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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445633

RESUMO

Caspases, a family of cysteine-aspartic proteases, have an established role as critical components in the activation and initiation of apoptosis. Alongside this a variety of non-apoptotic caspase functions in proliferation, differentiation, cellular plasticity and cell migration have been reported. The activity level and context are important factors in determining caspase function. As a consequence of their critical role in apoptosis and beyond, caspases are uniquely situated to have pathological roles, including in cancer. Altered caspase function is a common trait in a variety of cancers, with apoptotic evasion defined as a "hallmark of cancer". However, the role that caspases play in cancer is much more complex, acting both to prevent and to promote tumourigenesis. This review focuses on the major findings in Drosophila on the dual role of caspases in tumourigenesis. This has major implications for cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with the activation of apoptosis being the end goal. However, such treatments may inadvertently have adverse effects on promoting tumour progression and acerbating the cancer. A comprehensive understanding of the dual role of caspases will aid in the development of successful cancer therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Carcinogênese , Caspases/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Drosophila , Humanos , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445578

RESUMO

The phenomenon of how oncogenes and tumor-suppressor mutations can synergize to promote tumor fitness and cancer progression can be studied in relatively simple animal model systems such as Drosophila melanogaster. Almost two decades after the landmark discovery of cooperative oncogenesis between oncogenic RasV12 and the loss of the tumor suppressor scribble in flies, this and other tumor models have provided new concepts and findings in cancer biology that has remarkable parallels and relevance to human cancer. Here we review findings using the RasV12; scrib-/- tumor model and how it has contributed to our understanding of how these initial simple genetic insults cooperate within the tumor cell to set in motion the malignant transformation program leading to tumor growth through cell growth, cell survival and proliferation, dismantling of cell-cell interactions, degradation of basement membrane and spreading to other organs. Recent findings have demonstrated that cooperativity goes beyond cell intrinsic mechanisms as the tumor interacts with the immediate cells of the microenvironment, the immune system and systemic organs to eventually facilitate malignant progression.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas ras/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361072

RESUMO

Mitochondria are energetic and dynamic organelles with a crucial role in bioenergetics, metabolism, and signaling. Mitochondrial proteins, encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, must be properly regulated to ensure proteostasis. Mitochondrial protein quality control (MPQC) serves as a critical surveillance system, employing different pathways and regulators as cellular guardians to ensure mitochondrial protein quality and quantity. In this review, we describe key pathways and players in MPQC, such as mitochondrial protein translocation-associated degradation, mitochondrial stress responses, chaperones, and proteases, and how they work together to safeguard mitochondrial health and integrity. Deregulated MPQC leads to proteotoxicity and dysfunctional mitochondria, which contributes to numerous human diseases, including cancer. We discuss how alterations in MPQC components are linked to tumorigenesis, whether they act as drivers, suppressors, or both. Finally, we summarize recent advances that seek to target these alterations for the development of anti-cancer drugs.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteostase , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361103

RESUMO

Adaptive responses to hypoxia are involved in the progression of lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. However, it has not been pointed out that hypoxia may be the link between these diseases. As tumors or scars expand, a lack of oxygen results in the activation of the hypoxia response, promoting cell survival even during chronic conditions. The role of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) as master regulators of this adaptation is crucial in both lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which have shown the active transcriptional signature of this pathway. Emerging evidence suggests that interconnected feedback loops such as metabolic changes, fibroblast differentiation or extracellular matrix remodeling contribute to HIF overactivation, making it an irreversible phenomenon. This review will focus on the role of HIF signaling and its possible overlapping in order to identify new opportunities in therapy and regeneration.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361112

RESUMO

The tumor viruses human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) account for approximately 15% of all human cancers. Although the oncoproteins of these tumor viruses display no sequence similarity to one another, they use the same mechanisms to convey cancer hallmarks on the infected cell. Perturbed gene expression is one of the underlying mechanisms to induce cancer hallmarks. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin remodeling, microRNA, long noncoding RNA, and circular RNA affect gene expression without introducing changes in the DNA sequence. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oncoviruses cause epigenetic modifications, which play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. In this review, recent advances in the role of host cell epigenetic changes in virus-induced cancers are summarized.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica , Neoplasias/patologia , Vírus Oncogênicos/patogenicidade , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/complicações , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360563

RESUMO

For many years, the dogma has been that insulin resistance precedes the development of hyperinsulinemia. However, recent data suggest a reverse order and place hyperinsulinemia mechanistically upstream of insulin resistance. Genetic background, consumption of the "modern" Western diet and over-nutrition may increase insulin secretion, decrease insulin pulses and/or reduce hepatic insulin clearance, thereby causing hyperinsulinemia. Hyperinsulinemia disturbs the balance of the insulin-GH-IGF axis and shifts the insulin : GH ratio towards insulin and away from GH. This insulin-GH shift promotes energy storage and lipid synthesis and hinders lipid breakdown, resulting in obesity due to higher fat accumulation and lower energy expenditure. Hyperinsulinemia is an important etiological factor in the development of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and premature mortality. It has been further hypothesized that nutritionally driven insulin exposure controls the rate of mammalian aging. Interventions that normalize/reduce plasma insulin concentrations might play a key role in the prevention and treatment of age-related decline, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Caloric restriction, increasing hepatic insulin clearance and maximizing insulin sensitivity are at present the three main strategies available for managing hyperinsulinemia. This may slow down age-related physiological decline and prevent age-related diseases. Drugs that reduce insulin (hyper) secretion, normalize pulsatile insulin secretion and/or increase hepatic insulin clearance may also have the potential to prevent or delay the progression of hyperinsulinemia-mediated diseases. Future research should focus on new strategies to minimize hyperinsulinemia at an early stage, aiming at successfully preventing and treating hyperinsulinemia-mediated diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Resistência à Insulina , Neoplasias/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048576, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COCCINELLE study is a nationwide retrospective French cohort set up to evaluate the risk of cancer in patients who undergone cardiac catheterisation (CC) procedures for diagnosis or treatment of congenital heart disease during childhood. PARTICIPANTS: Children who undergone CC procedures from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2013, before the age of 16 in one of the 15 paediatric cardiology departments which perform paediatric CC in mainland France were included. The follow-up started at the date of the first recorded CC procedure until the exit date, that is, the date of death, the date of first cancer diagnosis, the date of the 18th birthday or the 31 December 2015, whichever occurred first. The cohort was linked to the National Childhood Cancer Registry to identify patients diagnosed with cancer and with the French National Directory for the Identification of Natural Persons to retrieve the patients' vital status. FINDINGS TO DATE: A total of 17 104 children were included in the cohort and followed for 110 335 person-years, with 22 227 CC procedures collected. Among the patients, 81.6% received only one procedure. Fifty-nine cancer cases were observed in the cohort. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were increased for all-cancer (SIR=3.8, 95% CI: 2.9 to 4.9), leukaemia (SIR=3.3, 95% CI: 2.0 to 5.4), lymphoma (SIR=14.9, 95% CI: 9.9 to 22.5) and solid cancers excluding central nervous system (CNS) tumours (SIR=3.3, 95% CI: 2.0 to 5.5) compared with the general population. FUTURE PLANS: Dose reconstruction is currently underway to estimate individual cumulative doses absorbed to relevant organs, including red bone marrow and brain for respectively haematologic disorders and CNS tumours risk estimation. A dose-response analysis will be conducted with consideration to confounding factors such as age at exposure, gender, predisposing factors to cancer and other sources of medical diagnostic low-dose ionising radiation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Criança , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Radiação Ionizante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 636, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology, microbiology, and risk factors associated with mortality and multi-drug resistance bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) among adult cancer patients in Shiraz, Iran. We also report a four-year trend of antimicrobial resistance patterns of BSIs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study at a referral oncology hospital from July 2015 to August 2019, which included all adults with confirmed BSI. RESULTS: 2393 blood cultures tested during the four-year study period; 414 positive cultures were included. The mean age of our patients was 47.57 ± 17.46 years old. Central Line-Associated BSI (CLABSI) was more common in solid tumors than patients with hematological malignancies. Gram-negative (GN) bacteria were more detected (63.3%, 262) than gram-positive bacteria (36.7%, 152). Escherichia coli was the most common gram-negative organism (123/262, 47%), followed by Pseudomonas spp. (82/262, 31%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (38/262, 14.5%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) was the most frequently isolated pathogen among gram-positive bacteria (83/152, 54.6%). Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, and K. pneumoniae were the most common Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producers (100, 96.2, 66.7%, and 60.7, respectively). Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., E. coli, and K. pneumoniae were the most common carbapenem-resistant (CR) isolates (77.8, 70.7, 33.3, 24.4, and 13.2%, respectively). Out of 257 Enterobacterales and non-fermenter gram-negative BSIs, 39.3% (101/257) were carbapenem-resistant. Although the incidence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) gram-negative BSI increased annually during 2015-2018, the mortality rate of gram-negative BSI remains unchanged at about 20% (p-value = 0.55); however, the mortality rate was significantly greater (35.4%) in those with resistant gram-positive BSI (p-value = 0.001). The overall mortality rate was 21.5%. Early (7-day mortality) and late mortality rate (30-day mortality) were 10 and 3.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of MDR gram-negative BSI is a significant healthcare problem in oncology centers. The high proportion of the most frequently isolated pathogens were CR and ESBL-producing Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas spp. We have few effective choices against MDRGN BSI, especially in high-risk cancer patients, which necessitate newer treatment options.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/complicações , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sepse/complicações , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/microbiologia
9.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021046, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tobacco smoking is classified as carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1). We aimed to estimate the percentage and number of incident cancer cases diagnosed in Texas in 2015 that were attributable to tobacco smoking, and we examined differences in the proportions of smoking-attributable cancers between the major racial/ethnic subgroups of the population. METHODS: We calculated population-attributable fractions for cancers attributable to tobacco smoking using prevalence data from the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and relative risks associated with smoking status from pooled analyses of cohort studies or meta-analyses. Cancer incidence data were collected from the Texas Cancer Registry. RESULTS: We estimated that 19,000 excess cancer cases or 18.4% of all cancers diagnosed in 2015 in Texans aged ≥ 25 years were caused by tobacco smoking. Males had a higher overall proportion of cancers attributable to tobacco smoking than females (male, 23.3%, 11,993 excess cases; female, 13.5%, 7,006 cases). Approximately 20% of cancer cases in non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks were attributable to tobacco smoking compared to 12.8% among Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Despite ongoing public health campaigns combatting tobacco use, this preventable behavior still contributes significantly to cancer incidence in Texas. Racial/ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable cancer incidence should be considered when designing cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/etnologia , Fumar Tabaco/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299168

RESUMO

The recent advances in deciphering the human genome allow us to understand and evaluate the mechanisms of human genome age-associated transformations, which are largely unclear. Genome sequencing techniques assure comprehensive mapping of human genetics; however, understanding of gene functional interactions, specifically of time/age-dependent modifications, remain challenging. The age of the genome is defined by the sum of individual (inherited) and acquired genomic traits, based on internal and external factors that impact ontogenesis from the moment of egg fertilization and embryonic development. The biological part of genomic age opens a new perspective for intervention. The discovery of single cell-based mechanisms for genetic change indicates the possibility of influencing aging and associated disease burden, as well as metabolism. Cell populations with transformed genetic background were shown to serve as the origin of common diseases during extended life expectancy (superaging). Consequently, age-related cell transformation leads to cancer and cell degeneration (senescence). This article aims to describe current advances in the genomic mechanisms of senescence and its role in the spatiotemporal spread of epithelial clones and cell evolution.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Senescência Celular , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Fenótipo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198930

RESUMO

Besides our current health concerns due to COVID-19, cancer is a longer-lasting and even more dramatic pandemic that affects almost a third of the human population worldwide. Most of the emphasis on its causes has been posed on genetic predisposition, chance, and wrong lifestyles (mainly, obesity and smoking). Moreover, our medical weapons against cancers have not improved too much during the last century, although research is in progress. Once diagnosed with a malignant tumour, we still rely on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The main problem is that we have focused on fighting a difficult battle instead of preventing it by controlling its triggers. Quite the opposite, our knowledge of the links between environmental pollution and cancer has surged from the 1980s. Carcinogens in water, air, and soil have continued to accumulate disproportionally and grow in number and dose, bringing us to today's carnage. Here, a synthesis and critical review of the state of the knowledge of the links between cancer and environmental pollution in the three environmental compartments is provided, research gaps are briefly discussed, and some future directions are indicated. New evidence suggests that it is relevant to take into account not only the dose but also the time when we are exposed to carcinogens. The review ends by stressing that more dedication should be put into studying the environmental causes of cancers to prevent and avoid curing them, that the precautionary approach towards environmental pollutants must be much more reactionary, and that there is an urgent need to leave behind the outdated petrochemical-based industry and goods production.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Ambientais , Neoplasias , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200240

RESUMO

The term neuroinflammation refers to inflammation of the nervous tissue, in general, and in the central nervous system (CNS), in particular. It is a driver of neurotoxicity, it is detrimental, and implies that glial cell activation happens prior to neuronal degeneration and, possibly, even causes it. The inflammation-like glial responses may be initiated in response to a variety of cues such as infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, or autoimmunity. The inflammatory response of activated microglia engages the immune system and initiates tissue repair. Through translational research the role played by neuroinflammation has been acknowledged in different disease entities. Intriguingly, these entities include both those directly related to the CNS (commonly designated neuropsychiatric disorders) and those not directly related to the CNS (e.g., cancer and diabetes type 2). Interestingly, all the above-mentioned entities belong to the same group of "complex disorders". This review aims to summarize cumulated data supporting the hypothesis that neuroinflammation is a common denominator of a wide variety of complex diseases. We will concentrate on cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and neuropsychiatric disorders (focusing on mood disorders).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Inflamação/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neurônios/patologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200309

RESUMO

Many human cancers exhibit defects in key DNA damage response elements that can render tumors insensitive to the cell death-promoting properties of DNA-damaging therapies. Using agents that directly induce apoptosis by targeting apoptotic components, rather than relying on DNA damage to indirectly stimulate apoptosis of cancer cells, may overcome classical blocks exploited by cancer cells to evade apoptotic cell death. However, there is increasing evidence that cells surviving sublethal exposure to classical apoptotic signaling may recover with newly acquired genomic changes which may have oncogenic potential, and so could theoretically spur the development of subsequent cancers in cured patients. Encouragingly, cells surviving sublethal necroptotic signaling did not acquire mutations, suggesting that necroptosis-inducing anti-cancer drugs may be less likely to trigger therapy-related cancers. We are yet to develop effective direct inducers of other cell death pathways, and as such, data regarding the consequences of cells surviving sublethal stimulation of those pathways are still emerging. This review details the currently known mutagenic consequences of cells surviving different cell death signaling pathways, with implications for potential oncogenic transformation. Understanding the mechanisms of mutagenesis associated (or not) with various cell death pathways will guide us in the development of future therapeutics to minimize therapy-related side effects associated with DNA damage.


Assuntos
Morte Celular , Dano ao DNA , Mutagênese , Mutação , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202966

RESUMO

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, family: Zingiberaceae), originating in South-East Asia, is one of the most used spices and condiments for foods and beverages. It is also used in traditional medicine for many human disorders including fever, gastrointestinal complications, arthritis, rheumatism, hypertension, and various infectious diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiemetic properties. Intriguingly, many recent studies evidenced the potent chemopreventive characteristics of ginger extracts against different types of cancer. The aim of this work is to review the literature related to the use of ginger extracts as a chemotherapeutic agent and to structure the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which ginger acts in different cancer types. Data summarized from experiments (in vitro or in vivo) and clinical studies, evidenced in this review, show that ginger derivatives perpetrate its anti-tumor action through important mediators, involved in crucial cell processes, such as cell cycle arrest, induction of cancer cell death, misbalance of redox homeostasis, inhibition of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and dissemination of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Quimioprevenção , Gengibre/química , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202987

RESUMO

Polyphenols are naturally occurring compounds found in abundance in fruits and vegetables. Their health-promoting properties and their use in the prevention and treatment of many human diseases, including cancer, have been known for years. Many anti-cancer drugs are derived from these natural compounds. Etoposide, which is a semi-synthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin, a non-alkaloid lignan isolated from the dried roots and rhizomes of Podophyllum peltatum or Podophyllum emodi (Berberidaceae), is an example of such a compound. In this review, we present data on the effects of polyphenols on the anti-cancer activity of etoposide in in vitro and in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Etoposídeo/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207175

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is an important application in modern cancer therapy. In comparison with conventional drug formulations, nanoparticles ensure better penetration into the tumor mass by exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect, longer blood circulation times by a reduced renal excretion and a decrease in side effects and drug accumulation in healthy tissues. The most significant classes of nanoparticles (i.e., liposomes, inorganic and organic nanoparticles) are here discussed with a particular focus on their use as delivery systems for small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A number of these new compounds (e.g., Imatinib, Dasatinib, Ponatinib) have been approved as first-line therapy in different cancer types but their clinical use is limited by poor solubility and oral bioavailability. Consequently, new nanoparticle systems are necessary to ameliorate formulations and reduce toxicity. In this review, some of the most important TKIs are reported, focusing on ongoing clinical studies, and the recent drug delivery systems for these molecules are investigated.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Nanotecnologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Composição de Medicamentos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207360

RESUMO

Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) is a collagen-activated receptor tyrosine kinase that plays critical roles in regulating essential cellular processes such as morphogenesis, differentiation, proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, and matrix remodeling. As a result, DDR dysregulation has been attributed to a variety of human cancer disorders, for instance, non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), ovarian cancer, glioblastoma, and breast cancer, in addition to some inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Since the target identification in the early 1990s to date, a lot of efforts have been devoted to the development of DDR inhibitors. From a medicinal chemistry perspective, we attempted to reveal the progress in the development of the most promising DDR1 and DDR2 small molecule inhibitors covering their design approaches, structure-activity relationship (SAR), biological activity, and selectivity.


Assuntos
Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 1/química , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 1/metabolismo , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 2/química , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 2/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208589

RESUMO

There is mounting evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is related with increased risk for the development of cancer. Apart from shared common risk factors typical for both diseases, diabetes driven factors including hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and low grade chronic inflammation are of great importance. Recently, vitamin D deficiency was reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including T2DM and cancer. However, little is known whether vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for elevated cancer risk development in T2DM patients. Therefore, the aim of the current review is to identify the molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D deficiency may contribute to cancer development in T2DM patients. Vitamin D via alleviation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammation reduces diabetes driven cancer risk factors. Moreover, vitamin D strengthens the DNA repair process, and regulates apoptosis and autophagy of cancer cells as well as signaling pathways involved in tumorigenesis i.e., tumor growth factor ß (TGFß), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and Wnt-ß-Cathenin. It should also be underlined that many types of cancer cells present alterations in vitamin D metabolism and action as a result of Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) and CYP27B1 expression dysregulation. Although, numerous studies revealed that adequate vitamin D concentration prevents or delays T2DM and cancer development, little is known how the vitamin affects cancer risk among T2DM patients. There is a pressing need for randomized clinical trials to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency may be a factor responsible for increased risk of cancer in T2DM patients, and whether the use of the vitamin by patients with diabetes and cancer may improve cancer prognosis and metabolic control of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neoplasias/etiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/terapia , Prognóstico , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo
19.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 6682-6702, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093847

RESUMO

Cancers in animals present a large, underutilized reservoir of biomedical information with critical implication for human oncology and medicine in general. Discussing two distinct areas of tumour biology in non-human hosts, we highlight the importance of these findings for our current understanding of cancer, before proposing a coordinated strategy to harvest biomedical information from non-human resources and translate it into a clinical setting. First, infectious cancers that can be transmitted as allografts between individual hosts, have been identified in four distinct, unrelated groups, dogs, Tasmanian devils, Syrian hamsters and, surprisingly, marine bivalves. These malignancies might hold the key to improving our understanding of the interaction between tumour cell and immune system and, thus, allow us to devise novel treatment strategies that enhance anti-cancer immunosurveillance, as well as suggesting more effective organ and stem cell transplantation strategies. The existence of these malignancies also highlights the need for increased scrutiny when considering the existence of infectious cancers in humans. Second, it has long been understood that no linear relationship exists between the number of cells within an organism and the cancer incidence rate. To resolve what is known as Peto's Paradox, additional anticancer strategies within different species have to be postulated. These naturally occurring idiosyncrasies to avoid carcinogenesis represent novel potential therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Animais , Bivalves , Carcinogênese , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Humanos , Marsupiais , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tumores Venéreos Veterinários
20.
Magy Onkol ; 65(2): 141-148, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081761

RESUMO

Healthcare workers may be occupationally exposed to low dose rate radiation or different chemicals during their work. There are strong associations between the increased frequency of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes and the risk of cancer. Cytogenetic tests were conducted on 1240 healthy medical workers and cancer incidence was followed up between 1997-2018. Both structural and numerical chromosome aberrations were evaluated and the results were compared taking into account gender, age, and smoking. The frequency of aberrant cells was significantly higher in smoker males than in non-smokers (p=0.009). Within the same study period, there was no significant difference in chromosome aberrations between the potentially exposed group of workers and the control group. Among 82 cancer cases (6.6%) the most common tumors were breast (16), colon (12), lung (7) and thyroid gland cancers (7). Our analysis showed 7.3% cancer occurrence among smokers compared to 6.2% among non-smokers. These results suggest that in our cases cytogenetic effects of smoking are more deleterious than occupational exposures.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Pessoal de Saúde , Neoplasias , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia
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