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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008730, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776977

RESUMO

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a highly angioproliferative disseminated tumor of endothelial cells commonly found in AIDS patients. We have recently shown that KSHV-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 1 (vIRF1) mediates KSHV-induced cell motility (PLoS Pathog. 2019 Jan 30;15(1):e1007578). However, the role of vIRF1 in KSHV-induced cellular transformation and angiogenesis remains unknown. Here, we show that vIRF1 promotes angiogenesis by upregulating sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) using two in vivo angiogenesis models including the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and the matrigel plug angiogenesis assay in mice. Mechanistically, vIRF1 interacts with transcription factor Lef1 to promote SPAG9 transcription. vIRF1-induced SPAG9 promotes the interaction of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) with JNK1/2 to increase their phosphorylation, resulting in enhanced VEGFA expression, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and migration. Finally, genetic deletion of ORF-K9 from KSHV genome abolishes KSHV-induced cellular transformation and impairs angiogenesis. Our results reveal that vIRF1 transcriptionally activates SPAG9 expression to promote angiogenesis and tumorigenesis via activating JNK/VEGFA signaling. These novel findings define the mechanism of KSHV induction of the SPAG9/JNK/VEGFA pathway and establish the scientific basis for targeting this pathway for treating KSHV-associated cancers.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 8/metabolismo , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 8 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 9 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Kaposi/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Herpesvirus Humano 8/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 8 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 9 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/fisiopatologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/genética , Sarcoma de Kaposi/fisiopatologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/virologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3571, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678094

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Bartonella can induce vasoproliferative lesions during infection. The underlying mechanisms are unclear, but involve secretion of an unidentified mitogenic factor. Here, we use functional transposon-mutant screening in Bartonella henselae to identify such factor as a pro-angiogenic autotransporter, called BafA. The passenger domain of BafA induces cell proliferation, tube formation and sprouting of microvessels, and drives angiogenesis in mice. BafA interacts with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 and activates the downstream signaling pathway, suggesting that BafA functions as a VEGF analog. A BafA homolog from a related pathogen, Bartonella quintana, is also functional. Our work unveils the mechanistic basis of vasoproliferative lesions observed in bartonellosis, and we propose BafA as a key pathogenic factor contributing to bacterial spread and host adaptation.


Assuntos
Bartonella/patogenicidade , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/genética , Proliferação de Células , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/microbiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/microbiologia , Domínios Proteicos , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V/química , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo V/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/química , Fatores de Virulência/genética
3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2547-2557, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671503

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) constitutes one of the most prevalent malignancies in the world. Recent research suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor cell's malignant behavior in CRC. This study has been designed to determinate clinical implications of CSC markers: CD44, DCLK1, Lgr5, and ANXA2 in CRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed on tissue samples which were collected from 89 patients undergoing colectomy. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks with representative tumor areas were identified and corded. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti-CD44, anti-LGR5, anti-ANXA2, and anti-DCLK1 antibodies. The H-score system was utilized to determine the immunointensity of CRC cells. RESULTS: The lower expression of Lgr5 was significantly correlated with the presence of lymph-node metastases (p = 0.011), while high expression of Lgr5 was statistically significant in vascular invasion in examined cancer tissue samples (p = 0.027). Moreover, a high H-score value of Lgr5 expression was significantly related to a reduced overall survival rate (p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a strong relationship between CSC marker Lgr5 and vascular invasion, presence of lymph-node metastasis, and overall poor survival. The presence of Lgr5 might be an unfavorable prognostic factor, and its high level in cancer tissue is related to an aggressive course. This marker could also be used to access the effectiveness of the treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Idoso , Anexina A2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Prognóstico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/biossíntese , Análise Serial de Tecidos
4.
Adv Cancer Res ; 148: 27-67, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723566

RESUMO

Vascular mimicry is induced by a wide array of genes with functions related to cancer stemness, hypoxia, angiogenesis and autophagy. Vascular mimicry competent (VM-competent) cells that form de novo blood vessels are common in solid tumors facilitating tumor cell survival and metastasis. VM-competent cells display increased levels of vascular mimicry selecting for stem-like cells in an O2-gradient-dependent manner in deeply hypoxic tumor regions, while also aiding in maintaining tumor cell metabolism and stemness. Three of the principal drivers of vascular mimicry are EphA2, Nodal and HIF-1α, however, directly or indirectly many of these molecules affect VE-Cadherin (VE-Cad), which forms gap-junctions to bind angiogenic blood vessels together. During vascular mimicry, the endothelial-like functions of VM-competent cancer stem cells co-opt VE-Cad to bind cancer cells together to create cancer cell-derived blood conducting vessels. This process potentially compensates for the lack of access to blood and nutrient in avascular tumors, simultaneously providing nutrients and enhancing cancer invasion and metastasis. Current evidence also supports that vascular mimicry promotes cancer malignancy and metastasis due to the cooperation of oncogenic signaling molecules driving cancer stemness and autophagy. While a number of currently used cancer therapeutics are effective inhibitors of vascular mimicry, developing a new class of vascular mimicry specific inhibitors could allow for the treatment of angiogenesis-resistant tumors, inhibit cancer metastasis and improve patient survival. In this review, we describe the principal vascular mimicry pathways in addition to emphasizing the roles of hypoxia, autophagy and select proangiogenic oncogenes in this process.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2709, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483169

RESUMO

Aberrant immune responses including reactive phagocytes are implicated in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a major cause of blindness in the elderly. The translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) is described as a biomarker for reactive gliosis, but its biological functions in retinal diseases remain elusive. Here, we report that tamoxifen-induced conditional deletion of TSPO in resident microglia using Cx3cr1CreERT2:TSPOfl/fl mice or targeting the protein with the synthetic ligand XBD173 prevents reactivity of phagocytes in the laser-induced mouse model of neovascular AMD. Concomitantly, the subsequent neoangiogenesis and vascular leakage are prevented by TSPO knockout or XBD173 treatment. Using different NADPH oxidase-deficient mice, we show that TSPO is a key regulator of NOX1-dependent neurotoxic ROS production in the retina. These data define a distinct role for TSPO in retinal phagocyte reactivity and highlight the protein as a drug target for immunomodulatory and antioxidant therapies for AMD.


Assuntos
NADPH Oxidase 1/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA/genética , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 1/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Fagócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Purinas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/metabolismo
6.
Gene ; 754: 144851, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525044

RESUMO

Tumor angiogenesis is a common feature of rapidly growing solid tumors, accelerated by tumor hypoxia. It is associated with subsequent metastasis, progression, poor prognosis, and aggressive phenotype in many types of cancer. The hypoxia-inducible factors/vascular endothelial growth factor 1(HIF1/VEGF) signal pathway plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis. Proteasome-mediated ubiquitin degradation pathway is one of the most important processes involved in regulating the level of cellular HIF-1α. Our study revealed that Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) directly inhibits the ubiquitination of HIF1α. Additionally, HDAC1 activates HIF1α/VEGFA signaling pathway, promoting s tumor angiogenesis. These findings have enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of colorectal (CRC) tumor angiogenesis. HDAC1/HIF1α/VEGFA signaling pathway may provide a novel therapeutic window for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ciclo Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Am J Pathol ; 190(9): 1960-1970, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585158

RESUMO

Tumor-associated blood vessels differ from normal vessels and play key roles in tumor progression. We aimed to identify biomolecules that are expressed differentially in human bladder cancer-associated blood vessels to find novel biomarkers and mechanisms involved in tumor-associated angiogenesis. The transcriptome of tumor blood vasculature from human invasive bladder carcinoma (I-BLCA) and normal bladder tissue vasculature was compared using differential expression and unsupervised hierarchical clustering analyses. Pathway analysis identified up-regulation of genes involved in the proliferation, cell cycle, angiogenesis, inflammation, and transforming growth factor-ß signaling in tumor blood vasculature. A common consensus gene expression signature was identified between bladder cancer tumor blood vasculature with tumor blood vasculature of other solid cancers, which correlated with the overall survival of patients with several of the solid cancers investigated in The Cancer Genome Atlas data set. In bladder tumor blood vasculature, the secreted factor angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2), was confirmed to be up-regulated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The up-regulation of ANGPTL2 in plasma was also observed in non-invasive bladder carcinoma and I-BLCA. We semiquantitatively analyzed expression of ANGPTL2 in tissue microarrays from I-BLCA and surprisingly found an opposite correlation between staining intensity and progression-free survival. Our results indicate that ANGPTL2 might serve as a potential biomarker to predict progression-free survival in I-BLCA.


Assuntos
Proteínas Semelhantes a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Transcriptoma , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo
8.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(7): 828-841, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541879

RESUMO

Mutations in chromatin-modifying complexes and metabolic enzymes commonly underlie complex human developmental syndromes affecting multiple organs. A major challenge is to determine how disease-causing genetic lesions cause deregulation of homeostasis in unique cell types. Here we show that neural-specific depletion of three members of the non-specific lethal (NSL) chromatin complex-Mof, Kansl2 or Kansl3-unexpectedly leads to severe vascular defects and brain haemorrhaging. Deregulation of the epigenetic landscape induced by the loss of the NSL complex in neural cells causes widespread metabolic defects, including an accumulation of free long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). Free LCFAs induce a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-NFκB-dependent pro-inflammatory signalling cascade in neighbouring vascular pericytes that is rescued by TLR4 inhibition. Pericytes display functional changes in response to LCFA-induced activation that result in vascular breakdown. Our work establishes that neurovascular function is determined by the neural metabolic environment.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/patologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Histona Acetiltransferases/fisiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Pericitos/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Feto/citologia , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaboloma , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Pericitos/metabolismo
9.
Recent Results Cancer Res ; 216: 509-531, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594397

RESUMO

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging is a valuable tool for preclinical and clinical diagnostics. The most frequently used ultrasound contrast agents are microbubbles. Besides them, novel nano-sized materials are under investigation, which are briefly discussed in this chapter. For molecular CEUS, the ultrasound contrast agents are modified to actively target disease-associated molecular markers with a site-specific ligand. The most common markers for tumor imaging are related to neoangiogenesis, like the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and αvß3 integrin. In this chapter, applications of molecular ultrasound to longitudinally monitor receptor expression during tumor growth, to detect neovascularization, and to evaluate therapy responses are described. Furthermore, we report on first clinical trials of molecular CEUS with VEGFR2-targeted phospholipid microbubbles showing promising results regarding patient safety and its ability to detect tumors of prostate, breast, and ovary. The chapter closes with an outlook on ultrasound theranostics, where (targeted) ultrasound contrast agents are used to increase the permeability of tumor tissues and to support drug delivery.


Assuntos
Imagem Molecular , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/terapia , Ultrassonografia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Microbolhas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
10.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115093, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526215

RESUMO

Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally and pesticides exposure may impact risk of developing this disease. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) act as endocrine disruptors, inducing proliferation in breast cancer cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide (NO) are associated with angiogenesis. Our aim was to evaluate HCB and CPF action, both weak aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands, on angiogenesis in breast cancer models. We used: (1) in vivo xenograft model with MCF-7 cells, (2) in vitro breast cancer model with MCF-7, and (3) in vitro neovasculogenesis model with endothelial cells exposed to conditioned medium from MCF-7. Results show that HCB (3 mg/kg) and CPF (0.1 mg/kg) stimulated vascular density in the in vivo model. HCB and CPF low doses enhanced VEGF-A and COX-2 expression, accompanied by increased levels of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and NO release in MCF-7. HCB and CPF high doses intensified VEGF-A and COX-2 levels but rendered different effects on NOS, however, both pesticides reduced NO production. Moreover, our data indicate that HCB and CPF-induced VEGF-A expression is mediated by estrogen receptor and NO, while the increase in COX-2 is through AhR and NO pathways in MCF-7. In conclusion, we demonstrate that HCB and CPF environmental concentrations stimulate angiogenic switch in vivo. Besides, pesticides induce VEGF-A and COX-2 expression, as well as NO production in MCF-7, promoting tubulogenesis in endothelial cells. These findings show that pesticide exposure could stimulate angiogenesis, a process that has been demonstrated to contribute to breast cancer progression.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Hexaclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/induzido quimicamente , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Hexaclorobenzeno/toxicidade , Humanos , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Ligantes , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
11.
Life Sci ; 256: 117976, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561397

RESUMO

AIMS: We have previously reported that Centchroman (CC), an oral contraceptive drug, inhibits breast cancer progression and metastasis. In this study, we investigated whether CC inhibits local invasion of tumor cells and/or their metastatic colonization with detailed underlying mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: The effect of CC on the experimental metastasis and spontaneous metastasis was demonstrated by using tail-vein and orthotopic 4T1-syngeneic mouse tumor models, respectively. The anti-angiogenic potential of CC was evaluated using well established in vitro and in vivo models. The role of RAC1/PAK1/ß-catenin signaling axis in the metastasis was investigated and validated using siRNA-mediated knockdown of PAK1 as well as by pharmacological PAK1-inhibitor. KEY FINDINGS: The oral administration of CC significantly suppressed the formation of metastatic lung nodules in the 4T1-syngeneic orthotopic as well as experimental metastatic models. More importantly, CC treatment suppressed the tube formation and migration capacities of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and inhibited pre-existing vasculature as well as the formation of neovasculature. The suppression of migration and invasion capacities of metastatic breast cancer cells upon CC treatment was associated with the inhibition of small GTPases (Rac1 and Cdc42) concomitant with the downregulation of PAK1 and downstream ß-catenin signaling. In addition, CC upregulated the expression of miR-145, which is known to target PAK1. SIGNIFICANCE: This study warrants the repurposing of CC as a potential therapeutic agent against metastatic breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Centocromano/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/farmacologia , Neuropeptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Ativadas por p21/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Centocromano/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Quinases Ativadas por p21/metabolismo , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
12.
Life Sci ; 256: 117988, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by the formation of joint synovitis and pannus. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is an important mediator related to angiogenesis, inflammation and autoimmunity. As Geniposide (GE) has potent immuno-modulation function, we investigated the effects on the dynamic balance of angiogenesis-related factors and Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)-S1P-S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) signal transduction in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats. METHOD: The model evaluation was performed from paw swelling degree, arthritis index and movement score. The immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to study the microvascular density (MVD) and pro/anti-angiogenic factors levels. The cell viability was examined by cell counting kit-8 assay. SphK1, S1PR1 mRNA and protein levels in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. RESULTS: The results showed that GE can apparently suppressed the inflammatory pathological status. The arthritis index, paw swelling and MVD of AA rats were decreased with dose dependence (⁎P < 0.05, ⁎⁎P < 0.01). In addition, GE can reduce the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), promote the secretion of endostatin (ES) and inhibit excessive proliferation of FLSs (⁎P < 0.05, ⁎⁎P < 0.01). Importantly, GE can significantly inhibit the activity of SphK1, the level of S1P and the expression of SphK1 and S1PR1 in FLSs (⁎P < 0.05, ⁎⁎P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: It indicated that GE reduces the activity of SphK1 by restoring the dynamic balance between pro/anti-angiogenic factors, thereby interfering with SphK1-S1P-S1PR1 signal transduction, reducing the formation of synovial microvessels and exerting anti-angiogenesis effect of RA.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Iridoides/administração & dosagem , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/metabolismo , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Lisofosfolipídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/antagonistas & inibidores , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Esfingosina/antagonistas & inibidores , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2163, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358530

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is a necessary process for solid tumor growth. Cellular markers for endothelial cell proliferation are potential targets for identifying the vasculature of tumors in homeostasis. Here we customize the behaviors of engineered cells to recognize Apj, a surface marker of the neovascular endothelium, using synthetic Notch (synNotch) receptors. We designed apelin-based synNotch receptors (AsNRs) that can specifically interact with Apj and then stimulate synNotch pathways. Cells engineered with AsNRs have the ability to sense the proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs). Designed for different synNotch pathways, engineered cells express different proteins to respond to angiogenic signals; therefore, angiogenesis can be detected by cells engineered with AsNRs. Furthermore, T cells customized with AsNRs can sense the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. As solid tumors generally require vascular support, AsNRs are potential tools for the detection and therapy of a variety of solid tumors in adults.


Assuntos
Apelina/química , Apelina/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/química , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Animais , Receptores de Apelina/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Células HEK293 , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(7): e309-e310, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404709

RESUMO

We report the case of a 63-year-old man who underwent MRI and Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for biochemical recurrence localization after radical prostatectomy (serum PSA, 0.25 ng/mL) and describe the incidental discovery of a rectal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed PSMA staining in the tumor-associated neovasculature, but not in normal vasculature, or tumor cells. After surgical removal, he was treated with salvage radiotherapy to the postoperative prostate bed. This case example has several implications: the findings confirm the expression of PSMA in the tumor-associated neovasculature of a rectal cancer, nonprostate cancers' stroma may represent a potentially relevant target for nuclear theranostics.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glutamato Carboxipeptidase II/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Medicina Nuclear , Neoplasias Retais/metabolismo , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Adenocarcinoma/irrigação sanguínea , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias Retais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/terapia
15.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 16(6): 316-333, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393826

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune-mediated disease that primarily affects the synovium of diarthrodial joints. During the course of RA, the synovium transforms into a hyperplastic invasive tissue that causes destruction of cartilage and bone. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), which form the lining of the joint, are epigenetically imprinted with an aggressive phenotype in RA and have an important role in these pathological processes. In addition to producing the extracellular matrix and joint lubricants, FLS in RA produce pathogenic mediators such as cytokines and proteases that contribute to disease pathogenesis and perpetuation. The development of multi-omics integrative analyses have enabled new ways to dissect the mechanisms that imprint FLS, have helped to identify potential FLS subsets with distinct functions and have identified differences in FLS phenotypes between joints in individual patients. This Review provides an overview of advances in understanding of FLS biology and highlights omics approaches and studies that hold promise for identifying future therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Reabsorção Óssea/imunologia , Cartilagem Articular/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Membrana Sinovial/imunologia , Sinoviócitos/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Monócitos/imunologia , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/citologia , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia
16.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(7): 1647-1658, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Additional prognostic factors and personalized therapeutic alternatives for vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC), especially for advanced stages with poor prognosis, are urgently needed. OBJECTIVES: To review and assess literature regarding underlying molecular mechanisms of VSCC target therapeutic and prognostic approaches. METHODS: We performed a narrative literature review from the inception of the database up to January 2020 limited to English language, organizing knowledge in five main fields: extracellular and intracellular cell cycle deregulation, tumor immune microenvironment, tumor angiogenesis and hormones. RESULTS: EGFR immunohistochemical overexpression/gene amplification, representing early events in VSCC carcinogenesis, have been correlated with a worse prognosis and led to inclusion of erlotinib in cancer guidelines. p16 expression and HPV positivity are linked to a better prognosis, while p53 overexpression is linked to a worse prognosis; thus, biomarkers could help tailoring conventional treatment and follow-up. The implications of PD-L1 positivity in reference to HPV status and prognosis are still not clear, even though pembrolizumab is part of available systemic therapies. The role of tumor angiogenesis emerges through data on microvessel density, immunohistochemical VEGF staining and evaluation of serum VEGF concentrations. Few data exist on hormonal receptor expression, even though hormonal therapy showed great manageability. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest adding p16, p53 and HPV status to routine hystopathological examination of vulvar biopsies or surgical specimens. Predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 drugs are needed. Enough preclinical data supporting anti-angiogenic target therapies in clinical trials are existing. Hormonal receptor expression deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Vulvares/etiologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Ciclo Celular/genética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia
17.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(9): 1781-1799, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347357

RESUMO

The effectual clinical benefits of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) are hampered by a high rate of innate resistance, and VEGFA may contribute to ICI treatment resistance. In this study, we endeavored to assess the tumor microenvironment (TME) in VEGFA-overexpressed human tumors and mouse tumor models, and to explore whether anti-angiogenesis therapy can overcome the innate resistance to ICI in hyperangiogenesis mouse tumor models and the underlying mechanism. Effect of VEGFA on clinical prognosis and TME was analyzed using TCGA data. The VEGFA-overexpressed mouse breast and colon subcutaneous models were established. PD-1 mAb or apatinib alone and combination therapy were used. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to assess angiogenesis and hypoxia. Flow cytometry, RNA sequencing and MCP-counter were applied to detect tumor immunomicroenvironment. High level of VEGFA mRNA in human tumors is related to poor prognosis and hypoxic, angiogenic and immunosuppressive TME. Upregulation of VEGFA increased the degree of malignancy of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. VEGFA-overexpressed models were characterized by hypoxic, hyperangiogenic and immunosuppressive TME and indicated innate resistance to ICI. In tumor-bearing mice without VEGFA overexpression, the combination therapy had no synergistic anti-tumor effect compared to monotherapy. However, apatinib alleviated hyperangiogenesis and hypoxia in TME and converted the immunosuppressive TME into an immunostimulatory one in VEGFA-overexpressed tumors. Thus, anti-angiogenesis therapy could improve the efficiency of ICI in VEGFA-overexpressed tumors. Revealing whether there is hypervascularization in tumor tissues may help to clarify the adoption of anti-angiogenesis and ICI combination therapy or ICI monotherapy in cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
18.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(8): 1477-1492, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285172

RESUMO

The interactions between tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) and pancreatic cancer cells can affect chemotherapeutic efficacy; however, the mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Thirty items in TIME were comprehensively screened by using tissue microarray from pancreatic cancer patients. Their expressions, interconnections and predictive roles for survival were analyzed. Twenty-one of 30 items could stratify the survival of the patients; however, multivariate analysis found that only 5 independent risk factors could predict worse survival (M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), IgG4 positive cells, TGF-ß1, GM-CSF and lymphangiogenesis). They had a much higher expression levels in tumoral tissue, compared to peritumoral tissue. The Spearman analysis showed that M2-polarized TAM, TGF-ß1 and GM-CSF were positively correlated with pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSC), angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Both human and murine pancreatic cancer cells could induce M2-polarized TAM, which showed substantial roles to decease chemotherapeutic effects. After treated by gemcitabine, both human and murine pancreatic cancer cell lines expressed higher level of immune check points, PCSC markers and varieties of immunosuppressive factors; however, TGF-ß1 and GM-CSF had the highest increase. Based on the above results, TGF-ß1 and GM-CSF were proposed to be the optimal potential targets to improve chemotherapeutic effects. In immunocompetent murine models, we demonstrated that combined blockade of TGF-ß1 and GM-CSF improved the chemotherapeutic effects by inhibition of M2-polarized TAM and induction of CD8 positive T cells. This study presents a novel promising combined strategy to improve the chemotherapeutic effects for pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Estudos de Coortes , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfangiogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 318(4): G827-G839, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174132

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that microRNA (miRNA) abnormity is involved in the occurrence and the development of various malignancies, including colon cancer. MiRNA-524-5p has been reported to possess anticancer activity in various tumors, which function is seldom investigated in colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the miRNA-524-5p/with-no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1) system on angiogenesis in a colon cancer cell line (HT-29 and COLO205 cells) and further investigate the potential mechanisms. We found miRNA-524-5p expression was relatively high in COLO205 cells and relatively low in HT-29 cells. Elevating miRNA-524-5p expression inhibited proliferation, induced cycle arrest, diminished vascular endothelial growth factor production, and thereby suppressed angiogenesis in HT-29 cells. WNK1 silencing exerted the ability of antiangiogenesis in HT-29 cells. Besides, miRNA-524-5p deficiency-induced angiogenesis was impeded by WNK1 silence in COLO205 cells. In a murine tumor model, miRNA-524-5p agomir treatment significantly suppressed colon cancer tumorigenicity with the downregulation of WNK1 expression. In summary, our results indicated that miRNA-524-5p inhibited angiogenesis in colon cancer cells via targeting WNK1.NEW & NOTEWORTHY MiRNA-524-5p inhibited angiogenesis in colon cancer cells via targeting with-no-lysine kinase 1.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Deficiente de Lisina WNK/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais , Regulação para Cima , Proteína Quinase 1 Deficiente de Lisina WNK/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155173

RESUMO

We aimed to construct a better model for predicting treatment outcomes of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) using the concentrations of aqueous humour proteins at baseline and during treatment. From the data of 48 treatment-naïve nAMD eyes that received intravitreal ranibizumab pro re nata for up to 12 months, we used the aqueous humour concentrations of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL12, CXCL13, interferon-γ-induced protein 10, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), C-C motif chemokine ligand 11, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). After stepwise regression, multivariate analysis was performed to identify which predictors were significantly associated with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) changes and the number of injections. The results demonstrated that besides male sex (ß coefficient = -0.088, P = 0.040) and central retinal thickness (ß coefficient = 0.00051 per µm, P = 0.027), MCP-1 (ß coefficient = 0.44, P < 0.001) and IL-10 (ß coefficient = -0.16, P = 0.033) were significantly correlated with baseline BCVA. Additionally, high MCP-1 at baseline (ß coefficient = -0.20, P = 0.015) and low CXCL13 at baseline (ß coefficient = 0.10, P = 0.0054) were independently associated with better BCVA change at 12 months. High MMP-9 at the first injection (ß coefficient = 0.56, P = 0.01), CXCL12 at the third injection (ß coefficient = 0.10, P = 0.0002), and IL-10 at the third injection (ß coefficient = 1.3, P = 0.001) were predictor variables associated with the increased number of injections. In conclusion, aqueous humour protein concentrations may have predictive abilities of BCVA change over 12 months and the number of injections in pro re nata treatment of exudative nAMD.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Ranibizumab/uso terapêutico , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/metabolismo , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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