Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 952
Filtrar
1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e017520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533795

RESUMO

We investigated the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in pigs raised in the Northeast of Pará, Brazil. At Study I, convenience sampled 151 pigs at two slaughterhouses, with and without state inspection; and Study II, which assessed 159 pigs with probabilistic sampling from nine pig farms. Serological analysis was performed using indirect fluorescent antibody test for T. gondii and N. caninum with a cutoff of 64 and 50, respectively. Overall, 6.77% pigs were seropositive for T. gondii and 5.16% for N. caninum. In Study I, pigs slaughtered with and without state inspection presented similar occurrence for both coccidia (p>0.05). Study II found an association between N. caninum seropositivity and sludge discarded into the soil, feeding pigs with animal-based protein, subsistence system, and absence of nipple drinkers. No association was found for T. gondii. Pigs from Pará are a potential source of T. gondii infection to humans. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to report anti-N. caninum antibodies in the serum of pigs in Pará State, Brazilian Amazon.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Neospora , Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e023020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605388

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is considered to be one of the main causes of abortion among cattle. The present survey was conducted in the municipality of Rolim de Moura, Rondônia State, Brazil. A questionnaire that investigates the epidemiological aspects of neosporosis was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with the animal-level and herd-level prevalence in dairy cattle. A total of 416 bovine blood samples were collected from 30 farms, and N. caninum antibody levels were measured by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). Analysis of dairy cattle serum samples revealed the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies to be 47.36% (n = 197). Risk factors associated with N. caninum infection were the management system and access locations of dogs. The results of the present survey indicated that infection of dairy cattle with N. caninum is widespread in the studied region of Western Amazon, which has implications for prevention and control of neosporosis in this region. Therefore, integrated control strategies and measures are recommended to prevent and control N. caninum infection in dairy cattle. In addition, direct contact between dairy cattle, dogs and wild animals, which can influence the epidemiology of neosporosis, should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/transmissão , Coccidiose/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Neospora/imunologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598889

RESUMO

The intracellular protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is incriminated to induce drastic economic losses in both livestock and pet animal industries. Neosporosis is primarily characterized by abortion in cattle and paralytic symptoms in dogs. Because there are no effective treatments or vaccines, diagnosis is critical for Neospora control. Thus, diversification of laboratory tests and specimens used for diagnosis of N. caninum is an essential scientific endeavor to judge and select the most appropriate diagnostic tool. Herein, we provide the first evidence for the utility of urine samples for demonstration of specific antibodies against N. caninum employing an experimentally infected murine model. Specific antibodies to recombinant N. caninum dense granule 7, surface antigen 1, and lysate antigen were assayed using different antibodies-based ELISAs. Urine based IgG ELISA efficiently discriminated between infected mice (acute or chronic infection), and those of non-infected mice. This effect was also noticed for IgG1 and IgG2a suggesting the utility of urine for assessment of T-helper 2- and T-helper 1-mediated immunities, respectively. In addition, reactivity of specific antibody in urine was also confirmed against parasites when indirect fluorescent antibody test was employed. Usefulness of urine as an additional clinical sample for Neospora diagnosis was confirmed via comparison with the relevant control non-infected and infected mouse sera as reference samples. Because of minimum invasiveness and ease of urine collection, this approach might offer new diagnostic opportunities for N. caninum either for the field or research purposes. However, further studies are required to extrapolate this preliminary study and results in the animal species of interest particularly in dogs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/urina , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Neospora/imunologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/urina , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/urina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Células Vero
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520089

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 379 horses to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in Jordan using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Five variables, namely locality (n=10), climatic zone (n=4), age group (n=3), gender, and breed were tested as risk factors for Neospora-immunoglobulin (Ig)G seropositivity at four cutoff titers (1:50, 1:200, 1:400, and 1:800) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 122 (32%; 95% CI: 28, 37) sera samples had anti-Neospora-IgG at a cutoff titer of 1:50. Increased Neospora-IgG seropositivity was found in horses in three localities (Madaba, Zarka, and Petra) and was associated with the following variables: cool temperate climate; age >14 years; and female gender. Seropositivity was found among horses from Madaba at all cutoff titers, Zarka at titers >1:200, and Petra at titers <1:200. Cool temperate climate was associated with titers <1:400. Horses aged >14 years were found to be associated with seropositivity at titers ≥1:200. Female gender was associated with high seropositivity at >1:800.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Aust Vet J ; 98(8): 380-387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to utilise wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a sentinel species to study levels of environmental contamination with N. caninum and T. gondii in South Australia, and to examine associations with rainfall, climate and land use. DESIGN: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an apicomplexan parasite, causes the clinical disease toxoplasmosis, which can affect sheep as well as humans and many other animals. Neosporosis, the clinical disease caused by closely related Neospora caninum (N. caninum), causes abortions in cattle, with large economic impacts to cattle industries. METHODS: Aliquots of wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) serum were obtained from twelve sites across South Australia over a period of eighteen years, with a total of 2114 samples. An in-house Modified Agglutination Test (MAT) was developed, and samples were screened for the specific antibodies against both T.gondii and N. caninum. RESULTS: Overall, 9.9% of samples screened for T. gondii tested positive and 6.1% of samples screened for N. caninum tested positive. There was no difference observed in seroprevalence of T.gondii specific antibodies between samples collected throughout summer, autumn, winter or spring. By contrast, a significantly higher (p=0.030) seroprevalence of N. caninum specific antibodies was observed in spring than any other season. T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies were discovered at sites across a broad area of South Australia, indicating these environments maybe infected with both parasites. CONCLUSION: Results provide evidence that suggests N. caninum oocysts may have different survival characteristics, such as varying tolerances to low relative humidity, than T. gondii oocysts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal , Aborto Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Coelhos , Espécies Sentinelas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Austrália do Sul
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109101, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302944

RESUMO

Neosporosis is caused by infection with the protozoa Neospora caninum. It manifests as various neurological symptoms and is considered as one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, and induces uncommon congenital infection in sheep. The standard diagnosis is based on indirect immunofluorescence (IFI); however, cross-reactivity with other protozoa proteins is common. Aiming a more specific diagnosis, recombinant antigens have been tested in several immunoassays; of these, NcSAG1 (surface antigen-1) and NcSRS2 (SAG1-related sequence 2) were the most promising. In this context, we developed an indirect ELISA with recombinant NcSRS2 (ELISA-rNcSRS2) and NcSAG1 (ELISA-rNcSAG1) proteins alone and in association (ELISA-rNcSRS2/rNcSAG1) for the diagnosis of cattle and ovine neosporosis. A total of 216 samples from cattle and 154 samples from sheep were used to evaluate the ELISAs. The sensitivity and specificity results of the ELISA-rNcSRS2 were 91.5 % and 96.4 % for cattle, and 89.6 % and 96.3 % for sheep, respectively. For the ELISA-rNcSAG1, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.9 % and 97.3 % for cattle, and 89.6 % and 92.6 % for sheep, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA-rNcSRS2/rNcSAG1 was 98.1 % and 99.1 % for cattle, 100 % and 97.2 % for sheep, respectively. These results indicated that indirect ELISA using the rNcSRS2 and rNcSAG1 proteins are a highly sensitive and specific method, especially when used in association, for detecting antibodies in cattle and ovine populations infected with N. caninum.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Neospora/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico
7.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 312-315, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330280

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and incidence of Neospora caninum infection in dogs that are in close contact with dairy cattle and to identify possible risk factors associated with the infection in this population. Twenty-four dogs located in 8 different dairy farms of Aguascalientes, Mexico, were evaluated for a 6-mo period. Once a month a sample of serum and a sample of peripheral blood was collected. The serum was used to detect antibodies against N. caninum by means of the indirect immunofluorescence technique, and the blood was used to detect parasite's DNA. The association between seroprevalence and possible risk factors was estimated using logistic regression. The prevalence of anti-N. caninum antibodies was 54% in the first month, 62% in the last month, and the incidence was 8.69%. One farm had no positive cases. Antibody titers ranged from 1:50 to 1:800. Parasite DNA was not detected in any of the samples. Only the age (>6 yr) of the dogs was identified as a risk factor for infection by N. caninum (P ≤ 0.05).


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Neospora , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bovinos , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Incidência , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Neospora/genética , Neospora/imunologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e019119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236334

RESUMO

Serological screening of 199 serum samples from Dromedary camels-from different cities in Saudi Arabia-was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies against two cyst-forming coccidian parasites, namely Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 68 (34.2%) samples, while those against N. caninum were present in 33 (16.6%) samples. The highest seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was reported in samples from Taif (51.2%), while the lowest seroprevalence was reported in samples from Riyadh and Hofuf (15.1%). The highest seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies was reported in samples from Jizan (35.9%) while the lowest was reported in samples from Taif (2.4%). A total of 47 male and 21 female camels exhibited antibodies against T. gondii , while 19 male and 14 female camels showed antibodies against N. caninum . Concurrent detection of both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies was observed in 18 camels. It has been demonstrated that T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies are prevalent in camels from different cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Camelus/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
9.
Infect Immun ; 88(4)2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014892

RESUMO

Rodents are critical for the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to the definitive feline host via predation, and this relationship has been extensively studied as a model for immune responses to parasites. Neospora caninum is a closely related coccidian parasite of ruminants and canines but is not naturally transmitted by rodents. We compared mouse innate immune responses to N. caninum and T. gondii and found marked differences in cytokine levels and parasite growth kinetics during the first 24 h postinfection (hpi). N. caninum-infected mice produced significantly higher levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) by as early as 4 hpi, but the level of IFN-γ was significantly lower or undetectable in T. gondii-infected mice during the first 24 hpi. "Immediate" IFN-γ and IL-12p40 production was not detected in MyD88-/- mice. However, unlike IL-12p40-/- and IFN-γ-/- mice, MyD88-/- mice survived N. caninum infections at the dose used in this study. Serial measures of parasite burden showed that MyD88-/- mice were more susceptible to N. caninum infections than wild-type (WT) mice, and control of parasite burdens correlated with a pulse of serum IFN-γ at 3 to 4 days postinfection in the absence of detectable IL-12. Immediate IFN-γ was partially dependent on the T. gondii mouse profilin receptor Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11), but the ectopic expression of N. caninum profilin in T. gondii had no impact on early IFN-γ production or parasite proliferation. Our data indicate that T. gondii is capable of evading host detection during the first hours after infection, while N. caninum is not, and this is likely due to the early MyD88-dependent recognition of ligands other than profilin.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Roedores/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Animais , Interferon gama/deficiência , Interleucina-12/deficiência , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/deficiência , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Neospora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e017519, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049146

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are obligate intracellular parasites within the phylum Apicomplexa. The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a near-threatened species of psittacine that is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil and has been designated as a bioindicator because of its sensitivity to environmental qualitative status and changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in wild red-tailed Amazon parrot nestlings on Rasa Island, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 51 parrots and plasma samples were stored at - 20 °C until immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT) were performed. Antigen slides were prepared using tachyzoites of T. gondii (RH strain) and, N. caninum (NC-1 strain) and using merozoites of S. neurona (SNR37 strain). Plasma samples were tested at initial dilutions of 1:16 for T. gondii, 1:50 for N. caninum and 1:5 for S. neurona. An anti-chicken antibody conjugated with FITC was used as a secondary antibody at 1:50 dilution. No antibodies for any of these three protozoa were found, thus suggesting that these wild red-tailed Amazon parrot nestlings had not been exposed to these parasites.


Assuntos
Amazona/parasitologia , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 7, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about parasitic infections is crucial information for animal health, particularly of free-ranging species that might come into contact with livestock and humans. METHODS: We investigated the seroprevalence of three tissue-cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti) in 506 individuals of 12 wildlife species in Namibia using in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (indirect ELISAs applying purified antigens) for screening and immunoblots as confirmatory tests. We included six species of the suborder Feliformia, four species of the suborder Caniformia and two species of the suborder Ruminantia. For the two species for which we had most samples and life-history information, i.e. cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, n = 250) and leopards (Panthera pardus, n = 58), we investigated T. gondii seroprevalence in relation to age class, sex, sociality (solitary, mother-offspring group, independent sibling group, coalition group) and site (natural habitat vs farmland). RESULTS: All but one carnivore species (bat-eared fox Otocyon megalotis, n = 4) were seropositive to T. gondii, with a seroprevalence ranging from 52.4% (131/250) in cheetahs to 93.2% (55/59) in African lions (Panthera leo). We also detected antibodies to T. gondii in 10.0% (2/20) of blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus). Adult cheetahs and leopards were more likely to be seropositive to T. gondii than subadult conspecifics, whereas seroprevalence did not vary with sex, sociality and site. Furthermore, we measured antibodies to N. caninum in 15.4% (2/13) of brown hyenas (Hyaena brunnea) and 2.6% (1/39) of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas). Antibodies to B. besnoiti were detected in 3.4% (2/59) of African lions and 20.0% (4/20) of blue wildebeest. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that Namibian wildlife species were exposed to apicomplexan parasites at different prevalences, depending on parasite and host species. In addition to serological work, molecular work is also needed to better understand the sylvatic cycle and the clear role of wildlife in the epidemiology of these parasites in southern Africa.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystidae/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Carnívoros/sangue , Carnívoros/parasitologia , Coccidiose/sangue , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/sangue , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
12.
Acta Parasitol ; 65(1): 256-258, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571140

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of anti-Sarcocystis spp. specific IgG antibodies in serum samples from precolostral lambs to determine the occurrence of transplacental transmission of Sarcocystis spp. in sheep. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 80 ewes and their respective lambs, immediately after lambing and before colostrum ingestion, respectively. The presence of anti-Sarcocystis spp. IgG was evaluated in serum samples using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Positive samples of the lambs were submitted to titration and IFAT to detect anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum specific IgG. RESULTS: Anti-Sarcocystis spp. IgG was detected in 62.5% of the ewes (50/80) and in 4% of the lambs of the seropositive ewes (2/50). None of the lambs from seronegative ewes were positive. The final titers of the positive lambs were 80. No cross reaction was detected among the positive samples to anti-Sarcocystis spp., anti-N. caninum, and anti-T. gondii IgG. The detection of anti-Sarcocystis spp. antibodies in serum samples of lambs deprived of colostrum suggests transplacental transmission of infection. Thus, the vertical transmission may be an alternative route of infection of Sarcocystis spp. also in sheep. Further studies are warranted to confirm transplacental transmission in sheep and to explain the importance of this infection pathway.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Colostro , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocistose/sangue , Sarcocistose/imunologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia
13.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(1): 357-368, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650465

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, Pestivirus) causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. Although serological surveys show that BVDV exposure is widespread in cattle in Uruguay, BVDV-associated diseases are greatly underreported. The aim of this work is to describe the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and virological findings from spontaneous outbreaks of BVDV-associated diseases in cattle in Uruguay. Diagnostic investigations were performed during 6 spontaneous disease outbreaks on beef and dairy cattle farms in the departments of Colonia, Rio Negro, and Soriano between November 2016 and April 2018. Carcasses of 8 naturally deceased cattle from these outbreaks were necropsied and subjected to histological examination and immunohistochemistry to detect BVDV antigen in the tissues. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and genomic sequencing were also performed to identify BVDV at the species and subtype levels. Other ancillary diagnostic tests, including bacterial cultures, were performed on a case-by-case basis to rule in/out differential diagnoses based on initial clinicopathological presumptive diagnoses. BVDV-associated conditions that were diagnosed in the 8 cases included mucosal disease, transient postnatal BVDV infections associated with digestive/septicemic salmonellosis by Salmonella serovar typhimurium, Histophilus somni bronchopneumonia, urinary tract coinfections with Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp., enteric coinfection with coccidia, and transplacental fetal infections and abortions with Neospora caninum coinfection. BVDV-1a and BVDV-2b were each identified in four of the eight cases. We conclude that BVDV-1a and BVDV-2b contribute significantly to disease and mortality in cattle in Uruguay. Future research should estimate the economic impact of BVDV in the Uruguayan livestock sector.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/complicações , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coinfecção , Pestivirus , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Anticorpos Antivirais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Broncopneumonia/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Intestinos/virologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Mortalidade , Neospora/imunologia , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Pestivirus/genética , Pestivirus/imunologia , Pestivirus/isolamento & purificação , Pestivirus/patogenicidade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/parasitologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/veterinária , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/veterinária , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Urinário/microbiologia , Sistema Urinário/patologia , Uruguai/epidemiologia
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 29-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538409

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which can infect many mammals and birds with a worldwide distribution. However, no molecular data are available about the occurrence of N. caninum in pigs. In this study, the serological and molecular prevalence of N. caninum infection in farmed pigs were investigated in Hunan province, China, between January 2017 and December 2018. A total of 1,500 serum samples collected from 10 herds in Hunan province were evaluated using a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay assay (cELISA). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in the examined pigs was 1.9%. The seroprevalence of N. caninum ranged from 0.3% to 4.6% among different regions in Hunan province of China (p < .05). DNA was extracted from brain samples, and the Nc-5 gene and ITS-1 region were amplified and then sequenced. Three (0.5%) of the examined 600 brain tissues were found to contain N. caninum DNA. Our phylogenetic analyses indicated that N. caninum samples were classified into two distinct groups. Although the prevalence is low within the pig groups investigated, our results revealed the emergence of N. caninum infection in pigs in China. The finding of the present study provides molecular evidence that the pigs are the natural intermediate host of N. caninum and may have major epidemiological importance.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Neospora/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Neospora/imunologia , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
15.
Parasitol Int ; 75: 102045, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881363

RESUMO

Abortion and reproductive failure caused by Neospora caninum infection has a dramatic negative economic impact on the cattle industry. To date, no definitive serodiagnostic tool for assessing N. caninum abortion has been reported. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of numerous N. caninum antigens in relation to abortion in cattle. Five recombinant proteins with potential as diagnostic antigens (NcGRA6, NcGRA7, NcGRA14, NcCyP, and NcSAG1) were compared by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using sera from mice and cattle experimentally infected with N. caninum. The best-performing three antigens (NcSAG1, NcGRA7, and NcGRA6) were evaluated by IgG-iELISAs to assess their utility in diagnosing Neospora abortion using sera from confirmed N. caninum-aborted dams based on immunohistochemical assays (IHC). Additionally, all samples were tested using a commercial N. caninum antibody competitive ELISA (cELISA). The iELISAs against both NcSAG1 and NcGRA7 could efficiently distinguish IHC positive and negative samples compared with iELISAs against NcGRA6 and the cELISA. Furthermore, antibody levels against NcSAG1 and NcGRA7 were significantly higher in aborting cows comparing with infected but non-aborted dams in a herd experiencing a Neospora abortion outbreak. Tracking the dynamics of antibody levels during pregnancy revealed a marked increase in NcSAG1- and NcGRA7-specific antibodies at the last trimester of pregnancy. In contrast, no marked differences in antibody levels against either antigen were noted in neurologically symptomatic calves compared with non-symptomatic infected calves. Our data suggests NcSAG1 and NcGRA7 as indicators for Neospora abortion.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Masculino , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e019119, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092689

RESUMO

Abstract Serological screening of 199 serum samples from Dromedary camels—from different cities in Saudi Arabia—was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies against two cyst-forming coccidian parasites, namely Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 68 (34.2%) samples, while those against N. caninum were present in 33 (16.6%) samples. The highest seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was reported in samples from Taif (51.2%), while the lowest seroprevalence was reported in samples from Riyadh and Hofuf (15.1%). The highest seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies was reported in samples from Jizan (35.9%) while the lowest was reported in samples from Taif (2.4%). A total of 47 male and 21 female camels exhibited antibodies against T. gondii , while 19 male and 14 female camels showed antibodies against N. caninum . Concurrent detection of both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies was observed in 18 camels. It has been demonstrated that T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies are prevalent in camels from different cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Resumo A triagem sorológica para a detecção de anticorpos para Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum no camelo dromedário foi realizada investigando 199 amostras de soro coletadas em diferentes cidades da Arábia Saudita. As amostras foram testadas utilizando imunoensaios enzimáticos para a detecção de anticorpos de ambos os parasitas coccídeos formadores de cistos (Laboratórios IDEXX, Bommeli Diagnostics, AG, Berna, Suíça). Anticorpos contra T. gondii foram detectados em 68 (34,2%) amostras, enquanto 33 (16,6%) apresentaram anticorpos contra N. caninum. A maior soroprevalência de anticorpos contra T. gondii (51,2%) foi relatada em Taif, enquanto a menor soroprevalência (15,1%) foi relatada em Riyadh e Hofuf. A maior soroprevalência de anticorpos contra N. caninum foi relatada em Jizan (35,9%), enquanto a menor foi em Taif (2,4%). Um total de 47 machos e 21 fêmeas revelou anticorpos para T. gondii , enquanto 19 machos e 14 fêmeas revelaram anticorpos para N. caninum . A detecção de ambos os anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum foi de 18 indivíduos. Foi demonstrado que os anticorpos contra T. gondii e N. caninum são predominantes em camelos de diferentes cidades do Reino da Arábia Saudita.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Camelus/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia
17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e017519, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058015

RESUMO

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are obligate intracellular parasites within the phylum Apicomplexa. The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a near-threatened species of psittacine that is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil and has been designated as a bioindicator because of its sensitivity to environmental qualitative status and changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in wild red-tailed Amazon parrot nestlings on Rasa Island, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 51 parrots and plasma samples were stored at - 20 °C until immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT) were performed. Antigen slides were prepared using tachyzoites of T. gondii (RH strain) and, N. caninum (NC-1 strain) and using merozoites of S. neurona (SNR37 strain). Plasma samples were tested at initial dilutions of 1:16 for T. gondii, 1:50 for N. caninum and 1:5 for S. neurona. An anti-chicken antibody conjugated with FITC was used as a secondary antibody at 1:50 dilution. No antibodies for any of these three protozoa were found, thus suggesting that these wild red-tailed Amazon parrot nestlings had not been exposed to these parasites.


Resumo Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum e Sarcocystis neurona são protozoários intracelulares do filo Apicomplexa. O papagaio-de-cara-roxa (Amazona brasiliensis) é um psitacídeo endêmico da floresta atlântica, considerado uma espécie quase ameaçada de extinção e bioindicadora por sua sensibilidade às mudanças no ambiente. O objetivo do presente estudo foi detectar a presença de anticorpos contra T. gondii, N. caninum e S. neurona em filhotes de papagaios-de-cara-roxa (Amazona brasiliensis) de vida livre na Ilha Rasa, Brasil. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 51 papagaios e armazenadas a - 20ºC até a realização da Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). As lâminas de RIFI com os antígenos, foram preparadas com taquizoítos de T. gondii (cepa RH) e N. caninum (cepa NC-1) e com merozoítos de S. neurona (cepa SNR37). Os plasmas foram diluídos em PBS (Ph 7,2) nas diluições 1:16 para T. gondii, 1:50 para N. caninum e 1:5 para S. neurona. O conjugado anti-IgG de galinhas marcado com fluoresceína (FITC) foi utilizado na diluição de 1:50. Não foram detectados anticorpos para os três protozoários nas amostras sugerindo que os filhotes de papagaios-de-cara-roxa não foram expostos aos protozoários.


Assuntos
Animais , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Neospora/imunologia , Amazona/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Animais Selvagens
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20190439, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800709

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of Neospora caninum antibodies in rodents from the Island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil, and to contribute to epidemiological data on neosporosis in this region. Blood samples were collected from 154 black-rats (Rattus rattus) and 12 rock-cavies (Kerodon rupestris). The search for anti-N. caninum antibodies was made using the NAT technique, with a cut-off of 1:20. The frequency of positive mice was 5.19% (8/154 - 1:20 titer) and all rock-cavies were negative. The low frequency of antibodies against N. caninum in rodents found in the Island shows the low contamination of the environment where these animals live.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Neospora/imunologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Ratos , Roedores/classificação
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 816-820, Oct.-Dec. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057982

RESUMO

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are Apicomplexan intracellular protozoan parasites that affect numerous animal species, thus leading to severe diseases and economic losses, depending on the vertebrate species involved. The role of the avian species in maintaining and transmission of these coccidia has been studied for several years as they tend to serve as a potential source of infection for mammals and humans. The present study aimed to assess the serological exposure of Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) to T. gondii and N. caninum. Between 2010 and 2013, 41 free-ranging Orinoco geese were captured in the Araguaia River, Brazil. The presence and titration of IgY antibodies to both coccidia were assayed via indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). While IgY antibodies for N. caninum were present in 5 animals, with titers of 20, the antibodies for T. gondii were found in 35 animals, with titers ranging from 20 to 640. Considering that the Orinoco goose's meat is consumed by the local population in the studied area, it may represent an important source of T. gondii infection for humans. Due to its migratory behavior, this goose may play a pivotal role in the natural dispersion of both parasites. Furthermore, molecular studies are required for genotyping the isolates of T. gondii that occurs in this avian species.


Resumo Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum são parasitas protozoários intracelulares do philo Aplicomplexa que afetam uma vasta gama de espécies animais, causando sérias doenças e levando a perdas econômicas, dependendo da espécie envolvida. O papel das aves na manutenção e transmissão destes coccídios tem sido estudado por anos, já que eles são potenciais fontes de infecção para outros animais e humanos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a exposição do Ganso-do-Orinoco (Neochen jubata) a T. gondii e N. caninum por meio de técnicas sorológicas. Entre os anos de 2010 e 2013, 41 Gansos-do-Orinoco de vida livre foram capturados no Vale do Rio Araguaia, Brasil. A presença e titulação de anticorpos IgY para ambos os coccídios foi obtida utilizando-se a Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI). Enquanto a presença de anticorpos IgY para N. caninum foi detectada em 5 aves, com titulação 20, anticorpos para T. gondii foram encontrados em 35 aves, com títulos variando de 20 a 640. Considerando que a carne do Ganso-do-Orinoco é uma fonte de alimento para a população da área estudada, a ave pode representar uma importante fonte de infecção de T. gondii para humanos. Devido ao seu comportamento migratório, esta espécie assume grande importância na dispersão de ambos os parasitas. Estudos moleculares são necessários a fim de caracterizar genotipicamente os isolados de T. gondii que ocorrem nesta espécie de ave.


Assuntos
Animais , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Gansos/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108990, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775103

RESUMO

Neospora caninum infection is an important cause of neuromuscular disease in dogs and abortion in cattle, leading to significant economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The protective immunity against apicomplexan parasites, specifically Toxoplasma gondii and N. caninum, is typically achieved by inducing an IL-12-driven Th1 immune response. IL-12 stimulates IFN-γ production, which activates Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and promotes consequent Nitric Oxide (NO) synthesis, classically described as one of the main effector mechanisms for parasite elimination. Here, we aimed to evaluate the role played by iNOS during N. caninum infection. Our results show that N. caninum infection in C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice induce NO production in vivo and in vitro. In agreement, iNOS deficient mice, as well as WT mice treated with iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine, succumbed during acute infection with a dose lethal to 50 % of the WT mice, and presented significant increase in parasite load when submitted to sub-lethal infection protocols. Interestingly, the lack of control of parasite proliferation observed in iNOS-/- mice was associated with notable CNS inflammation and increased production of the main systemic proinflammatory cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF and IL-17A). Taken together, our findings show that iNOS plays an important role in restricting N. caninum replication, while also modulates the inflammatory process induced by the infection.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/enzimologia , Neospora/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/fisiologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Interferon gama/análise , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/análise , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/deficiência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...