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1.
PLoS Med ; 19(9): e1004078, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate whether children born after assisted reproduction technology (ART), particularly after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET), are at higher risk of childhood cancer than children born after fresh embryo transfer and spontaneous conception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a registry-based cohort study using data from the 4 Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The study included 7,944,248 children, out of whom 171,774 children were born after use of ART (2.2%) and 7,772,474 children were born after spontaneous conception, representing all children born between the years 1994 to 2014 in Denmark, 1990 to 2014 in Finland, 1984 to 2015 in Norway, and 1985 to 2015 in Sweden. Rates for any cancer and specific cancer groups in children born after each conception method were determined by cross-linking national ART registry data with national cancer and health data registries and population registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of any cancer, with age as the time scale. After a mean follow-up of 9.9 and 12.5 years, the incidence rate (IR) of cancer before age 18 years was 19.3/100,000 person-years for children born after ART (329 cases) and 16.7/100,000 person-years for children born after spontaneous conception (16,184 cases). Adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) was 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.21, p = 0.18. Adjustment was performed for sex, plurality, year of birth, country of birth, maternal age at birth, and parity. Children born after FET had a higher risk of cancer (48 cases; IR 30.1/100,000 person-years) compared to both fresh embryo transfer (IR 18.8/100,000 person-years), aHR 1.59, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.20, p = 0.005, and spontaneous conception, aHR 1.65, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.19, p = 0.001. Adjustment either for macrosomia, birth weight, or major birth defects attenuated the association marginally. Higher risks of epithelial tumors and melanoma after any assisted reproductive method and of leukemia after FET were observed. The main limitation of this study is the small number of children with cancer in the FET group. CONCLUSIONS: Children born after FET had a higher risk of childhood cancer than children born after fresh embryo transfer and spontaneous conception. The results should be interpreted cautiously based on the small number of children with cancer, but the findings raise concerns considering the increasing use of FET, in particular freeze-all strategies without clear medical indications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: ISRCTN 11780826.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Transferência Embrionária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061362, 2022 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Synergism between the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) components and cancer incidence still remains inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the unique or joint role of MetSyn components in cancer onset. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective nested case-control study based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. SETTING: An ongoing national representative longitudinal study included follow-up survey of people aged 45 years and older and their partners living in private households in China. PARTICIPANTS: There were 17 708 individuals included at baseline. A total of 306 incident cancers was identified during the follow-up. For every case, we used incidence-density sampling to match three concurrent cancer-free controls by age, sex, and both duration and calendar time of follow-up. Exposure of interest was any MetSyn diagnosis at baseline. RESULTS: We observed elevation in cancer risk associated with MetSyn in a significant way when the number of MetSyn components was over three (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.19 to 2.97), or when components contained any of elevated triglycerides (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.48), reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40 to 3.86) or elevated blood pressure (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.59) after consistent multiple adjustments in different models. The highest cancer risk was in the female reproductive system and breast cancer (OR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.62 to 10.95) followed by digestive system (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.53). Sensitivity analyses showed similar results after first follow-up was excluded. However, any unique MetSyn component was not associated with increased cancer risk. Interestingly, the reduced HDL was observed to be widely associated with over twofold increased risk of cancer, only when together with other MetSyn components. CONCLUSION: MetSyn components, in a collaborative manner rather than its unique component, were associated with elevated cancer risk. Not only obesity but even subtle metabolic disturbances may give rise to cancer.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Neoplasias , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Aposentadoria , Triglicerídeos
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 929572, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072935

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment is a dynamic, complex, and redundant network of interactions between tumor, immune, and stromal cells. In this intricate environment, cells communicate through membrane-membrane, ligand-receptor, exosome, soluble factors, and transporter interactions that govern cell fate. These interactions activate the diverse and superfluous signaling pathways involved in tumor promotion and progression and induce subtle changes in the functional activity of infiltrating immune cells. The immune response participates as a selective pressure in tumor development. In the early stages of tumor development, the immune response exerts anti-tumor activity, whereas during the advanced stages, the tumor establishes mechanisms to evade the immune response, eliciting a chronic inflammation process that shows a pro-tumor effect. The deregulated inflammatory state, in addition to acting locally, also triggers systemic inflammation that has repercussions in various organs and tissues that are distant from the tumor site, causing the emergence of various symptoms designated as paraneoplastic syndromes, which compromise the response to treatment, quality of life, and survival of cancer patients. Considering the tumor-host relationship as an integral and dynamic biological system, the chronic inflammation generated by the tumor is a communication mechanism among tissues and organs that is primarily orchestrated through different signals, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and exosomes, to provide the tumor with energetic components that allow it to continue proliferating. In this review, we aim to provide a succinct overview of the involvement of cancer-related inflammation at the local and systemic level throughout tumor development and the emergence of some paraneoplastic syndromes and their main clinical manifestations. In addition, the involvement of these signals throughout tumor development will be discussed based on the physiological/biological activities of innate and adaptive immune cells. These cellular interactions require a metabolic reprogramming program for the full activation of the various cells; thus, these requirements and the by-products released into the microenvironment will be considered. In addition, the systemic impact of cancer-related proinflammatory cytokines on the liver-as a critical organ that produces the leading inflammatory markers described to date-will be summarized. Finally, the contribution of cancer-related inflammation to the development of two paraneoplastic syndromes, myelopoiesis and cachexia, will be discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas , Citocinas , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Microambiente Tumoral
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078236

RESUMO

Background: The cancer burden in Israel is substantial. Recently calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) for modifiable cancer risk factors in the US and the UK have indicated much room for prevention. Our aim was to estimate PAFs for selected modifiable cancer risk factors in Israel. Methods: Exposure data on selected modifiable risk factors were based on national health surveys conducted in 2013-2015. Data on invasive cancer incidence in 2015 were retrieved from the Israel National Cancer Registry (INCR). Relative risks (RRs) for specific cancer sites were retrieved from the scientific literature. PAFs were calculated for selected modifiable risk factors using an approximate formula. Results: In 2015, 21% of all invasive cancer cases in Israel were attributed to smoking, 9% to excess body weight, and 1.5% to alcohol intake. Moreover, 32% of all invasive cancer cases were attributed to all modifiable risk factors (combined) included in our study. Conclusions: Quantifying the contribution of modifiable risk factors to the incidence of certain cancer types in Israel offers an opportunity for primary prevention and enables informed decision-making with respect to the prioritization of interventions.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
7.
Lancet ; 400(10352): 563-591, 2022 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. METHODS: The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. FINDINGS: Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01-4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3-48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1-45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60-3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8-54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36-1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5-41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6-28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8-25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9-42·8] and 33·3% [25·8-42·0]). INTERPRETATION: The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Neoplasias , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14606, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028524

RESUMO

Due to recent increases in cancer burden worldwide, we investigated current awareness of cancer risk factors and the association between information sources and health behaviors for cancer prevention in Japan. A nationwide representative sample aged 20 years or older (563 men and 653 women) responded to a questionnaire as part of a population-based survey in December 2018. Tobacco smoking (55.7% of the mean attributable fraction of cancer risk overall) and cancer-causing infection (52.0%) were regarded more highly than other lifestyle factors as causes of cancer (obesity [36.6%], physical inactivity [31.9%], unbalanced diet [30.9%], and alcohol consumption [26.2%]). The association between information sources and health behaviors for cancer prevention was evaluated using a logistic regression model. The websites of public institutions, and health professionals were associated with a broad range of health behaviors including improving diet, exercise, cancer screening/health check-up, and abstinence from smoking/drinking. Among sources of print media, positive associations were observed between books and improving diet/exercise, brochures and cancer screening/health check-up, and advertisements and abstinence from smoking/drinking. A strategic health communication approach that utilizes various information sources and delivery channels is needed to inform the public about cancer prevention and to motivate risk-reducing behaviors in the population.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/classificação , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 173: 263-275, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35940056

RESUMO

Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) has been associated with disruption of the circadian system, which has been pointed out to have detrimental effects on health. Exposure to outdoor ALAN is very frequent in industrialised countries due to nocturnal light pollution and the relevant involvement of the total workforce in shift work and night work. Ecological and epidemiologic studies highlight the association between exposure to ALAN and several diseases, mainly obesity and cancer. More recently, also indoor ALAN exposure has been investigated. Among several multifactorial mechanisms linking ALAN exposure and health risks, suppression of melatonin secretion plays a pivotal role leading to alterations in circadian rhythm patterns, that are detrimental in terms of appetite regulation, and dysfunctions in metabolic signalling and cell growth in cancer. In addition, gut dysbiosis, inflammation, hypovitaminosis D, imbalance in cytokine secretion and levels are responsible for the multiple relationship linking circadian dysregulation due to ALAN exposure and obesity, and cancer. Therefore, the current manuscript summarises human and basic studies pointing out the impact of ALAN exposure on health, mostly focusing on obesity and cancer. Based on extant evidence, prevention strategies for obesity and cancer should be prompted, targeting exposure to ALAN.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Neoplasias , Humanos , Luz , Poluição Luminosa , Melatonina/metabolismo , Neoplasias/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações
11.
Curr Oncol ; 29(8): 5869-5874, 2022 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36005201

RESUMO

Smoking is a common health risk behavior that has substantial effects on perioperative risk and postoperative surgical outcomes. Current smoking is clearly linked to an increased risk of perioperative cardiovascular, pulmonary and wound healing complications. Accumulating evidence indicates that smoking cessation can reduce the higher perioperative complication risk that is observed in current smokers. In addition, continued smoking has a negative impact on the overall prognosis of cancer patients. Smoking cessation, on the other hand, can improve long-term outcomes after surgery. Smoking cessation services should be implemented in a comprehensive programmatic manner to ensure that all patients gain access to evidence-based care. Although the benefits of abstinence increase in proportion to the length of cessation, cessation should be recommended regardless of timing prior to surgery.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Neoplasias , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 879890, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35966097

RESUMO

Background: To report the burden of cancers attributable to high fasting plasma glucose (HFPG) by sex, age, location, cancer type and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) over the period 1990 to 2019 for 204 countries and territories. Methods: Using the Comparative Risk Assessment approach of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019, the burden of cancers attributable to HFPG was reported in 1990 and 2019. Results: Globally, in 2019 there were an estimated 419.3 thousand cancer deaths (95% UI: 115.7 to 848.5) and 8.6 million cancer DALYs (2.4 to 17.6) attributable to HFPG. By sex, 4.6 (1.1 to 9.9) and 4.0 (1.1 to 8.4) million global cancer DALYs were attributable to HFPG in men and women, respectively. The global age-standardized death and DALY rates of cancers attributable to HFPG (per 100,000) have increased by 27.8% (20.5 to 38.7%) and 24.5% (16.4 to 35.6%), respectively, since 1990. High-income North America (9.5 [2.7 to 18.8]) and Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa (2.0 [0.5 to 4.2]) had the highest and lowest regional age-standardized death rates, respectively, for cancers attributable to HFPG. In 2019, the global number of attributable cancer DALYs were highest in 65-69 age group. Moreover, there was an overall positive association between SDI and the regional age-standardized DALY rate for HFPG-attributable cancers. Conclusions: HFPG was associated with more burden in 2019. Preventive programs for diabetes and screening of individuals with diabetes for cancers, especially in older males living in developed countries, are required to arrest the large increases in HFPG-attributable cancers.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias , Idoso , Glicemia , Jejum , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2228544, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001313

RESUMO

Importance: Although numerous studies have shown an association between alcohol consumption and cancer, how changes in drinking behavior increase or decrease the incidence of cancer is not well understood. Objective: To investigate the association between the reduction, cessation, or increase of alcohol consumption and the development of alcohol-related cancers and all cancers. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study analyzed adult beneficiaries in the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Participants (aged ≥40 years) included those who underwent a national health screening in both 2009 and 2011 and had available data on their drinking status. Data were analyzed from April 16 to July 6, 2020. Exposures: Alcohol consumption level, which was self-reported by participants in health screening questionnaires, was categorized into none (0 g/d), mild (<15 g/d), moderate (15-29.9 g/d), and heavy (≥30 g/d) drinking. Based on changes in alcohol consumption level from 2009 to 2011, participants were categorized into the following groups: nondrinker, sustainer, increaser, quitter, and reducer. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was newly diagnosed alcohol-related cancers (including cancers of the head and neck, esophagus, colorectum, liver, larynx, and female breast), and the secondary outcome was all newly diagnosed cancers (except for thyroid cancer). Results: Among the 4 513 746 participants (mean [SD] age, 53.6 [9.6] years; 2 324 172 [51.5%] men), the incidence rate of cancer was 7.7 per 1000 person-years during a median (IQR) follow-up of 6.4 (6.1-6.6) years. Compared with the sustainer groups at each drinking level, the increaser groups had a higher risk of alcohol-related cancers and all cancers. The increased alcohol-related cancer incidence was associated with dose; those who changed from nondrinking to mild (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.06), moderate (aHR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.18), or heavy (aHR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.23-1.45) drinking levels had an associated higher risk than those who did not drink. Those with mild drinking levels who quit drinking had a lower risk of alcohol-related cancer (aHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99) than those who sustained their drinking levels. Those with moderate (aHR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12) or heavy (aHR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12) drinking levels who quit drinking had a higher all cancer incidence than those who sustained their levels, but when quitting was sustained, this increase in risk disappeared. Compared with sustained heavy drinking, reduced heavy drinking levels to moderate levels (alcohol-related cancer: aHR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86-0.97]; all cancers: aHR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-0.99]) or mild levels (alcohol-related cancer: aHR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.98]; all cancers: aHR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.89-0.96]) were associated with decreased cancer risk. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study showed that increased alcohol consumption was associated with higher risks for alcohol-related and all cancers, whereas sustained quitting and reduced drinking were associated with lower risks of alcohol-related and all cancers. Alcohol cessation and reduction should be reinforced for the prevention of cancer.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Neoplasias , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
15.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 41(3): 719-735, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933566

RESUMO

Excess body weight is a significant risk factor for the development and recurrence of many types of cancer. Patients with a history or current diagnosis of cancer who are overweight or have obesity have an increased risk of cancer treatment-related morbidity, recurrence, and decreased quality of life. Weight loss and maintenance of a healthy body weight may reduce cancer morbidity and recurrence in cancer survivors. While guidelines for cancer survivorship elaborate sufficiently on lifestyle interventions, little guidance is provided when considering additional therapies like anti-obesity pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery for weight loss. This review will highlight and address current recommendations and feasible interventions that clinicians may consider to further reduce the incidence and recurrence of cancer in patients with obesity.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Neoplasias , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Redução de Peso
16.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(8): 475-479, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912410

RESUMO

Scientific advances in the late 19th century set the stage for progress in understanding and treating cancer, a disease that was previously considered almost hopeless. One hundred years later, cancer prevention is becoming an increasingly important focus for oncology research. New tools and ideas bring to the field some extremely promising molecular, organizational, social, and political approaches, which were a focus of the American Association for Cancer Research 2022 Annual Meeting and of the newly launched AACR Cancer Prevention Working Group (CPWG). We are moving toward precision prevention, better tools for early detection and for risk assessment, the use of a Precancer Atlas, unveiling of new biomarkers. Besides improving lifestyle, by avoiding risk factors such as tobacco use, excessive UV exposure, infectious agents, as well as poor dietary habits, lack of exercise, overweight, and obesity, many other factors can impact cancer risk, which is a warning to consider a multifaceted molecular but also social approach. Gender, ethnicity, geographic, and economic lines are associated with disparities in prevention, which we want to overcome. Here we summarize some challenges and priorities in cancer prevention emerging from the work of AACR and CPWG.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Neoplasias , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
EBioMedicine ; 83: 104219, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is replacing cardiovascular-disease as a leading cause of death in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The association of RAS-inhibitors (RASi) and cancer, including differences between angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin-receptor-blocker (ARBs) as well as their associations independent of blood pressure lowering, remains inconclusive in T2D. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study with new-user design in 253,491 patients in the Hong-Kong-Diabetes-Surveillance-Database (HKDSD) in 2002-2019. We evaluated the associations of time-varying RASi use (ACEi and ARBs) with all-site cancer, diabetes-related cancers, and cancer-specific mortality including comparison with new-users of calcium-channel-blockers (CCBs) as an active-comparator group. FINDINGS: Of 253,491, 133,730 (52.8%) were new-RASi and 119,761 (47.2%) were non-RASi users with a median follow-up period of 6.3 (interquartile ragne: 3.4-9.2) years (1,678,719 patient-years). After propensity-score weighting and adjustment for time-varying covariables, RASi use was associated with lower risk of all-site cancer (HR=0.76, 95%CI: 0.74-0.79), diabetes-related cancer (HR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.75-0.84), cancer-specific mortality (HR=0.50, 95%CI: 0.47-0.53), and diabetes-related cancer mortality (HR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.45-0.54) versus non-RASi. Amongst RASi users, ARBs use was associated with lower risk of cancer-specific mortality versus ACEi (HR=0.77, 95%CI: 0.66-0.91). Use of RASi was associated with an estimated-prevention of 2.6 (95%CI: 2.3-3.0) all-site cancer per-1000-person-years and 2.2 (95%CI: 2.0-2.5) cancer-related mortality per-1000-person-years. Lower risk of cancer-specific mortality was similarly observed in new-RASi compared with new-CCBs users. INTERPRETATION: RASi use was independently associated with lower cancer risk in T2D with stronger associations in users of ARBs than ACEi. The benefits of RASi in patients with diabetes might go beyond cardiovascular-renal protection if confirmed by other real-world studies and trials. FUNDING: Dr. Aimin Yang was supported by a CUHK Impact-Research-Fellowship Scheme.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neoplasias , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Angiotensinas , Cálcio , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia
18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 80: 102239, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its rarity, cancer in children and adolescents (CAC) is a major health issue worldwide. The lack of appropriate cancer registries is an obstacle for defining its incidence and survival, and informing cancer control. As in Cyprus, CAC epidemiology has not previously been comprehensively examined, we determined incidence rates and temporal trends of cancer in the 0-19 age group during 1998-2017. METHODS: We established the population based Paediatric Oncology Registry of Cyprus (PORCY) for the period 1998-2017. World age standardised incidence rate per million children and adolescents per year (ASRW) were calculated and time trends were assessed using Joinpoint regression analysis. Comparisons were made with other countries using the International Incidence of Childhood Cancer, third volume. RESULTS: For all cancers combined, for ages 0-19-years, ASRW was 203.54 (95% CI 189.49, 217.59) one of the highest rates globally. The most frequent CAC were leukaemias followed by lymphomas, specified epithelial neoplasms and central nervous system tumours, differing to what is described in most other countries. For all cancers, both combined and individual types, except thyroid carcinoma (where incidence was rising), no significant temporal variation was found. CONCLUSIONS: To inform cancer control activities, we conducted the first ever population-based epidemiological study of childhood and adolescent cancer (0-19 years) in Cyprus. The striking findings indicate high overall incidence rates that are among the world's highest, a higher frequency of lymphomas and thyroid cancer than brain tumours, and rising incidence for thyroid, but not for other, cancers. These novel findings, will help the formulation of hypotheses to provide explanation for the high rates for all CAC in Cyprus and may contribute to the global efforts for improving prevention of cancer in this age group.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Linfoma , Neoplasias , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chipre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Neoplasias/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Cancer ; 174: 134-141, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998549

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fertility preservation (FP) is recommended in young breast cancer (BC) patients before (neo)adjuvant treatment. Letrozole-associated controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (LetCOH) is used worldwide to collect mature oocytes for FP, but its efficacy and safety compared to conventional protocols (cCOH) are still debated. AIMS: To compare efficacy and safety of FP procedure using LetCOH or cCOH in BC patients in terms of oocyte maturation rate and disease-free survival rates after at least two years of follow-up. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study compared outcomes of 107 cycles in 97 non-metastatic BC patients aged ≤40 years who underwent cCOH (n = 56) or LetCOH (n = 41) for FP in CHU-Lille and Erasme Hospital, respectively, between December 2012 and January 2017. RESULTS: Patients and oncological characteristics were similar except for tumor size and HER2 status which were less favorable in the LetCOH group. Patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy in 96.4% and 48.8% of the cases in cCOH and LetCOH groups, respectively. Hence, 51.2% of LetCOH patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p < 0.001). Estradiol peak at ovulation trigger was lower in LetCOH compared to cCOH group while oocyte maturation rates were significantly higher (p < 0.001), without impacting the final number of mature oocytes collected. Seven and four patients relapsed in LetCOH and cCOH groups, respectively, and one patient died in each group after a median follow-up of four years. CONCLUSION: LetCOH is as effective as cCOH for FP. At this time point, there were no safety concerns regarding cCOH in the adjuvant setting but a longer follow-up is warranted.


Assuntos
Preservação da Fertilidade , Neoplasias , Criopreservação , Estradiol , Feminino , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Humanos , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Indução da Ovulação/efeitos adversos , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Cancer Metastasis Rev ; 41(3): 697-717, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35984550

RESUMO

Obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome is considered a pandemic whose prevalence is steadily increasing in many countries worldwide. It is a complex, dynamic, and multifactorial disorder that presages the development of several metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases, and increases the risk of cancer. In patients with newly diagnosed cancer, obesity worsens prognosis, increasing the risk of recurrence and decreasing survival. The multiple negative effects of obesity on cancer outcomes are substantial, and of great clinical importance. Strategies for weight control have potential utility for both prevention efforts and enhancing cancer outcomes. Presently, time-restricted eating (TRE) is a popular dietary intervention that involves limiting the consumption of calories to a specific window of time without any proscribed caloric restriction or alteration in dietary composition. As such, TRE is a sustainable long-term behavioral modification, when compared to other dietary interventions, and has shown many health benefits in animals and humans. The preliminary data regarding the effects of time-restricted feeding on cancer development and growth in animal models are promising but studies in humans are lacking. Interestingly, several short-term randomized clinical trials of TRE have shown favorable effects to reduce cancer risk factors; however, long-term trials of TRE have yet to investigate reductions in cancer incidence or outcomes in the general population. Few studies have been conducted in cancer populations, but a number are underway to examine the effect of TRE on cancer biology and recurrence. Given the simplicity, feasibility, and favorable metabolic improvements elicited by TRE in obese men and women, TRE may be useful in obese cancer patients and cancer survivors; however, the clinical implementation of TRE in the cancer setting will require greater in-depth investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Obesidade , Animais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações
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