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1.
Indian J Cancer ; 56(4): 364-367, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607710

RESUMO

This note presents a brief account of the ideas and efforts of V.R. Khanolkar in the period 1952-1962 to develop the Indian Cancer Research Centre into a "center of excellence". Khanolkar, who is recognized as a pioneer in cancer research in India, focused on developing multidisciplinary medical research and mentored and trained young medical researchers. He sought and received aid from the Rockefeller Foundation, which was keen to support him in this task.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Neoplasias/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia , Comunicação Interdisciplinar
4.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(17): 1545-1562, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362690

RESUMO

Cancer research has progressed leaps and bounds over the years. This review is a brief overview of the cancer research, milestone achievements and therapeutic studies on it over the one hundred ten years which would give us an insight into how far we have come to understand and combat this fatal disease leading to millions of deaths worldwide. Modern biology has proved that cancer is a very complex disease as still we do not know precisely how it triggers. It involves several factors such as protooncogene, oncogene, kinase, tumor suppressor gene, growth factor, signalling cascade, micro RNA, immunity, environmental factors and carcinogens. However, modern technology now helps the cancer patient on the basis of acquired and established knowledge in the last hundred years to save human lives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética
5.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 684, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex differences in the incidences of cancers become a critical issue in both cancer research and the development of precision medicine. However, details in these differences have not been well reported. We provide a comprehensive analysis of sexual dimorphism in human cancers. METHODS: We analyzed four sets of cancer incidence data from the SEER (USA, 1975-2015), from the Cancer Registry at Mayo Clinic (1970-2015), from Sweden (1970-2015), and from the World Cancer Report in 2012. RESULTS: We found that all human cancers had statistically significant sexual dimorphism with male dominance in the United States and mostly significant in the Mayo Clinic, Sweden, and the world data, except for thyroid cancer, which is female-dominant. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual dimorphism is a clear but mostly neglected phenotype for most human cancers regarding the clinical practice of cancer. We expect that our study will facilitate the mechanistic studies of sexual dimorphism in human cancers. We believe that fully addressing the mechanisms of sexual dimorphism in human cancers will greatly benefit current development of individualized precision medicine beginning from the sex-specific diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Feminino , Saúde Global , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/história , Vigilância da População , Programa de SEER , Suécia , Estados Unidos
6.
J BUON ; 24(2): 868-871, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128055

RESUMO

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, known also by his Latinized name Rhazes, stands among the Arabo-islamic physicians as the most important medical figure of his time. His contribution to medicine is considered vital as through his work and translations, the ancient Greek medicine along with the Arabian innovations, were spread in the Western medical literature. In his masterpiece entitled: "The comprehensive book on medicine", known also as "The large comprehensive or Continens Liber", he had thoroughly studied cancer, discussing its diagnosis and treatment. He was among the pioneers to introduce the notion of chemotherapy by combining alchemical, chemical, medical and pharmaceutical knowledge.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/história , História Medieval , Humanos
7.
Dis Model Mech ; 12(4)2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952627

RESUMO

When Mary Stark first described the presence of tumours in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in 1918, would she ever have imagined that flies would become an invaluable organism for modelling and understanding oncogenesis? And if so, would she have expected it to take 100 years for this model to be fully accredited? This Special Article summarises the efforts and achievements of Drosophilists to establish the fly as a valid model in cancer research through different scientific periods.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Neoplasias/história , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Genes Supressores de Tumor , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Neoplasias/genética , Oncogenes
10.
Dis Model Mech ; 12(3)2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824525

RESUMO

Harold Varmus has made pioneering contributions to our understanding of cancer as a genetic disease. The discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes earned him and his long-term collaborator, Michael Bishop, the Lasker Prize for Basic Medical Sciences in 1982 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1989. Throughout his career, Varmus has held several leadership roles that shaped science policy in the US and worldwide, and he has been an outspoken advocate for open science. In this interview, he talks (among other things) about the factors that shaped his early career choices, the thrill of scientific discovery, and the importance of including diverse populations in genomic studies of cancer and other diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/história , Oncogenes , Genoma Humano , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética
11.
J Virol ; 93(9)2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814278

RESUMO

This summer marks the 51st anniversary of the DNA tumor virus meetings. Scientists from around the world will gather in Trieste, Italy, to report their latest results and to agree or disagree on the current concepts that define our understanding of this diverse class of viruses. This article offers a brief history of the impact the study of these viruses has had on molecular and cancer biology and discusses obstacles and opportunities for future progress.


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA Tumorais/fisiologia , Biologia Molecular/história , Neoplasias/história , Neoplasias/virologia , Animais , Congressos como Assunto , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Itália
12.
Cancer Res Treat ; 51(2): 431-437, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913864

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to report on cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2019 to estimate Korea's current cancer burden. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2016 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2017 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence and mortality were projected by fitting a linear regression model to observed age-specific cancer rates against observed years, then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly; we used only the data of the latest trend. RESULTS: A total of 221,347 new cancer cases and 82,344 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2019. The most common cancer sites thus far have been the lung, followed by the stomach, colon and rectum, breast, and liver. These five cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Korea. For cancer associated mortality, the most common sites were lung, followed by the liver, colon and rectum, stomach, and pancreas. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of all cancer in Korea is estimated to decrease gradually. These up-todate estimates of the cancer burden in Korea could be an important resource for planning and evaluating cancer-control programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/história , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer Res Treat ; 51(2): 417-430, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913865

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study presents the 2016 nationwide cancer statistics in Korea, including cancer incidence, survival, prevalence, and mortality. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2016 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database and followed until December 31, 2017. Mortality data from 1983 to 2016 were obtained from Statistics Korea. The prevalence was defined as the number of cancer patients alive on January 1, 2017 among all cancer patients diagnosed since 1999. Crude and age-standardized rates (ASRs) for incidence, mortality, and prevalence and 5-year relative survivals were also calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 229,180 and 78,194 Koreans were newly diagnosed and died from cancer in 2016, respectively. The ASRs for cancer incidence and mortality in 2016 were 269.0 and 79.8 per 100,000 individuals, respectively. The all-cancer incidence rate increased significantly by 3.6% annually from 1999 to 2011 and started to decrease after 2011 (2011-2016; annual percent change, -3.1%). However, overall cancer mortality has decreased 2.7% annually since 2002. The 5-year relative survival rate for patients diagnosed with cancer between 2012 and 2016 was 70.6%, an improvement from the 41.2% for patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1995. CONCLUSION: The cancer prevalence in Korea has increased very fast as survival has improved remarkably. The high prevalence of cancer emphasizes the need for comprehensive cancer control efforts in Korea.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/história , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
J Biol Chem ; 293(48): 18681-18692, 2018 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377254

RESUMO

Polyamines have a long history in biochemistry and physiology, dating back to 1678 when Leeuwenhoek first reported crystals that were composed of spermine phosphate in seminal fluid. Their quantification and biosynthetic pathway were first described by Herb and Celia Tabor in collaboration with Sanford Rosenthal in the late 1950s. This work led to immense interest in their physiological functions. The 11 Minireviews in this collection illustrate many of the wide-ranging biochemical effects of the polyamines. This series provides a fitting tribute to Herb Tabor on the occasion of his 100th birthday, demonstrating clearly the importance and growth of the research field that he pioneered in the late 1950s and has contributed to for many years. His studies of the synthesis, function, and toxicity of polyamines have yielded multiple insights into fundamental biochemical processes and formed the basis of successful and continuing drug development. This Minireview series reviews the highly diverse properties of polyamines in bacteria, protozoa, and mammals, highlighting the importance of these molecules in growth, development, and response to the environment, and their involvement in diseases, including cancer, and those caused by parasitic protozoans.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Poliaminas/história , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Animais , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/história , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Poliaminas/química
18.
Psychooncology ; 27(5): 1364-1376, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749682

RESUMO

Worldwide, psychological and social issues in cancer were not the subject of scientific inquiry until the past two decades. Since then, a new subspecialty of oncology has evolved, psycho-oncology. It addresses two dimensions of cancer: the emotional responses of patients at all stages of disease, as well as their families and caretakers (psychosocial); and the pyschological, social and behavioral factors that may influence cancer morbidity and mortality (psychobiological). Obstacles to development have been the facts of small numbers of clinicians and investigators worldwide and the few valid assessment instruments and research methods available to the biomedical community. These obstacles are increasingly giving way to the louder demand of the public for maximal quality of life in cancer care. Psycho-oncology is attaining subspeciality status by presently bringing a set of clinical skills in counseling, behavioral and social interventions to oncology, by providing training curricula which teach basic knowledge and skills in the area, and through creating a body of research and scholarly information about clinically relevant issues in the care of patients with cancer. Since it is increasingly recognized that psychological, social and behavioral variables influence treatment outcome, attention will likely to continue to increase. The field must meet the challenges of the 1990's in psychosocial care and availability of services, support for training clinicians and investigators in psycho-oncology, and implementation of an exciting research agenda. The focus of new research will encourage collaborative investigations combining biological and psychosocial variables, quality of life research in clinical trials, controlled studies of psychotherapeutic, behavioral and psychopharmacologic research, and crosscultural studies that will examine differences in prevention and detection, health care systems, alternative therapies and meta analyses.


Assuntos
Oncologia/história , Neoplasias/psicologia , Psico-Oncologia/história , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/história , Qualidade de Vida , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neoplasias/história
19.
Int J Paleopathol ; 21: 178-185, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778408

RESUMO

Cancers have been reported in bone and soft tissue of ancient agricultural populations. Fossilized bones from prehistoric periods provide evidence of tumors but only one example of cancer. Difficulties in diagnosing the causes of lesions in mummified tissue and fossilized bone, and in interpreting the prevalence of cancers from remains, draw attention to the need for complementary approaches to assess the occurrence of cancer in ancient populations. This paper integrates current knowledge about pathogen induction of cancer with phylogenetic analyses of oncogenic pathogens, and concludes that pathogen-induced cancers were probably generally present in ancient historic and prehistoric human populations. Consideration of cancers in extant human populations and wildlife lends credence to this conclusion, with the caveat that the presence of cancers may depend on population-specific exposures to oncogenic parasites and carcinogens.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , /história , Neoplasias/história , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Fósseis/microbiologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Paleopatologia
20.
Int J Paleopathol ; 21: 3-11, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778410

RESUMO

This article serves as an introduction to the International Journal of Paleopathology's special issue, Paleo-oncology: Taking Stock and Moving Forward. Reflecting the goals of the special issue, this paper has been designed to provide an overview of the current state of paleo-oncology, to introduce new and innovative paleo-oncological research and ideas, and to serve as a catalyst for future discussions and progress. This paper begins with an overview of the paleo-oncological evidence that can be found in ancient remains, followed by a summary of significant paleo-oncological findings and methodological advances to date. Thereafter, challenges in estimating past prevalence of cancer are highlighted and recommendations are made for future advancements in paleo-oncological research. The ground-breaking studies included in the special issue and referenced throughout this introduction embody the many ways in which progress can be made in the field of paleo-oncology.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Neoplasias/história , Paleopatologia , História Antiga , Humanos , Oncologia/tendências , Paleopatologia/tendências
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