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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 1-7, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034022

RESUMO

The evolutionary conserved Notch pathway that first developed in metazoans and that was first discovered in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) governs fundamental cell fate decisions and many other cellular key processes not only in embryonic development but also during initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. On a first look, the Notch pathway appears remarkably simple, with its key feature representing a direct connection between an extracellular signal and transcriptional output without the need of a long chain of protein intermediaries as known from many other signaling pathways. However, on a second, closer look, this obvious simplicity exerts surprising complexity. There is no doubt that the enormous scientific progress in unraveling the functional mechanisms that underlie this complexity has recently greatly increased our knowledge about the role of Notch signaling for pathogenesis and progression of many types of cancer. Moreover, these new scientific findings have shown promise in opening new avenues for cancer prevention and therapy, although this goal is still challenging. Vol. III of the second edition of the book Notch Signaling in Embryology and Cancer, entitled Notch Signaling in Cancer, summarizes important recent developments in this fast-moving and fascinating field. Here, we give an introduction to this book and a short summary of the individual chapters that are written by leading scientists, covering the latest developments in this intriguing research area.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47970

RESUMO

No mês de novembro, no dia 23, é celebrado o Dia Nacional de Combate ao Câncer Infantojuvenil . A data foi instituída para conscientizar sobre a importância do diagnóstico precoce nos casos de câncer infantojuvenil que, com sintomas comuns às doenças de infância, nem sempre são identificados num estágio inicial


Assuntos
Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Criança
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47917

RESUMO

Infográficos sobre alimentos e hábitos saudáveis também serão divulgados pelo Instituto durante semana comemorativa do Dia Mundial da Alimentação


Assuntos
Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Atividade Motora
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47915

RESUMO

Prevenção do câncer é a ação tomada para reduzir a chance de contrair a doença. Segundo estimativas do INCA, para o triênio 2020/2022, cerca de 625 mil de pessoas serão diagnosticadas com câncer no Brasil, em cada um desses anos


Assuntos
Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034694

RESUMO

The physician and scientist Paul Ehrlich put forward the thesis that the immune system not only fights infections but can also fight cancer. The possible positive effects of a simultaneous infection on the course of cancer were reported in ancient Egypt around 2600 BC. However, it was not until the 1960s that it became apparent that the immune system could specifically fight cancer cells, and it was not until the 1990s that researchers slowly clarified how this happens.Against this background, the efforts over the last 30 years to develop therapeutic vaccines against cancers are briefly summarized, and their lack of success to date is highlighted. In addition, potentially promising future developments in this context are discussed. The available scientific literature as well as our own results are taken into account.Central questions arise, such as the following: How do cancer cells differ from normal cells? How can the immune system recognize these differences? What are tumor-specific antigens? Why do they need to be selected and applied in an individualized fashion? How can an efficient immune response be induced? Which pharmaceutical formulations, adjuvants, and vaccination routes are effective?Finally, we explain why it may still be worth pursuing peptide vaccination, which has so far been completely unsuccessful (when measured in terms of already approved therapeutics).


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Neoplasias , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Alemanha , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Vacinas de Subunidades/uso terapêutico
7.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(6): 919-938, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099452

RESUMO

The burden of cancer in the United States is substantial, providing important opportunity and obligation for primary care clinicians to promote cancer prevention and early detection. Without a system of organized screening to support reminders and follow-up of cancer screening, primary care clinicians face challenges in addressing risk assessment, informed/shared decision making, reminders for screening, and tracking adherence to screening recommendations. Tools exist for collecting information about family history, tracking screening adherence, and reminding patients when they are due for screening, and strategies exist for making cancer prevention and early detection an office policy and delegating roles and responsibilities to office staff.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Estados Unidos
8.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47871

RESUMO

Um dos palestrantes, pesquisador do INCA falará de crescimento das chamadas “ciências ômicas” no enfrentamento da doença


Assuntos
Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Congressos como Assunto
9.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47865

RESUMO

A importância da conscientização e informação no combate a este câncer


Assuntos
Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Conscientização
12.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(11): 889-892, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958589

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous impact on our society and healthcare delivery in the United States. Importantly, elective procedures and screening exams for cancer have been delayed or canceled over the past 4-5 months raising concerns over the future incidence and outcomes for those at risk or diagnosed with cancer. It is clear to everyone in the cancer field that the earlier we detect premalignant disease or cancer, the better the clinical outcome is for the patient. Most healthcare institutions have now put safety procedures and guidelines in place, which have dramatically reduced the risk of viral spread during encounters in their healthcare facilities. We must now encourage the public and those individuals at high risk for cancer to resume normal cancer screening.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Physical activity (PA) can bring numerous health benefits to adolescents and can largely aid in reducing the various types of cancer risks in their lifespans. However, few adolescents meet the physical activity guidelines recommended by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Our study aimed to examine the multilevel determinants potentially influencing adolescent's PA participation. METHODS: A secondary analysis of physical activity, home and school neighborhood, and other psychosocial data from 1504 dyads of adolescents and their parents who participated in the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) study was performed. Analysis of variance and general linear model analyses were used to examine the correlates. RESULTS: General linear modeling revealed that younger adolescents participated in greater levels of PA than older adolescents (p < 0.001). Adolescents whose parents reported meeting PA guidelines participated in greater amounts of PA (p < 0.001). Parental support of adolescent PA (p < 0.001) was also predictive of adolescent PA levels. Furthermore, parents who reported meeting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines were more likely to have teenagers that engaged in higher amounts of PA (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings imply a dynamic relationship between adolescent and parent MVPA levels. Interventions focused on increasing parental MVPA and encouraging parents to engage in promoting PA are merited in order to aid in increasing PA among adolescents while reducing the cancer risk.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Neoplasias , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
15.
Wiad Lek ; 73(7): 1313-1317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759411

RESUMO

This paper contains structured information on photodynamic diagnostics. Photodynamic diagnostics is a young diagnostic modality used in the detection of pre-neoplastic and very early neoplastic lesions. A characteristic feature of the presented method is its completely non-invasive nature and thus the possibility of multiple repetitions at the same patient. This is very important in modern health care and in preventive measures. Aim of the paper: The article aims to present technical and diagnostic possibilities of a photodynamic method as one of the possible modalities of screening diagnostics in patients with ambiguous clinical picture of early neoplastic lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
17.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 47(5): 491-492, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830798

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues, now disproportionately affecting the richest and best-resourced country in the world. Although the death rates per affected individual have decreased from the initial wave in New York City, the United States is in the unfathomable situation of having more than 50,000 new cases per day, and the case numbers are increasing. The pandemic is now expected to remain a vexing health problem for months and perhaps years to come, and the implications for health promotion and disease prevention have taken on new importance given the need for ongoing attention to acute and long-term issues. However, the health-promoting behaviors of many Americans have changed during the pandemic, setting up risk for additional collateral losses, such as from an increase in cancer diagnoses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1714-1722, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Several studies have reported the preventive effect of metformin on cancer development. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between use of metformin and risk of cancer in Koreans. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was designed retrospectively using the National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort conducted between 2002 and 2015. 40 to 69-year-old subjects who received a health screening examination from 2002 to 2003 were enrolled. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer were estimated in a multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis. A total of 323,430 subjects was enrolled (301,905 individuals without diabetes [No DM], 8643 diabetic patients with metformin treatment [metformin users], and 12,882 diabetic patients without metformin treatment [metformin non-users]). The median follow-up period was 12.7 years. Cumulative incidence of overall cancer was 7.9% (7.7, 10.3, and 11.1% in No DM, metformin users and non-users, respectively). Compared to metformin non-users, the fully adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of metformin users and No DM for overall cancer incidence were 0.73 (0.66-0.81) and 0.75 (0.64-0.88), respectively, in men and 0.83 (0.78-0.89) and 0.81 (0.72-0.92) in women. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic patients receiving metformin treatment, and individuals without diabetes were at lower risk for cancer incidence than diabetic patients without metformin treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Masculino , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(7): e342-e349, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615118

RESUMO

Cancer has become a leading cause of death in China, with an increasing burden of cancer incidence and mortality observed over the past half century. Population-based cancer registries have been operating in China for about 60 years, and, in 2018, their role has expanded to include the formulation and evaluation of national cancer control programmes and the care of patients with cancer. The purpose of this Review is to provide an overview of the key milestones in the development of cancer registration in China, the current status of registry coverage and quality, and a description of the changing cancer profile in China from 1973 to 2015. This Review is a comprehensive and updated review on the development of population-based cancer registries in China over a 60-year time span. We highlight some aspects of cancer control plans that illustrate how cancer registration data have become central to the identification of health priorities for China and provide a means to track progress in cancer control for the country.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência
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