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1.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021421, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738557

RESUMO

Nepal's second wave of COVID-19 has become the worst the world has seen so far. For a population of 29 million people, Nepal currently has only 1127 ICU beds and 453 ventilators for the entire population. The fragile healthcare system is already overwhelmed with every emergency room full of patients. Due to the unavailability of ICU beds, ventilators, oxygen, and other vital resources, sick patients are forced to stay at home with home isolation and treatment. The situation is dire, and resources are saturated. Only humanitarian aid from foreign countries can help mitigate the unprecedented disaster.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 171, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One way to improve the delivery of oncology palliative care in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) is to leverage mobile technology to support healthcare providers in implementing pain management guidelines (PMG). However, PMG are often developed in higher-resourced settings and may not be appropriate for the resource and cultural context of LMICs. OBJECTIVES: This research represents a collaboration between the University of Virginia and the Nepalese Association of Palliative Care (NAPCare) to design a mobile health application ('app') to scale-up implementation of existing locally developed PMG. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of clinicians within Nepal to inform design of the app. Questions focused on knowledge, beliefs, and confidence in managing cancer pain; barriers to cancer pain management; awareness and use of the NAPCare PMG; barriers to smart phone use and desired features of a mobile app. FINDINGS: Surveys were completed by 97 palliative care and/or oncology healthcare providers from four diverse cancer care institutions in Nepal. 49.5% (n = 48) had training in palliative care/cancer pain management and the majority (63.9%, n = 62) reported high confidence levels (scores of 8 or higher/10) in managing cancer pain. Highest ranked barriers to cancer pain management included those at the country/cultural level, such as nursing and medical school curricula lacking adequate content about palliative care and pain management, and patients who live in rural areas experiencing difficulty accessing healthcare services (overall mean = 6.36/10). Most nurses and physicians use an Android Smart Phone (82%, n = 74), had heard of the NAPCare PMG (96%, n = 88), and reported frequent use of apps to provide clinical care (mean = 6.38/10, n = 92). Key barriers to smart phone use differed by discipline, with nurses reporting greater concerns related to cost of data access (70%, n = 45) and being prohibited from using a mobile phone at work (61%; n = 39). CONCLUSIONS: Smart phone apps can help implement PMG and support healthcare providers in managing cancer pain in Nepal and similar settings. However, such tools must be designed to be culturally and contextually congruent and address perceived barriers to pain management and app use.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Aplicativos Móveis , Neoplasias , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Nepal , Manejo da Dor
4.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(73): 132-139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812172

RESUMO

Background Hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) are viral infections caused by corresponding viruses. Here in this study we planned to conduct this meta-analysis to pool data on the prevalence and risk factors of HBV and/or HCV among HIV patients in Nepal. Method We used MOOSE guideline for the systemic review of available literature. We searched online databases using appropriate keywords. We used CMA-3 for data synthesis. Odds ratio, and proportion were used to estimate the outcome with a 95% confidence interval where appropriate. We assessed the heterogeneity using the I-squared (I2 ) test. Result We included nine studies for our synthesis. Pooling of data showed HBV in 4.6% (CI: 3.7-5.6), HCV in 19.7% (CI: 10.8-33.0), both HBV and HCV in 1.3% (CI: 0.5-3.7) in HIV affected individuals. Among HBV co-infected HIV positive patients, 59.5% (CI: 25.5-86.3) were male; 76.1% (CI: 30.1-96.0) were married and 43.6% (CI: 3.8-93.8) had a history of intravenous drug use (IVDU). Among HCV co-infected HIV positive individuals 88.3% (CI: 73.6-95.4) were male; 63.6% (CI: 55.4-71.1) were married; 91.5% (CI: 68.6-98.1) were literate; 59.2% (CI: 49.9-67.9) were on ART; and 92.2% (95%CI: 84.9-96.1) had a history of IVDU. Conclusion The pooled prevalence of co-infection with HBV, HCV, and combined HBV and HCV were 4.6%, 19.7% and 1.3% respectively among HIV positive patients. Thus, it is necessary to appropriately screen for HBV and HCV in individuals diagnosed with HIV and high-risk populations. IVDU remains the most common risk factor found in co-infected individuals.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite B , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(74): 137-142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819443

RESUMO

Background The spread of SARS-CoV-2 has become a global public health crisis. Nepal is facing the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic but, there is still a limited data on the genomic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in Nepal. Objective The objective of this study is to sequence the whole genome of SARS-CoV-2 in Nepal to detect possible mutation profiles and phylogenetic lineages of circulating SARSCoV-2 variants. Method In this study, swab samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were investigated. After RNA extraction, the investigation was performed through real-time PCR followed by whole genome sequencing. The consensus genome sequences were, then, analyzed with appropriate bioinformatics tools. Result Sequence analysis of two SARS-CoV-2 genomes from patient without travel history (Patient A1 and A2) were found to be of lineage B.1.1. Similarly, among other four samples from subjects returning from the United Kingdom, genomes of two samples were of lineage B.1.36, and the other two were of lineage B.1.1.7 (Alpha Variant). The mutations in the consensus genomes contained the defining mutations of the respective lineages of SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion We confirmed two genomic sequences of variant of concern VOC-202012/01 in Nepal. Our study provides the concise genomic evidence for spread of different lineages of SARS-CoV-2 - B.1.1, B.1.36 and B.1.1.7 of SARS-CoV-2 in Nepal.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Nepal , Pandemias , Filogenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Zootaxa ; 5039(2): 277-290, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811082

RESUMO

One new genus and two new species of oribatid mites (Oribatida) of the family Galumnidae are described from soil in Nepal. Anomalogalumna gen. nov. (with type species Anomalogalumna dungeri sp. nov.) differs from Flagellozetes Balogh, 1970 by the absence of octotaxic system, and the presence of short, notogastral setae and areolate-reticulate surface of the notogaster and anogenital region. Allogalumna beateae sp. nov. differs from all other species of the genus by the presence of thickened rostral, lamellar and interlamellar setae, and the position of rostral seta (close to lamellar seta and distant from the rostrum).


Assuntos
Ácaros , Animais , Nepal , Solo
7.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(73): 9-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812151

RESUMO

Background There is a gap of knowledge on the link of major dietary patterns with stunting among schoolchildren in Nepal. Objective To identify dietary patterns in rural Nepalese households in two districts and assess their association with stunting among schoolchildren. Method This cross-sectional study gathered data from 708 schoolchildren aged 8-16 years participating in the baseline survey in the Districts of Dolakha and Ramechhap, Nepal. We derived major dietary patterns from a principal component analysis of reported intake from a food frequency questionnaire completed through interviews with the caregivers. Statistical analysis was conducted using mixed logistic regression with random intercepts at the level of schools adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioural indicators. Result The diet of surveyed schoolchildren was mainly comprised of starchy staples and legumes. Five dietary patterns score were derived: mixed food, vegetables and lentils, milk and beverages, salty snacks, and processed food. The vegetables and lentils pattern scores were negatively associated with stunting (aOR 0.84; 95% CI: 0.66-1.08, p=0.17) after adjusting for regional differences, demographic and behavioural risk factors. Conclusion Our results suggest that adherence to dietary patterns high in vegetables and animal protein might be associated with reduced odds of being stunted among schoolchildren. Therefore, the promotion of dietary diversification strategies to improve schoolchildren's food consumption is required in the study area.


Assuntos
Dieta , Transtornos do Crescimento , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Análise de Componente Principal
8.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(73): 3-8, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812150

RESUMO

Background Corneal blindness accounts for a significant proportion of avoidable visual impairment in developing countries. Eye donation is voluntary and awareness in undergraduate medical students being a future practitioner in any field are expected to be linked to patients during death in hospitals. Objective To assess the awareness of medical students on eye donation at Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences (KUSMS). Method This was a cross-sectional study conducted among undergraduate medical students of KUSMS. Students' responses were recorded using a predesigned, pretested, semistructured questionnaire inquiring knowledge and attitude of eye donation, sources of information, their willingness to donate eyes as well as the reasons for donating/ not donating eyes. Result Less than half of the medical students (45.6%) were aware of eye donation only after death. Newspapers (72.2%) were the major source of information. The final year medical students were more aware (Average knowledge score = 11.56 ± 2.05) than their juniors. 80.7% of the students were willing to donate their eyes. The adjudged reasons for willingness to donate were that eye donation is a noble work and pleasure in helping a blind person while the reasons for unwillingness to donate were lack of awareness followed by family objection to eye donation. Conclusion Future medical practitioners possessed satisfactory knowledge about eye donation. Educating this cadre of human resources to sensitize them towards the need for eye donation would be a crucial step towards reducing the global burden of corneal blindness.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Nepal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
9.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(73): 22-28, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812153

RESUMO

Background The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought life to a standstill across the world, with nearly 178 countries reporting school closures. As the schools have started reopening slowly, precautions are utmost necessary to prevent the potential spread of COVID-19 in school and community settings. Objective To assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards COVID-19 among private school teachers. Method A web based cross-sectional analytical study design was undertaken. Currently working private school teachers of Chitwan District were included as a unit of analysis. The snowball sampling technique was employed to identify the eligible participant. Collected data was entered in SPSS version 20 and analyzed using the Chi-square test, Pearson correlation, and binary logistic regression. Result Of 344 participants, the majority were male (52.9%), most of the participants were from age group 26-30 years (38.4%). Regarding knowledge, attitude and practice, 57% had good knowledge, 53.2% had favorable attitude and 51.7% had good practice towards COVID-19. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated gender (OR 0.475, 95% CI: 0.256-0.818) and COVID-19 training (OR 25.687, 95% CI 5.354-123.226) were significant with good knowledge. Conclusion Knowledge about COVID-19 among private schools teacher was good, attitudes have been mostly favorable, and the practices were mostly adequate. However, good knowledge is not the only factor for better attitude and good practices. It is necessary to implement massive education campaigns, trainings and information via school authorities and health authorities by developing and adopting appropriate guidelines on COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Professores Escolares , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(73): 41-46, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812156

RESUMO

Background Cement factory workers are exposed to cement dust at workplace. It leads to a greater prevalence of chronic respiratory signs and symptoms. Objective To identify the prevalence of Work-related respiratory symptoms, its association with various risk factors, and to assess the outcomes like hospitalization and sickness absenteeism. Method Cross-sectional study was conducted in the Argakhanchi Cement factory among 190 workers with minimum work experience of 1 year. Census method was used for data collection. To assess the respiratory symptoms, sputum samples were collected; smears prepared by pick and smear method, and later stained by Leishman and pap stain. Smears devoid of alveolar macrophages were considered unsatisfactory for evaluation. Result The mean age of respondents with standard deviation was 35.56±11.45 years. The prevalence of Work-related respiratory symptoms was 31.6%. Age, no. of years worked, working in the raw materials department, burner and clinker department, cleaning department and wearing mask were the significant risk factors. On cytological analysis of the sputum sample, mild inflammatory cell noticed in 71.6%, moderate inflammation in 23.7%, and dense inflammation in 4.2%. Fungal spores were seen in 3.7%, fungal pseudohyphae in 0.5%, and bacterial colonies in 27% of the sputum samples. Out of 190 participants, 8(4.2%) of them had to be hospitalized and 17(8.9%) were on sick leave due to respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Pre-employment and periodic medical examination, frequent work shift, training on occupational health and safety, use of appropriate personnel protective equipment is recommended to reduce respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(73): 69-75, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812161

RESUMO

Background Sense of coherence (SOC) is a core concept of salutogenesis which relates to individuals' overall life orientation. Stronger SOC associates with better coping strategies, better health, and better quality of life. Although the SOC-questionnaire is validated in many cultures and languages, it has not, to date, been applied in Nepal. Objective To determine and evaluate women's SOC before and after a health education intervention. Method This study was conducted as a part of the Heart-health Associated Research, Dissemination, and Intervention in the Community in the semi-urban JhaukhelDuwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site in Nepal. Jhaukhel and Duwakot were selected as the control and intervention areas, respectively. Participants were women with children aged 1-7 years. Eight hundred and fifty-seven women before and 1,268 women after the health education intervention participated in the study. The statistical analysis was carried out with chi-square tests and one-way uni-variate ANOVA. Result Women's total SOC mean values at baseline were 51.1-57.4 and at follow up 54.4-54.9 in the intervention and control area, respectively. At baseline, SOC was significantly weaker in the intervention area compared to the control area (p < 0.001). At followup three months later, SOC was significantly stronger in the intervention area than in the control area (p < 0.001). Conclusion Nepalese women had weaker SOC than women in high-income countries, but comparable to neighboring country India with similar cultural features. Empowerment of women through community participation and health education strengthened SOC. The SOC-13-questionnaire in its Nepali version is recommended to be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Senso de Coerência , Adaptação Psicológica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Nepal , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(73): 107-112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812168

RESUMO

Background Dry eye is a common disorder of the tear film that results from decreased tear production, excessive tear evaporation, or abnormality in mucin or lipid components of the tear film associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. Objective To determine the prevalence of dry eye among patients above 40 years attending out-patient department in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Nepal. Method This was a prospective hospital-based study done at the Department of Ophthalmology in Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital for a period of six months from September 2016 to February 2017. All the patients above 40 years of age, attending out patients department were screened by ophthalmologist using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Those patients who were diagnosed of dry eye by OSDI were further evaluated by Schirmer's test and Tear film breakup time (TBUT). Result Out of 4470 patients attending Ophthalmology outpatient department 1599 patients were of age above 40 years. The overall prevalence of dry eye according to OSDI questionnaire was 25% (400). The mean age of patient with dry eye was 54 yrs. 169 were males (42.2%) and 231 were females (57.7%). Among them Schirmer's test was positive in 16.7% (67) and TBUT was positive in 85.7% (343) of the patients with dry eye. Conclusion Dry eye is a common condition among patients attending ophthalmology outpatient department in tertiary care center and is leading cause of ocular discomfort. The prevalence of dry eye was higher among indoor workers than in outdoor workers. Further studies are needed to establish association and risk factor of dry eye.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Adulto , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
13.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(73): 140-142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812173

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant impact on the health care system. As a consequence, diagnosis and treatment of vector borne diseases including dengue has been equally affected. Nepal is no exception to this, where COVID-19 cases is exponentially increased and all resources are concentrated on its prevention, control and management. Dengue, one of the major vector-borne diseases in Nepal, is apparently overlooked despite approaching the peak season of the disease. The aim of this paper is to describe the double burden of COVID-19 and dengue in Nepal, particularly highlighting the co-circulation and possible coinfections. This has posed higher risk of increased severity, more severe cases and deaths in Nepal. Moreover, potential misdiagnosis of these viral diseases may lead to delayed or, inappropriate treatment and poor allocation of resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dengue , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/terapia , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(74): 160-163, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819428

RESUMO

Background This study focuses on experience of laparoscopic surgery at Shahid Dharma Bhakta National Transplant Centre (SDNTC), Nepal; which could enable us to gain knowledge regarding its benefits over conventional surgery. The present study revealed the frequency of various forms of laparoscopic surgeries done at our centre. Moreover, this study accomplishes laparoscopic donor nephrectomy "a historical milestone achieved in Nepal for kidney transplantation on 18th November 2018" which was the first Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy done in Nepal by Nepalese team. Objective The present study assesses the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic surgery at government hospital of Nepal. Method This hospital based cross-sectional study included all patients of age group 10 to 60 years, coming to outpatient department of SDNTC and those having indications for nephrectomy. We excluded patient having previous history of open surgeries of kidney, bleeding disorders, uncontrolled Diabetes Mellitus and uncontrolled Hypertension. The study duration was 15 months from November 2017 to January 2019. The total number of patients enrolled in the study was fifty where transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery was performed in all 50 patients. The demographic data, indications for surgery, duration of surgery, complications of surgery and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. Result Out of 50 cases, 34 (68%) underwent simple lap nephrectomy, 6 (12%) were lap pyeloplasty, 6 (12%) lap nephrectomy along with ureterectomy of long segment of diseased ureter, 1 (2%) lap radical nephrectomy, 1 (2%) lap donor nephrectomy for kidney transplantation, 1 (2%) lap heminephrectomy and 1 (2%) lap nephrectomy for hydronephrotic non functioning left crossed ectopia. Amongst all nephrectomies, 27 (54%) patients were operated on right side while 23 (46%) patients on left. The median age of the patient was 38.56 years. Out of total cases 32 (64%) were male and 18 (36%) female. The median operative time and hospital stay was 122.3 minutes and 5 days respectively. The median estimated blood loss was 74.1 cc. Only one patient required blood transfusion intra-operatively. 2 (4%) patients were converted to open surgery. Conclusion Laparoscopic surgery is feasible and safe procedure in government setup hospital with less cumbersome procedure and minimum complications associated with it.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Urologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Nefrectomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(74): 164-167, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819429

RESUMO

Background Monteggia fracture dislocation may need operative management. The fracture of ulna is reduced by closed or open reduction followed by stabilization of ulna with Rush pin, K-wires or Dynamic compression plate. Objective To evaluate the Mayo Elbow Performance Score of patients with Monteggia fracture dislocation treated operatively. Method It is a retrospective study conducted at Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital. All the pediatric patients with Monteggia fracture dislocation managed operatively from January 2011- December 2019 were included in the study. The functional outcome scoring of the effected elbow using Mayo Elbow Performance Score was done in the last follow up. Result Forty eight surgically managed Monteggia patients had a mean age of 7.23 ± 2.9 years with male predominance. Left side was the dominant side of involvement with 29 patients. Bado type 1 was the most common type (81.3%). Most of the patient underwent closed reduction and fixation with Rush pin (n=40). All of the patient has excellent (89.6%) to good (10.4%) functional outcome. Conclusion Operative management of Monteggia fracture dislocation with complete ulna fracture has excellent to good outcome.


Assuntos
Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fratura de Monteggia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Fratura de Monteggia/cirurgia , Nepal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(74): 168-172, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819430

RESUMO

Background Endodontics is considered as one of the most difficult and stressful disciplines in dentistry. This might be due to the complex anatomical variations, recent advances in equipment, technology, materials and lack of self-confidence. Objective To determine the self-confidence level among the intern dentists in performing endodontic procedures from six different colleges of Kathmandu University, Nepal. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 145 intern dentists. The online questionnaire regarding confidence level (5 point Likert scale) in different endodontic procedures and difficulty level (easy, ok and difficult) with respect to teeth was distributed. For descriptive purpose, frequency and percentage for each response were calculated. Result Dental interns were confident in performing majority of the normal endodontic procedures, however, they showed less confidence in performing difficult steps like rubber dam application for anterior (74, 51%) and posterior tooth (91, 62.7%), use of electronic apex locator (89, 61.4%), using rotary files (114, 78.6%), management of flare-ups (86, 59.4%), assessment of quality of post-endodontic treatment (85, 58.5%), recall periods (75, 51.6%) and performing post and core (82, 56.6%). Likewise, upper first molars (84, 57.9%) and second molars (104, 71.7%) were found to be the most difficult teeth to treat. Conclusion It can be concluded that majority of the dental interns were confident in performing basic endodontic procedures, however, they were found to have low confidence in performing difficult steps. Further training and exposure should be incorporated to increase their confidence level.


Assuntos
Endodontia , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Humanos , Nepal , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(74): 180-185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819432

RESUMO

Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic health conditions and is increasingly becoming a major public health problem among the elderly population. As the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not curable, evaluation of and methods to improve quality of life among such patients is of utmost importance. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the quality of life among patients living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Method This is a cross-sectional carried out in Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital, Nepal in 2017-2018. A total of 274 patients aged 40 years and above were selected for this study. The quality of life of participants was assessed through the widely used shorter version ST George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ-C). Result The mean age of the participants was 68.19 (SD ± 10.36) years, with the age range of 40-94 years. More than half (55.5%) of respondents were females, 55% were from rural areas, 42.7% were illiterate and 53.3% were from joint families. Agriculture (35.4%) and homemakers (32.5%) were the most prevalent occupation. The mean total score for all domains of quality of life was 68.06 (±18.87). The mean quality of life scores for symptom, activity, and impact domains was 70.11 (±22.33), 67.59 (±20.41), 67.64 (±20.41) respectively which suggested marked impairments in quality of life in all SGRQ-C domains. The symptoms and impact domains were most affected during the activity. Among socio-demographic variables, educational status, ethnicity, number of family members, type of family and economic status had a statistically significant effect on the quality of life. Initial health condition, smoking habit, number of cigarettes smoked, and years of smoking had statistically significant effects on quality of life. Conclusion Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have a low quality of life in three components of symptom, activity, and impact domains. Major factors associated with poor quality of life were low educational status, large family size, poor health condition, and smoking.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(74): 210-215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819438

RESUMO

Background Tobacco consumption is a leading cause of premature death in the world. Tobaccorelated deaths are associated with cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, oral potentially malignant disorders, cancer, others. Moreover there is also associated nicotine dependence which might result to numerous tobacco-associated diseases. Objective This study was conducted to analyze the degree of nicotine dependence considering its potential health risk, in the Eastern region of Nepal. Method A descriptive questionnaire based study was conducted among current tobacco users of six districts of Eastern Nepal. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependency for Smokeless Tobacco (FTNDST) questionnaire were used for tobacco smokers and chewers, respectively. Result Of the total participants, 836 were males and 359 females, among whom 736 were active tobacco smokers and 432 chewers, 34.8% had tried to stop consuming tobacco and 306 (25.6%) had oral lesions in white or red forms. Very low nicotine dependence was found among 244 (31.47%) tobacco smokers and 37 (8.56%) chewers whereas 36 (4.71%) smokers and 103 (23.84%) chewers had very high nicotine dependence. The mean score for FTND was 3.73±2.37 and 5.74±2.12 for FTND-ST. A significant difference in duration and age group with FTND score was observed, however not with FTND-ST. Conclusion The information regarding degree of nicotine dependence can be used as baseline information for planning of preventive strategies and implementation of tobacco cessation and control programs.


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos
19.
Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) ; 19(74): 230-236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819442

RESUMO

Background Play is a cherished part of childhood that offers children holistic developmental benefits and parents the opportunity to fully engage with their children. However, modern-day children are spending significantly less time in outdoor play due to a number of factors including technological advancements, more time involved in structured activities, and a greater emphasis on early cognitive learning. Objective To assess perception of mothers on their children's play. Method This was a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among the 228 mothers having at least one child children who attended in Paediatric OPD of Dhulikhel hospital of Nepal from 21st June, 2018 to 16th July, 2019. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee (IRC) of Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences (KUSMS). Research instrument was developed by Barnett and was adopted for this study with permission from the author. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select mothers and face to face interview was carried out to collect information. Result Perception on play of children in the mothers was varied. Most of mothers agreed on different subscales of play with mean range 2.07-3.01 in which they were agreed on freedom play with mean score 3.01±0.40, importance of play with mean score 2.93±0.37 and nearly agreed on maternal rule with mean score 2.89±0.50, play safety with mean score 2.92±0.36, child's choice with mean score 2.96±0.49 and disagreed on imaginative play with mean score 2.42±0.59 and gender typing with mean score 2.07±0.51. Conclusion Although almost all respondents had positive attitudes towards different component of the play, they disagreed on gender typing and imaginative play which is very important for developing problem solving skill of children based on their gender. So, nursing faculties, pediatricians and nurses can use the findings to develop awareness on importance of gender typing and imaginative playamong mothers.


Assuntos
Mães , Percepção , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Nepal
20.
Zootaxa ; 5006(1): 110-120, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810581

RESUMO

A new speciesChinattus mikhailovi sp. nov. (♂♀, from Pakistan, Peshawar)is diagnosed, described and illustrated. New records of Chinattus validus (Xie, Peng et Kim, 1993) from Nepal, India (Himachal Pradesh) and Vietnam, and C. chichila Logunov, 2003 from Nepal are presented. The collecting localities of all three species are mapped. A brief discussion of the state of knowledge of the genus Chinattus Logunov, 1999 is provided as well.


Assuntos
Aracnídeos , Aranhas , Animais , Índia , Nepal , Paquistão
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