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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46984

RESUMO

"O câncer tem como causa uma variedade de fatores, que nós chamamos fatores de risco, cuja maioria se relaciona com o ambiente externo ou com aquilo que nós colocamos no nosso organismo”, explicou Inez Gadelha, Chefe de Gabinete da Secretaria de Atenção Especializada do Ministério da Saúde.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida Saudável
2.
4.
BMJ ; 368: l6669, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how a healthy lifestyle is related to life expectancy that is free from major chronic diseases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=73 196) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014; n=38 366). MAIN EXPOSURES: Five low risk lifestyle factors: never smoking, body mass index 18.5-24.9, moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥30 minutes/day), moderate alcohol intake (women: 5-15 g/day; men 5-30 g/day), and a higher diet quality score (upper 40%). MAIN OUTCOME: Life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. RESULTS: The life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at age 50 was 23.7 years (95% confidence interval 22.6 to 24.7) for women who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors, in contrast to 34.4 years (33.1 to 35.5) for women who adopted four or five low risk factors. At age 50, the life expectancy free of any of these chronic diseases was 23.5 (22.3 to 24.7) years among men who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors and 31.1 (29.5 to 32.5) years in men who adopted four or five low risk lifestyle factors. For current male smokers who smoked heavily (≥15 cigarettes/day) or obese men and women (body mass index ≥30), their disease-free life expectancies accounted for the lowest proportion (≤75%) of total life expectancy at age 50. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle at mid-life is associated with a longer life expectancy free of major chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Neoplasias , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 2-5, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914560

RESUMO

In the past decade, the incidence and mortality of malignant tumors in China have been growing as a serious public health problem. Health literacy is closely related to the individual cancer risk awareness, early cancer symptom recognition, cancer screening behavior, treatment compliance, disease self-management ability and outcome. It also has an important impact on the occurrence, development and outcome of cancer and plays an important role in the tertiary cancer prevention. This issue focuses on the consciousness of cancer prevention, early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment, as well as the demand of and access to the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge, and could provide reference for cancer prevention and control in urban residents.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , China , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 47-53, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914569

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the health literacy and relevant factors of cancer prevention consciousness in Chinese urban residents from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the information of demographic characteristics and cancer prevention consciousness focusing on nine common risk factors, including smoking, alcohol, fiber food, food in hot temperature or pickled food, chewing betel nut, helicobacter pylori, moldy food, hepatitis B infection, estrogen, and exercise. The logistic regression model was adopted to identify the influencing factors. Results: The overall health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness was 77.4% (24 980 participants), with 77.4% (12 018 participants), 79.9% (6 406 participants), 77.2% (1 766 participants) and 74.5% (4 709 participants) in each group (P<0.001). The correct response rates for nine risk factors ranged from 55.2% to 93.0%. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with community residents, people with primary school level education or below, and the number of people living together in the family <3, the cancer risk assessment/screening intervention population, cancer patients, those with junior high school level educationor above and the number of people living in the family ≥3 had better health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness (all P values <0.05). Compared with females, 39 years old and below, government-affiliated institutions or civil servants, from the eastern region, males, older than 40 years, company or enterprise employees, and from the middle or western region had worse health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: The health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness in Chinese urban residents should be improved. The cancer screening intervention, gender, age, education, occupation, the number of people co-living in the family, and residential region were associated with the health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 76-83, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914573

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment among urban residents of China, and explore the related factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The health literacy of the cancer prevention, early discovery, early diagnosis, early treatment and the demands of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge was analyzed. The level of health literacy among different groups were calculated and compared. The binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment. Results: The level of health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment was 56.97% among all study population; in each group it was 55.01% for community residents, 59.08% for cancer risk assessment/screening population, 61.99% for cancer patients and 57.31% for occupational population, respectively (P<0.001). The level of health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment of residents aged 50 to 69 years old, other occupational groups, unmarried, the central and western region residents and the group with unclear self-assessment of cancer risk was significantly lower than that of residents younger than 40 years old, personnel of public institutions/civil servants, married, the eastern region residents and the group whose self-assessment without cancer risk (P<0.05) . The level of health literacy of cancer prevention and treatment of females, people who went to high school or over, cancer risk assessment/screening population, cancer patients and occupational population was significantly higher than that of males, people who had an education level of primary school or below and community residents (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment of urban residents in China was relatively high, but there was still room for improvement. Gender, age, educational level, occupation, region, marital status, self-assessment of cancer risk, and type of respondents were the key influencing factors of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment. Male, 50-69 years old, lower educational level, central and western regions, unclear cancer risk self-assessment, and without specific environmental exposure to cancer prevention and treatment knowledge or related risk factors were the characteristics of the key intervention group of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 84-91, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914574

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the demand and access to the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge and related factors among urban residents in China from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the information of general demographic characteristics, the demand and access to cancer prevention and treatment knowledge, and the influencing factors of the attitude. The Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference of the demand of the cancer prevention knowledge among different groups and the corresponding factors of the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge were analyzed by using the logistic regression model. Results: The proportion of residents who need the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge was 79.5%. The demand rate of the inducement, symptom and diagnosis methods of cancer in the occupational population was highest, about 66.8%, 71.0% and 20.8%, respectively. The demand rate of treatment methods and cost in current cancer patients was the highest, about the 45.9% and 21.9%, respectively. The top three sources to acquire the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge were "broadcast or television" (69.5%), "books, newspapers, posters or brochures" (44.7%) and "family and friends" (33.8%). The multivariate analysis showed that compared with public institution personnel/civil servants, unmarried/cohabiting/divorced/widowed and others, annual household income less than 20 000 CNY, from the eastern region, people without cancer diagnosis and people with self-assessment of cancer risk, the demand rate of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge was higher in enterprise personnel/workers, married, annual household income between 60 000 CNY and 150 000 CNY, from the central region, people with cancer and people with unclear cancer risk (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: There was a high demand for the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge among urban residents in China from 2015 to 2017. The main access to the knowledge is from the radio or television. The occupation, marital status, annual household income, residential region, health status and risk of disease were the main factors of the demand of the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 108-112, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914578

RESUMO

The health literacy refers to the ability of individuals to acquire and understand basic health information and services and use them to make the right decisions to maintain and promote their health. Health literacy data focusing on cancer prevention and control was limited in China. In order to understand the health literacy and awareness of cancer risk factors and the cancer screening, early diagnosis and treatment in Chinese urban residents and compare the effect of different stages of the cancer intervention, the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) program, supported by the National Key Public Health Program, conducted a survey on the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment among urban residents in 16 provinces nationwide from 2015 to 2017. Four subgroups were designed in this survey, including (1) general population who have never participated in any cancer screening programs at a community-level; (2) individuals who have previously attended the CanSPUC program for cancer risk assessment or screening intervention; (3) cancer patients who were receiving treatment in local hospitals; (4) a special group from employees of government and public institutions (non-health system), state-owned enterprises and private enterprises (to have better understand on the impact of socioeconomic factors). The self-designed questionnaire covered six parts, including basic information, consciousness of common risk factors to cancer, awareness of early detection, awareness of early diagnosis, awareness of early treatment, and the needs and approaches for knowledge of cancer prevention and treatment. A total of 32 257 individuals were included in the final analyses. This paper landscaped the overall design of the survey, including participants, domains of the instrument, quality control, basic characteristics of the included individuals. These descriptions are applicable to each individual report of the current special issue of "Health Literacy of Cancer Control in Urban China" and future reports, in which more detailed results are and will be reported. The findings of this survey could provide some useful implications for similar researches in the future.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , China , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 113-116, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914579

RESUMO

This article reviews the literature on health literacy and cancer prevention, screening, treatment and prognosis. A large number of studies have shown that health literacy is positively correlated with public cancer risk awareness, cancer knowledge awareness rate, and cancer screening behavior, and positively correlated with the health service resource utilization ability of cancer patients, treatment compliance, and quality of life, and negatively correlated with the unhealthy lifestyle such as smoking and drinking. Some studies have problems such as small sample size, limited population, and inappropriate design. Some studies do not support the conclusions above. Therefore, multi-center, large-scale clinical studies and cohort studies should be conducted to provide more robust evidence for the relationship between the health literacy and cancer prevention, screening, and treatment.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Humanos
12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 646-656, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882889

RESUMO

Cancer is a major contributing cause of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The aim of the current study was to estimate the cancer burden attributable to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors. We used age-, sex- and site-specific incidence estimates for 2012 from IARC's GLOBOCAN, and assessed the following risk factors: smoking, alcohol, high body mass index, insufficient physical activity, diet, suboptimal breastfeeding, infections and air pollution. The prevalence of exposure to these risk factors came from different sources including peer-reviewed international literature, the World Health Organization, noncommunicable disease Risk Factor Collaboration, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Sex-specific population-attributable fraction was estimated in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region based on the prevalence of the selected risk factors and the relative risks obtained from meta-analyses. We estimated that approximately 33% (or 165,000 cases) of all new cancer cases in adults aged 30 years and older in 2012 were attributable to all selected risk factors combined. Infections and smoking accounted for more than half of the total attributable cases among men, while insufficient physical activity and exposure to infections accounted for more than two-thirds of the total attributable cases among women. A reduction in exposure to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors could prevent a substantial number of cancer cases in the Eastern Mediterranean. Population-based programs preventing infections and smoking (particularly among men) and promoting physical activity (particularly among women) in the population are needed to effectively decrease the regional cancer burden.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
13.
Semin Oncol ; 46(4-5): 334-340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703932

RESUMO

Cancer is a leading cause of death for people with HIV (PWH). The Veterans Healthcare System (VA) is the largest single institutional provider of HIV care in the United States. Cancer among Veterans with HIV is major issue and clinical research has expanded significantly during the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era providing numerous insights regarding cancer incidence, risk factors, prevention, treatment and outcomes for this unique group of patients. This work has been greatly facilitated by the availability of national VA data sources. Notably, patterns of cancer incidence have changed for Veterans with HIV during the ART era; non-AIDS defining malignancies now are the most common tumors. Despite better HIV control in the ART era, immunosuppression measured by low CD4 counts and HIV viremia have been associated with increased cancer risk. Cancer outcomes for Veterans with HIV may now be similar to uninfected Veterans, but information on outcomes and cancer treatment patterns remains limited, requiring further study to help inform prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Saúde dos Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Postepy Biochem ; 65(3): 163-172, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643163

RESUMO

The intestinal microflora plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis in the human body. Microbes affect, among others, energy conversion and absorption of nutrients, regulate immune system and help to protect the host organism from pathogenic microorganisms. The balanced composition of the intestinal microflora can be easily disturbed and any changes caused by diet, stress, obesity, diseases of the digestive system or medication may lead to pro-inflammatory immune responses and initiation of disease processes, including cancer. Maintaining intestinal microflora homeostasis is therefore extremely important for human health. In order to restore it, it is most often used to take specimens with appropriate bacterial cultures, i. e. probiotics. Due to the fact that yoghurts are a source of probiotic bacteria, their regular consumption may be a strong point in the prevention of various types of diseases, including civilization diseases and cancer. This article reviews the literature in the area of using yogurt bacteria in the prevention of cancer. Issues addressed in the article relate to the characteristics of yogurt bacteria, beneficial effects of probiotics on human health, anti-cancer properties of yogurt bacteria and their metabolites, i. e. immunoregulation, prevention of bacterial infections, maintenance of cellular connections in the intestine and anti-cancer activity of bacterial metabolites.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Probióticos , Iogurte/microbiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Probióticos/metabolismo
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1403, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use, alcohol use, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption are each associated with increased cancer-risk. Psychological trauma is a common experience and a key driver of these behaviours among adults. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of trauma-informed yoga, drumming, and psychoeducation compared to control on tobacco use, alcohol use, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among community-based adults. Secondary aims are to evaluate the effect of these interventions compared to control on psychological and physiological stress symptomology, social connection, and coping behaviour. METHODS: Recruitment for this single-blinded randomized trial began in April 2019 in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Lethbridge. Adults who consumed tobacco, alcohol, or sugar-sweetened beverages in the past month and live in Lethbridge, Alberta are being recruited using ads placed in public spaces. Participants are randomly allocated to a 12-session group yoga class, 12-session group drumming class, a 12-session psychoeducation class, or control. Participants attend an appointment in-person to fill out an online questionnaire package, provide a saliva sample, and complete physical measures pre-intervention, and 1-month and 6-months post-intervention. DISCUSSION: This study provides a unique opportunity to compare the impacts of two trauma-informed body-based interventions to psychoeducation and control for cancer-risk behaviour among community-based adults. The findings can be used to develop trauma-informed group interventions to reduce cancer-risk behaviour in general populations. Results are expected in 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ISRCTN15583681 on 22 August 2019 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto , Alberta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3129-3134, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602863

RESUMO

The best time of tumor intervention is before the formation of tumor. However,due to the limited number of tumor cells,it is difficult to quantify tumor cells and immunity by the current methods available( such as CTC,ct DNA). This affects the tumor prevention in this period,and the in-depth detection,intervention and evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM)( tumor) prevention. Due to the limitations of the current detection,the evaluation system turns to detect tumor neoantigen-specific CTL( naCTL) that are directly relating to tumor cells and proliferate to high order of magnitudes after activation,and immune repertoire( TCR/BCR/HLA) effective diversity,introduces immune checkpoints,uses information of " disease" in Western medicine and " syndrome" in TCM( prevention),and sets up a multi-dimensional statistical immunity model using a variety of data analysis and related algorithms. This model can amplify the ultra-early information of tumor,indirectly evaluate the quantity and status of tumor cells,and provide quantitative measurement and new evaluation methods for the normalization of immunity and TCM( tumor) prevention. This model is not only one of important evaluation methods for resisting tumor immunity and treating TCM( tumor) prevention,but also will reveal the scientific connotation of TCM syndrome from the perspective of immunology.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Antígenos HLA , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T
17.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(10): 1721-1724, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606778

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune lymphocytes which express an array of activating and inhibitory receptors. These receptors bind a large spectrum of ligands, which are expressed on stressed, malignantly transformed or virally infected cells, as well as on bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens. The decision on whether or not to kill the target is based on the integration of activating and inhibitory signals sent downstream from NK cell receptors. One of the most prominent NK cell activating receptor families is the family of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) which includes NKp30, NKp44, and NKp46. NKp46 is the only NCR to have a fully functional mouse orthologue denoted Ncr1. Despite a large body of evidence highlighting its importance in the clearance of both solid and liquid tumors, the membrane-bound tumor ligand for NKp46 and its mouse orthologue Ncr1 is still unknown. Here we review the discovery of a novel role for NKp46/Ncr1, not only in tumor clearance but also in prevention of metastasis by structural editing of primary tumors.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo
18.
Bull Cancer ; 106(11): 975-982, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607391

RESUMO

While improvements in the environment and living conditions have contributed to a significant increase in human longevity for over a century, the role of environmental factors in the occurrence of cancer has become a public health concern. It is recognized that a number of environmental factors such as environmental quality (air, water, soil), or environmental changes contribute to the occurrence of certain cancers. Despite this awareness, their potential impacts on health raise many scientific questions. The development of new methodological tools for the characterization of exposure, the study of the association between environmental agents and cancer through an exposure-cancer approach and the health impacts associated, have led to changes in scientific paradigms including the concept of exposome. This concept, at the heart of health and environmental issues, takes into account the determinants of health related to the quality of populations' living environments and provides assistance in public policy decision-making. Ultimately, the aim is to develop measures likely to reduce exposure and prevent health risks and damage to the most vulnerable populations, both in their physical environment and in their living environment, including the economic and social determinants.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Causalidade , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17382, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term use of aspirin for primary prevention of cancer remains inconclusive, and variation in the effects of aspirin use on cancer outcomes by cancer site, aspirin dose, follow-up duration, or different populations has never been systematically evaluated. METHODS: Seven electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, etc) will be searched from inception to September 30, 2019. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing aspirin versus no aspirin in participants without pre-existing cancer and reporting cancer incidence, and/or cancer mortality outcomes will be selected and assessed for inclusion. The Cochrane's Risk of Bias Tool and the Jadad scale will be used to evaluate the risk of bias and the methodologic quality of the RCTs. Data will be screened and extracted by independent investigators. Total cancer incidence will be defined as the primary clinical endpoint, and total cancer mortality, all-cause mortality, and the risk of major bleeding will be the secondary outcomes. Subgroup analyses based on cancer site, aspirin dose, follow-up duration, or different populations will be conducted. Analyses will be performed using Review Manager 5.3, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0, and Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) software. RESULTS: This study will systematically evaluate the effects of long-term aspirin use on total cancer incidence, cancer mortality, all-cause mortality, and the risk of major bleeding. Subgroup analyses will indicate whether the effects of aspirin on cancer outcomes are associated with cancer site, daily dose of aspirin, follow-up duration, or different subgroup of participants. The results will be submitted and published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term use of aspirin for primary prevention of cancer and determine whether there are some potential influencing factors affecting the effects of aspirin on cancer outcomes, thus strengthening the evidence base for the clinical practice and future research of this intervention.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Gerontologist ; 59(Suppl 1): S1-S6, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511747

RESUMO

Over two-thirds of all new cancers are diagnosed among adults aged ≥60 years. As the number of adults living to older ages continues to increase, so too will the number of new cancer cases. Can we do more as a society to reduce cancer risk and preserve health as adults enter their 60s, 70s, and beyond? Cancer development is a multi-step process involving a combination of factors. Each cancer risk factor represents a component of cancer causation, and opportunities to prevent cancer may exist at any time up to the final component, even years after the first. The characteristics of the community in which one lives often shape cancer risk-related behaviors and exposures over time, making communities an ideal setting for efforts to reduce cancer risk at a population level. A comprehensive approach to cancer prevention at older ages would lower exposures to known causes of cancer, promote healthy social and physical environments, expand the appropriate use of clinical preventive services, and engage older adults in these efforts. The collection of articles in this supplement provide innovative insights for exciting new directions in research and practice to expand cancer prevention efforts for older adults. This brief commentary sets the stage for the papers that follow.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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