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1.
Cancer Imaging ; 22(1): 44, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057635

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of incidental 68 Ga-DOTA-conjugated somatostatin receptor-targeting peptide PET/CT (SSTR PET/CT) findings, their clinical significance in the need for follow-up, and their risk of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies reporting incidental SSTR PET/CT findings were systematically searched in PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Web of Science literature published prior to 1st of May 2020. Studies were filtered by two independent readers for eligibility based on title and abstract, and subsequently on full text. The main exclusion criteria were: 1) pathological findings that matched scan indication, 2) known organ specific disease and/or incidental findings confirmed on other scan modality prior to SSTR PET/CT, 3) lack of diagnosis and/or follow up, and 4) results published in proceedings or conference abstracts. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies, comprising a total of 2906 subjects, were eligible for the analysis. Studies included were retrospective cohort studies on incidental SSTR PET/CT findings in a specific organ (n = 2888, 7/21) or case reports (n = 18, 14/21). A total of 133 subjects had incidental SSTR PET/CT findings. Incidental findings were predominantly seen in the thyroid gland (n = 65), spine (n = 30), brain (n = 26) and breast (n = 6). Seventeen of 133 (13%) incidental findings were malignant on final diagnosis. Incidental breast findings were associated with the highest risk of malignancy (67%). In the thyroid, incidental SSTR uptake was caused by malignancy in 8%, all presenting as focal uptake. The lowest risk was seen in the spine with a malignancy rate of 3% in patients with incidental SSTR uptake and benign cases were interpreted as vertebral hemangiomas on CT. Incidental SSTR PET/CT findings in other locations were of malignant etiology in two out of six cases (33%) and should be evaluated individually. CONCLUSION: The most incidental SSTR PET/CT findings were found in the thyroid gland, spine, and brain. The risk of malignancy was greatest in incidental SSTR PET/CT findings in the breast, cranially, and thyroid gland. The results of the present study can prove useful in the interpretation of atypical findings on SSTR PET/CT and in the counseling of clinicians.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Receptores de Somatostatina , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 1 Anel , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Peptídeos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 732, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064353

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Most cancers occur in older individuals, who are more vulnerable due to functional impairment, multiple comorbidities, cognitive impairment, and lack of socio-familial support. These can undermine patients' sense of dignity. This study seeks to compare dignity scores in older patients with advanced cancer on sociodemographic and clinical variables and analyze the predictive value of anxiety, depression, functional limitations, and social support on dignity scores. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, observational study conducted with participation of 15 hospitals in Spain from February 2020 to October 2021. Patients with newly-diagnosed, advanced cancer completed the dignity (PPDS), anxiety and depression (BSI), Social Support (Duke-UNC-11), and functional limitations (EORTC-C30) scales. Lineal regression analyses explored the effects of anxiety, depression, functional status, and social support on dignity, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: A total of 180 subjects participated in this study. The results of the correlation analysis revealed that dignity correlated negatively with anxiety, depression, and sex, and positively with social support, functional status, and longer estimated survival. Thus, women, and more anxious and depressed individuals scored lower on the dignity scale, whereas patients with more social support, fewer functional limitations, and longer estimated survival scored higher. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, being female, having a lower educational level, lower estimated survival, depression, anxiety, less social support, and limited functionality are correlated with less dignity in the elderly with advanced cancer. It is a priority to manage both physical and psychological symptoms in patients with unresectable advanced cancer to mitigate psychological distress and increase their sense of dignity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Respeito , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(9): e427-e434, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055311

RESUMO

The purpose of this manuscript was to consider how mainstream health organisations can develop structures, processes, and functions to address inequity, using the New Zealand Cancer Control Agency (Te Aho o Te Kahu) as an example. In New Zealand (Aotearoa), as in other countries, inequities in cancer incidence and outcomes exist between population groups, including for indigenous populations. Despite much discussion regarding the need to address racial inequities, often the proposed solutions are at operational or programmatic levels, and disadvantaged communities are unable to have much of a say in the system design and service delivery of these solutions. The establishment of a dedicated cancer control agency has created a unique opportunity to centralise principles and approaches to achieving equity within the core functions of the agency, and enabled a new method of approaching cancer control with the aim of achieving equity for the most disadvantaged populations. Using a framework based on the founding agreement between New Zealand's Indigenous Maori people and the British Government (Te Tiriti o Waitangi), we consider how health system organisations can develop structures, processes, and functions to achieve equity, and summarise how this new agency has been shaped to achieve these objectives for Maori people in particular, including the innovative and equity-first approach to organisational structure and focus. Within this framework, we highlight the key equity-focused work programmes, initiatives, and other actions taken since the inception of the agency. Finally, we discuss the ongoing equity-related challenges the agency faces, as well as the current and future opportunities for achieving equity in health outcomes.


Assuntos
Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico , Neoplasias , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais
5.
J Med Vasc ; 47(3): 133-140, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is the leading cause of death in European countries, ahead of cardiovascular diseases. Cancer is also the most common co-morbidity among patients hospitalized for the management of cardiovascular diseases. Through an overview, we searched for the frequency and types of cancer associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in order to address the relevance of cancer screening in patients with PAD. METHODS: We searched in PubMed database from 1996 to 2020 for retrospective and prospective cohort or cross-sectional or randomized studies evaluating the frequency of all types of cancer in patients with PAD excluding patients with aneurysmal disease. The keywords used were: peripheral arterial disease, arterial thrombosis, acute leg ischemia, critical leg ischemia, chronic leg ischemia, intermittent claudication, malignant tumor, cancer. RESULTS: Based on published studies, the frequency of cancer in patients with PAD varied widely from 3.8 to 30.4% depending on study design, population, method used to screen for cancer and study period. In medical records database and registers,cancer prevalence varied from 3,8% to 22,4% in 4 retrospective studies of patients with acute limb ischemia and from 10.5 to 30.4% in 3 prospective studies of patients with acute limb ischemia, critical ischemia or intermittent claudication. In 3 retrospective analyses from 2 population-based cohorts and health insurance claims data, incidence of cancer in patients with intermittent claudication, acute limb ischemia or peripheral arterial disease varied from 8% to 11.7%. The frequency of cancer in PAD patients appeared higher than in the general population. Tobacco-dependent cancers seemed to be the most common cancers in PAD. Cancers were also more frequent in case of anemia, amputation and iterative bypass thrombosis in few studies. CONCLUSION: Although there is no recommendation for cancer screening in patients with PAD, the high prevalence of cancer raises the question of screening patients at high risk such as those with acute or critical limb ischemia and especially in case of severe tobacco use, anemia, amputation and iterative bypass thrombosis. These results call for further studies with larger sample size and long term follow-up.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Doença Arterial Periférica , Trombose , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/epidemiologia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
PLoS Med ; 19(9): e1004078, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate whether children born after assisted reproduction technology (ART), particularly after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET), are at higher risk of childhood cancer than children born after fresh embryo transfer and spontaneous conception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a registry-based cohort study using data from the 4 Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The study included 7,944,248 children, out of whom 171,774 children were born after use of ART (2.2%) and 7,772,474 children were born after spontaneous conception, representing all children born between the years 1994 to 2014 in Denmark, 1990 to 2014 in Finland, 1984 to 2015 in Norway, and 1985 to 2015 in Sweden. Rates for any cancer and specific cancer groups in children born after each conception method were determined by cross-linking national ART registry data with national cancer and health data registries and population registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of any cancer, with age as the time scale. After a mean follow-up of 9.9 and 12.5 years, the incidence rate (IR) of cancer before age 18 years was 19.3/100,000 person-years for children born after ART (329 cases) and 16.7/100,000 person-years for children born after spontaneous conception (16,184 cases). Adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) was 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.21, p = 0.18. Adjustment was performed for sex, plurality, year of birth, country of birth, maternal age at birth, and parity. Children born after FET had a higher risk of cancer (48 cases; IR 30.1/100,000 person-years) compared to both fresh embryo transfer (IR 18.8/100,000 person-years), aHR 1.59, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.20, p = 0.005, and spontaneous conception, aHR 1.65, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.19, p = 0.001. Adjustment either for macrosomia, birth weight, or major birth defects attenuated the association marginally. Higher risks of epithelial tumors and melanoma after any assisted reproductive method and of leukemia after FET were observed. The main limitation of this study is the small number of children with cancer in the FET group. CONCLUSIONS: Children born after FET had a higher risk of childhood cancer than children born after fresh embryo transfer and spontaneous conception. The results should be interpreted cautiously based on the small number of children with cancer, but the findings raise concerns considering the increasing use of FET, in particular freeze-all strategies without clear medical indications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: ISRCTN 11780826.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Transferência Embrionária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 304, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity poses a major challenge for care coordination. However, data on what non-communicable diseases lead to multimorbidity, and whether the lifetime risk differs between men and women are lacking. We determined sex-specific differences in multimorbidity patterns and estimated sex-specific lifetime risk of multimorbidity in the general population. METHODS: We followed 6,094 participants from the Rotterdam Study aged 45 years and older for the occurrence of ten diseases (cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, diabetes, dementia, asthma, heart failure, parkinsonism). We visualised participants' trajectories from a single disease to multimorbidity and the most frequent combinations of diseases. We calculated sex-specific lifetime risk of multimorbidity, considering multimorbidity involving only somatic diseases (1) affecting the same organ system, (2) affecting different organ systems, and (3) multimorbidity involving depression. RESULTS: Over the follow-up period (1993-2016, median years of follow-up 9.2), we observed 6334 disease events. Of the study population, 10.3% had three or more diseases, and 27.9% had two or more diseases. The most frequent pair of co-occurring diseases among men was COPD and cancer (12.5% of participants with multimorbidity), the most frequent pair of diseases among women was depression and dementia (14.9%). The lifetime risk of multimorbidity was similar among men (66.0%, 95% CI: 63.2-68.8%) and women (65.1%, 95% CI: 62.5-67.7%), yet the risk of multimorbidity with depression was higher for women (30.9%, 95% CI: 28.4-33.5%, vs. 17.5%, 95% CI: 15.2-20.1%). The risk of multimorbidity with two diseases affecting the same organ is relatively low for both sexes (4.2% (95% CI: 3.2-5.5%) for men and 4.5% (95% CI: 3.5-5.7%) for women). CONCLUSIONS: Two thirds of people over 45 will develop multimorbidity in their remaining lifetime, with women at nearly double the risk of multimorbidity involving depression than men. These findings call for programmes of integrated care to consider sex-specific differences to ensure men and women are served equally.


Assuntos
Demência , Neoplasias , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Multimorbidade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 20(9): 997-1004.e3, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies describe the "average healthcare cost trend" among patients with cancer. We aimed to delineate heterogeneous trajectories of healthcare cost during the last 2 years of life of patients with a metastatic cancer and to assess the associated sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and healthcare use. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed a sample of 353 deceased patients from a cohort of 600 with a solid metastatic cancer in Singapore, and we used group-based trajectory modeling to identify trajectories of total healthcare cost during the last 2 years of life. RESULTS: The average cost trend showed that mean monthly healthcare cost increased from SGD $3,997 during the last 2 years of life to SGD $7,516 during the last month of life (USD $1 = SGD $1.35). Group-based trajectory modeling identified 4 distinct trajectories: (1) low and steadily decreasing cost (13%); (2) steeply increasing cost in the last year of life (14%); (3) high and steadily increasing cost (57%); and (4) steeply increasing cost before the last year of life (16%). Compared with the low and steadily decreasing cost trajectory, patients with private health insurance (ß [SE], 0.75 [0.37]; P=.04) and a greater preference for life extension (ß [SE], -0.14 [0.07]; P=.06) were more likely to follow the high and steadily increasing cost trajectory. Patients in the low and steadily decreasing cost trajectory were most likely to have used palliative care (62%) and to die in a hospice (27%), whereas those in the steeply increasing cost before the last year of life trajectory were least likely to have used palliative care (14%) and most likely to die in a hospital (75%). CONCLUSIONS: The study quantifies healthcare cost and shows the variability in healthcare cost trajectories during the last 2 years of life. Policymakers, clinicians, patients, and families can use this information to better anticipate, budget, and manage healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Neoplasias , Estudos de Coortes , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 41(3): 517-547, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074318

RESUMO

Obesity is an established risk factor for several human cancers. Given the association between excess body weight and cancer, the increasing rates of obesity worldwide are worrisome. A variety of obesity-related factors has been implicated in cancer initiation, progression, and response to therapy. These factors include circulating nutritional factors, hormones, and cytokines, causing hyperinsulinemia, inflammation, and adipose tissue dysfunction. The impact of these conditions on cancer development and progression has been the focus of extensive literature. In this review, we concentrate on processes that can link obesity and cancer, and which provide a novel perspective: extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, and adrenergic signaling. We describe molecular mechanisms involved in these processes, which represent putative targets for intervention. Liver, pancreas, and breast cancers were chosen as exemplary disease models. In view of the expanding epidemic of obesity, a better understanding of the tumorigenic process in obese individuals might lead to more effective treatments and preventive measures.


Assuntos
Adrenérgicos , Neoplasias , Tecido Adiposo , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações
11.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273561, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054199

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Approximately 80% of children, adolescents and young adults (CAYA) cancer patients are expected to fully recover and survive for five years or more. The reproductive health is a particular area of their concern. Evidence demonstrates that previous therapeutic treatments for cancer and comorbidities may have harmful effects on female fertility and delivery outcomes, which will significantly affect patient quality of life. However, these reports are heterogeneous. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide the up-to-date evidence on the risk of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes in female survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This meta-analysis will be carried out and reported with adherence to the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook. We will search online databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase from inception to August, 2022 to identify all relevant cohort studies examining the relationship between cancer and subsequent obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Data extraction from eligible studies will be conducted and crosschecked separately by two investigators using pre-tested standardized data extraction forms. Discrepancies will be resolved via a third investigator. Methodological quality assessment for each study will be conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) tool. We will apply the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model to calculate the pooled estimates. Further sources of heterogeneity will be explored by performing subgroup analysis based on multiple study characteristics. Potential publication bias will be assessed by inspection of a funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's regression tests of funnel plot asymmetry. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be required as all data used for this pooled analysis will be obtained from published cohort studies. The results of this study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and conference presentation. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/K6QBG.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sobreviventes
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(10): e1443-e1452, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on cancer statistics and cancer control policies is limited in fragile states. This paper describes the cancer burden and status of cancer control measures in these countries. METHODS: In this comparative analysis, fragile states presenting with a Fragile States Index (FSI) score of 90·0 or more (alert for fragility) for at least 10 years during the 2006-20 period were selected. States with fewer than 10 years of data were selected if they were in alert for fragility during all years. Information on cancer burden, prevalence of cancer risk factors, population-attributable fraction, and on political commitment, health financing, and health system capacity was collected. Cancer incidence and mortality was calculated on the basis of data from population-based cancer registries, estimated with modelling that used mortality-to-incidence ratios and incidence-to-mortality ratios derived from cancer registries in neighbouring countries, or average of rates in selected neighbouring countries. For statistical comparison, fragile states were grouped according to the annual percent change (APC) of the FSI, with group 1 showing an increasing fragility trend (APC 0·2% or higher), group 2 a relatively stable fragility trend (APC between 0·2% and -0·2%), and group 3 a decreasing fragility trend (APC of -0·2% or lower). FINDINGS: Overall, the estimated cancer burden in the 31 selected fragile states was lower than worldwide rates, except for cervical and prostate cancer. Cancer cases were attributed to infections (22·40% in group 1, 21·20% in group 2, and 18·80% in group 3) at a higher proportion in fragile states than globally (13·0%). Group 1 and 2 showed a significantly higher exposure to household air pollution (97·70% in group 1 and 94·90% in group 2), whereas current tobacco use in men increased from group 1 to group 3, with lung cancer incidence and mortality being higher in group 3. However, 25 countries had implemented only one or no MPOWER measures for tobacco control. Countries showed an out-of-pocket expenditure of 48·72% in group 1, 42·68% in group 2, and 51·07% in group 3, and only half of the countries had an updated cancer control plan or cancer management guidelines. INTERPRETATION: Fragile states have started the epidemiological transition but are still not implementing enough cancer control measures. There is a need to develop reliable cancer control plans and guidelines, and to create financial mechanisms for implementation. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATIONS: For the Arabic and French translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Produtos do Tabaco , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0272522, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The NIH All of Us Research Program will have the scale and scope to enable research for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The program's focus on diversity and inclusion promises a better understanding of the unequal burden of cancer. Preliminary cancer ascertainment in the All of Us cohort from two data sources (self-reported versus electronic health records (EHR)) is considered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This work was performed on data collected from the All of Us Research Program's 315,297 enrolled participants to date using the Researcher Workbench, where approved researchers can access and analyze All of Us data on cancer and other diseases. Cancer case ascertainment was performed using data from EHR and self-reported surveys across key factors. Distribution of cancer types and concordance of data sources by cancer site and demographics is analyzed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Data collected from 315,297 participants resulted in 13,298 cancer cases detected in the survey (in 89,261 participants), 23,520 cancer cases detected in the EHR (in 203,813 participants), and 7,123 cancer cases detected across both sources (in 62,497 participants). Key differences in survey completion by race/ethnicity impacted the makeup of cohorts when compared to cancer in the EHR and national NCI SEER data. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides key insight into cancer detection in the All of Us Research Program and points to the existing strengths and limitations of All of Us as a platform for cancer research now and in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Saúde da População , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Cancer Control ; 29: 10732748221127156, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders (CMD) are the most usual reactions following cancer diagnosis causing significant psychological sufferings. Even though research-based evidence is necessary for mental health promotion and intervention activities, there is a scarcity of evidence in Ethiopia to assist policy makers' efforts in reforming mental health care particularly that of cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research is to assess the magnitude of common mental disorders and associated factors among cancer patients who have a follow-up treatment at Black Lion Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHOD: Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 1 to September 30, 2020. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 396 study participants. A Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and interviewer-administered structured questionnaire were employed to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals was used to report the findings. RESULT: A total of 396(230 men and 160 women) participants took part in the study. The overall magnitude of CMD among cancer patients was found to be 70.3%, of which the rate was 73.5% among women and 67.8% among men, in the last 4 weeks. Being women (AOR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.00, 3.02), unemployed (AOR = 3.035, 95% CI: 1.37, 6.72), average monthly income of less than 1600 Ethiopian Birr (AOR = 2.838; 95%CI: 1.58, 5.08), being on cancer treatment for more than 5 years (AOR = 2.653, 95% CI: 1.39, 5.03), poor social support (AOR = 3.618, 95% CI: 1.33, 9.80), and current use of substances (AOR = 6.852; 95% CI: 2.038, 23.034) were the factors significantly associated with CMD. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Common mental disorders are one of the major health concerns among cancer patients. Common mental disorders were found to be more common in females and among current users of a psychoactive substance. Therefore, cancer patients need special attention of not only physicians but also that of mental health professionals for possible detection and early treatment of mental disorders. Rendering social and economic support may reduce the negative effects of the illness.


Assuntos
Leões , Transtornos Mentais , Neoplasias , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prevalência
15.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 80: 102248, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To provide a comprehensive assessment of women cancer in India utilizing the systematically collected data on all cancers by the National Cancer Registry Programme (NCRP). METHODS: The study examined 10,2287 cancer cases among women cancers providing cancer burden for major anatomical sites. Aggregated data of 28 PBCRs and 58 HBCRs under NCRP for 2012-16 was analysed for incidence rates, trends, cumulative risk of developing cancer, stage at detection and treatments offered. RESULTS: Study results have found region -wide variation of women cancers by indicating highest proportions in western followed by southern region of India. North-Eastern region had lowest proportion. It was observed that breast is highest ranking cancer in most registry areas of urban agglomerations of country while cancer cervix was leading site in registries of rural areas like Barshi (15.3) and Osmanabad &Beed (13.1). States of Mizoram (23.2) and Tripura (9.5) along with Pasighat, Cachar and Nagaland. Median age of occurrence for women for these anatomical sites ranged from 45 to 60 years of age. For cancer breast, cervix and ovary -most cases were detected with regional spread. These findings were different for cancer corpus uteri where registries have reported higher proportions (49.3 %) of localized stage at detection. Loco regional cancers had higher proportions of multimodality treatments. CONCLUSION: Study provides a foundation for assessing the status of women cancers in the country. Variations between geographies would guide appropriate support for action to strengthen efforts to improve cancer prevention and control in underserved areas of the country. This would facilitate advocacy for better investments and research on women cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
16.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 80: 102245, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite valsartan's widespread use, few studies have explored its potential carcinogenicity. We evaluated the association between valsartan and cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from 2002 to 2015 gathered from the National Health Insurance database. Patients with hypertension aged ≥ 30 who used valsartan or other angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) were included. Eligible patients were those with no prior history of the use of any ARBs, diagnosis of cancer, or organ transplantation in the 4 years predating their first use of the drugs of interest. The primary and secondary outcomes included the occurrence of all cancers and site-specific solid cancers, respectively. After applying propensity score (PS) matching, Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of 1,550,734 individuals were identified as new users of valsartan or other ARBs. Of the 153,047 valsartan users, 16,047 were diagnosed with cancer. No increased risk of overall cancer was observed in valsartan users as compared to other ARB users (aHR = 1.00; 95 % CI, 0.98-1.02). Valsartan was, however, associated with a slightly elevated risk of liver (aHR = 1.09; 95 % CI, 1.01-1.16) and kidney cancer (aHR = 1.11; 95 % CI, 1.02-1.22). CONCLUSION: Compared with other ARBs, valsartan did not increase the risk of overall cancer. A slightly increased risk for some solid cancers was associated with valsartan use, though the absolute rate difference was small.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Neoplasias , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Valsartana/efeitos adversos
17.
Hematology ; 27(1): 987-993, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: : The primary purpose of this review is to investigate the relationships between cancer and nutrition in children and adolescents living in resource-poor, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in order to explore potential opportunities for interventions which could improve clinical outcomes in this population. METHOD: : The implications of overlapping age groups of children and adolescents with cancer are examined, as are the adverse influences of under-nutrition and socio-economic deprivation on the efficacy of treatment and cancer survival. Evidence suggestive of novel avenues to enhance prospects for cure, based on increased understanding of the dynamic of nutrition and cancer, is evaluated. RESULT: : Cancer adds to the burden of under-nutrition in disadvantaged populations which is reflective, in large measure, on inadequate governmental expenditure on health which demands public-private partnerships and the use of hospital-based foundations. Structured approaches to the measurement of nutritional status and the design of effective programmes of nutritional supplementation are of proven benefit. Initial results from studies of the perturbed gut microbiome hold considerable promise for further gains. CONCLUSION: A large minority of children with cancer in LMICs are never diagnosed and the same may be true of adolescents. Investing in the training of nutritionists will have substantial returns as will increasing access to essential medicines. Recognition of these challenges has stimulated WHO and other entities to devise major strategies for comprehensive changes in the care of children and adolescents with cancer in LMICs, offering realistic prospects for improved clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Estado Nutricional
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2231182, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094504

RESUMO

Importance: China is experiencing a sustained increase in childhood cancer. However, whether differences exist in disease burden by ethnicity remains unclear. Objective: To compare differences in cancer diagnoses and health care utilization in Inner Mongolia among children subgrouped by ethnicity (Han vs Mongolian), sex, and age. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study in Inner Mongolia, China, used data on children aged 0 to 14 years with cancer from the Inner Mongolia Regional Health Information Platform, which comprises the National Basic Medical Insurance database and the Inner Mongolia cause-of-death reporting system, from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2019. Ethnicities analyzed included Han and Mongolian; patients of other ethnicities were not included in the analysis because of the small sample size. Cancer was broadly defined as a primary malignant tumor or hematologic cancer; benign central nervous system tumors were also included. A 2-year washout period was used to exclude prevalent cases. After diagnosis, the patients were followed up until the date of death or the end of the insured status, whichever came first. Exposures: Ethnicity (Han vs Mongolian), sex (male vs female), and age (0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: Crude incidence, 5-year prevalence, and survival rates at 1 year and 3 years after diagnosis; health care utilization, represented by medical costs during the first year and first 3 years after diagnosis; and hospital attendance with level (tertiary vs secondary and lower-level hospitals) and location of each unique visit. Results: From 2013 to 2019, 1 106 684 (2013), 1 330 242 (2014), 1 763 746 (2015), 2 400 343 (2016), 2 245 963 (2017), 2 901 088 (2018), and 2 996 580 (2019) children aged 0 to 14 years were registered in the NBMI database. Among the 2 996 580 children enrolled in 2019, the mean (SD) age was 6.8 (4.3) years, of whom 1 572 096 (52.5%) were male, 2 572 091 (85.8%) were Han, and 369 400 (12.3%) were Mongolian. A total of 1910 patients with cancer were identified (1048 were male [54.9%]; 1559 were Han [81.6%], and 300 were Mongolian [15.7%]). There were 764 hematologic cancers (40.0%) and 1146 solid tumors (60.0%). The overall crude incidence of cancer from 2015 to 2019 was 129.85 per million children (95% CI, 123.63-136.06), with a higher incidence among Mongolian than among Han children (155.12 [95% CI, 136.81-173.43] vs 134.39 [95% CI, 127.46-141.32]). The 5-year prevalence was 428.97 per million (95% CI, 405.52-452.42) in 2020, with a higher prevalence among Mongolian than among Han children (568.49 [95% CI, 91.62-645.36] vs 404.34 [95% CI, 379.77-428.91]). The combined 1-year (2015-2019) and 3-year (2015-2017) survival rates were 72.5% (95% CI, 67.5%-77.5%) and 66.8% (95% CI, 61.6%-71.9%), respectively. The 1-year (median [IQR], $1991 [$912-$10 181] vs $3991 [$1171-$15 425]) and 3-year (median [IQR], $2704 [$954-$13 909] vs $5375 [$1283-$22 466]) postdiagnosis costs were lower among Mongolian than among Han children. A higher proportion of Mongolian patients attended low-level hospitals (45.9% vs 17.4%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, Mongolian children had a higher incidence and prevalence of cancer but a lower demand for medical care, suggesting that further investigations are needed to identify mechanisms underlying ethnic disparities and ensure that care is equitable.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Neoplasias , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078236

RESUMO

Background: The cancer burden in Israel is substantial. Recently calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) for modifiable cancer risk factors in the US and the UK have indicated much room for prevention. Our aim was to estimate PAFs for selected modifiable cancer risk factors in Israel. Methods: Exposure data on selected modifiable risk factors were based on national health surveys conducted in 2013-2015. Data on invasive cancer incidence in 2015 were retrieved from the Israel National Cancer Registry (INCR). Relative risks (RRs) for specific cancer sites were retrieved from the scientific literature. PAFs were calculated for selected modifiable risk factors using an approximate formula. Results: In 2015, 21% of all invasive cancer cases in Israel were attributed to smoking, 9% to excess body weight, and 1.5% to alcohol intake. Moreover, 32% of all invasive cancer cases were attributed to all modifiable risk factors (combined) included in our study. Conclusions: Quantifying the contribution of modifiable risk factors to the incidence of certain cancer types in Israel offers an opportunity for primary prevention and enables informed decision-making with respect to the prioritization of interventions.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2230925, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083583

RESUMO

Importance: The association between cancer mortality and risk factors may vary by geography. However, conventional methodological approaches rarely account for this variation. Objective: To identify geographic variations in the association between risk factors and cancer mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This geospatial cross-sectional study used county-level data from the National Center for Health Statistics for individuals who died of cancer from 2008 to 2019. Risk factor data were obtained from County Health Rankings & Roadmaps, Health Resources and Services Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Analyses were conducted from October 2021 to July 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Conventional random forest models were applied nationwide and by US region, and the geographical random forest model (accounting for local variation of association) was applied to assess associations between a wide range of risk factors and cancer mortality. Results: The study included 7 179 201 individuals (median age, 70-74 years; 3 409 508 women [47.5%]) who died from cancer in 3108 contiguous US counties during 2008 to 2019. The mean (SD) county-level cancer mortality rate was 177.0 (26.4) deaths per 100 000 people. On the basis of the variable importance measure, the random forest models identified multiple risk factors associated with cancer mortality, including smoking, receipt of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, and obesity. The geographical random forest model further identified risk factors that varied at the county level. For example, receipt of SNAP benefits was a high-importance factor in the Appalachian region, North and South Dakota, and Northern California; smoking was of high importance in Kentucky and Tennessee; and female-headed households were high-importance factors in North and South Dakota. Geographic areas with certain high-importance risk factors did not consistently have a corresponding high prevalence of the same risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the associations between cancer mortality and risk factors varied by geography in a way that did not correspond strictly to risk factor prevalence. The degree to which other place-specific characteristics, observed and unobserved, modify risk factor effects should be further explored, and this work suggests that risk factor importance may be a preferable paradigm for selecting cancer control interventions compared with risk factor prevalence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Obesidade , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
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