solid as well as hematopoietic tumors which supports in vitro and in vivo malignant cell growth along with survival by regulating cell cycle and inhibiting apoptosis. They lack regulatory domain which makes them constitutively active once transcribed. PIM kinases usually appear to be important downstream effectors of oncoproteins which overexpresses and helps in mediating drug resistance to available agents, such as rapamycin. Structural studies of PIM kinases revealed that they have unique hinge regions where two Proline resides and makes ATP binding unique, by offering a target for an increasing number of potent PIM kinase inhibitors. Preclinical studies of those inhibitory compounds in various cancers indicate that these novel agents show promising activity and some of them currently being under examination. In this review, we have outlined PIM kinases molecular mechanism and signaling pathways along with matriculation in various cancer and list of inhibitors often used.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Adv Cancer Res ; 147: 1-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593398

RESUMO

Growth factors and their receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), a group of transmembrane molecules harboring cytoplasm-facing tyrosine-specific kinase functions, play essential roles in migration of multipotent cell populations and rapid proliferation of stem cells' descendants, transit amplifying cells, during embryogenesis and tissue repair. These intrinsic functions are aberrantly harnessed when cancer cells undergo intertwined phases of cell migration and proliferation during cancer progression. For example, by means of clonal expansion growth factors fixate the rarely occurring driver mutations, which initiate tumors. Likewise, autocrine and stromal growth factors propel angiogenesis and penetration into the newly sprouted vessels, which enable seeding micro-metastases at distant organs. We review genetic and other mechanisms that preempt ligand-mediated activation of RTKs, thereby supporting sustained cancer progression. The widespread occurrence of aberrant RTKs and downstream signaling pathways in cancer, identifies molecular targets suitable for pharmacological intervention. We list all clinically approved cancer drugs that specifically intercept oncogenic RTKs. These are mainly tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, which can inhibit cancer but inevitably become progressively less effective due to adaptive rewiring processes or emergence of new mutations, processes we overview. Similarly important are patient treatments making use of radiation, chemotherapeutic agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The many interfaces linking RTK-targeted therapies and these systemic or local regimens are described in details because of the great promise offered by combining pharmacological modalities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Adv Cancer Res ; 147: 109-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593399

RESUMO

The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are among the first layer of molecules that receive, interpret, and transduce signals leading to distinct cancer cell phenotypes. Since the discovery of the tooth-lid factor-later characterized as the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-and its high-affinity binding EGF receptor, HER kinases have emerged as one of the commonly upregulated or hyperactivated or mutated kinases in epithelial tumors, thus allowing HER1-3 family members to regulate several hallmarks of cancer development and progression. Each member of the HER family exhibits shared and unique structural features to engage multiple receptor activation modes, leading to a range of overlapping and distinct phenotypes. EGFR, the founding HER family member, provided the roadmap for the development of the cell surface RTK-directed targeted cancer therapy by serving as a prototype/precursor for the currently used HER-directed cancer drugs. We herein provide a brief account of the discoveries, defining moments, and historical context of the HER family and guidepost advances in basic, translational, and clinical research that solidified a prominent position of the HER family in cancer research and treatment. We also discuss the significance of HER3 pseudokinase in cancer biology; its unique structural features that drive transregulation among HER1-3, leading to a superior proximal signaling response; and potential role of HER3 as a shared effector of acquired therapeutic resistance against diverse oncology drugs. Finally, we also narrate some of the current drawbacks of HER-directed therapies and provide insights into postulated advances in HER biology with extensive implications of these therapies in cancer research and treatment.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Adv Cancer Res ; 147: 161-188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593400

RESUMO

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is frequently expressed at elevated levels in different forms of cancer and expression often correlates positively with cancer progression and poor prognosis. Different mutant forms of this protein also contribute to cancer heterogeneity. A constitutively active form of EGFR, EGFRvIII is one of the most important variants. EGFR is responsible for the maintenance and functions of cancer stem cells (CSCs), including stemness, metabolism, immunomodulatory-activity, dormancy and therapy-resistance. EGFR regulates these pathways through several signaling cascades, and often cooperates with other RTKs to exert further control. Inhibitors of EGFR have been extensively studied and display some anticancer efficacy. However, CSCs can also acquire resistance to EGFR inhibitors making effective therapy even more difficult. To ameliorate this limitation of EGFR inhibitors when used as single agents, it may be of value to simultaneously combine multiple EGFR inhibitors or use EGFR inhibitors with regulators of other important cancer phenotype regulating molecules, such as STAT3, or involved in important processes such as DNA repair. These combinatorial approaches require further experimental confirmation, but if successful would expand and improve therapeutic outcomes employing EGFR inhibitors as one arm of the therapy.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/enzimologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Adv Cancer Res ; 147: 259-301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593403

RESUMO

First discovered in the 1984, the MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor or HGF (also known as scatter factor or SF) are implicated as key players in tumor cell migration, proliferation, and invasion in a variety of cancers. This pathway also plays a key role during embryogenesis in the development of muscular and nervous structures. High expression of the MET receptor has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. MET exon 14 splicing variants, initially identified by us in lung cancer, is actionable through various tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). For this reason, this pathway is of interest as a therapeutic target. In this chapter we will be discussing the history of MET, the genetics of this RTK, and give some background on the receptor biology. Furthermore, we will discuss directed therapeutics, mechanisms of resistance, and the future of MET as a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Adv Cancer Res ; 147: 303-317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593404

RESUMO

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are integral membrane sensors that govern cell differentiation, proliferation and mobility, and enable rapid communication between cells and their environment. Of the 20 RTK subfamilies currently known, Eph receptors are the largest group. Together with their corresponding ephrin ligands, Eph receptors regulate a diverse array of physiologic processes including axonal guidance, bone remodeling, and immune cell development and trafficking. Deregulation of Eph signaling pathways is linked to cancer and other proliferative diseases and, because RTKs play critical roles in cancer development, the specific targeting of these molecules in malignancies provides a promising treatment approach. Monoclonal antibodies targeting RTKs represent a potentially attractive modality for pharmaceutical development due to their relatively high target specificity and low off-target binding rates. Therefore, new technologies to generate antibodies able to target RTKs in their native in vivo context are likely to facilitate pre-clinical and clinical development of antibody-based therapies. Our group has recently reported a platform discovery methodology termed Selection of Phage-displayed Accessible Recombinant Targeted Antibodies (SPARTA). SPARTA is a novel and robust stepwise method, which combines the attributes of in vitro screenings of a naïve human recombinant antibody library against known tumor targets with those features of in vivo selections based on tumor-homing capabilities of a pre-enriched antibody pool. This unique approach overcomes several rate-limiting challenges to generate human monoclonal antibodies amenable to rapid translation into medical applications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores da Família Eph/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptores da Família Eph/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Adv Cancer Res ; 147: 59-107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593407

RESUMO

Signaling functions of plasma membrane-localized receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have been extensively studied after they were first described in the mid-1980s. Plasma membrane RTKs are activated by extracellular ligands and cellular stress stimuli, and regulate cellular responses by activating the downstream effector proteins to initiate a wide range of signaling cascades in the cells. However, increasing evidence indicates that RTKs can also be transported into the intracellular compartments where they phosphorylate traditional effector proteins and non-canonical substrate proteins. In general, internalization that retains the RTK's transmembrane domain begins with endocytosis, and endosomal RTK remains active before being recycled or degraded. Further RTK retrograde transport from endosome-Golgi-ER to the nucleus is primarily dependent on membranes vesicles and relies on the interaction with the COP-I vesicle complex, Sec61 translocon complex, and importin. Internalized RTKs have non-canonical substrates that include transcriptional co-factors and DNA damage response proteins, and many nuclear RTKs harbor oncogenic properties and can enhance cancer progression. Indeed, nuclear-localized RTKs have been shown to positively correlate with cancer recurrence, therapeutic resistance, and poor prognosis of cancer patients. Therefore, understanding the functions of nuclear RTKs and the mechanisms of nuclear RTK transport will further improve our knowledge to evaluate the potential of targeting nuclear RTKs or the proteins involved in their transport as new cancer therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/enzimologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Endocitose , Humanos , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Fosforilação , Transporte Proteico , Transdução de Sinais
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