Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.900
Filtrar
1.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 95-102, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760062

RESUMO

Exposure to organic solvent in industry, including n-hexane is correlated with central-peripheral axonopathy, which is mediated by its active metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione (HD). However, the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Recently identified microRNAs (miRNAs) may play important roles in toxicant exposure and in the process of toxicant-induced neuropathys. To examine the role of miRNAs in HD-induced toxicity, neuropathic animal model was successfully built. miRNA microarray analysis revealed 105 differentially expressed miRNAs after HD exposure. Bioinformatics analysis showed that "Axon" and "Neurotrophin Signaling Pathway" was the top significant GO term and pathway, respectively. 7 miRNAs both related to "Axon" and "Neurotrophin Signaling Pathway" were screened out and further confirmed by Real-Time PCR. Correspondingly, the deregulation expression levels of proteins of four target genes (GSK3ß, Map3k1, BDNF and MAP1B) were further confirmed via western blot, verifying the results of gene target analysis. Taken together, our results showed that the axon-related miRNAs to be associated with MAP1B or neurotrophin signal pathways changed in nerve tissues following HD exposure. These miRNAs may play important roles in HD-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Hexanonas/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Nervo Isquiático/efeitos dos fármacos , Solventes/toxicidade , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nervo Isquiático/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
2.
J Invest Surg ; 33(2): 172-180, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672183

RESUMO

Background: Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) has devastating consequences. Dorsal root ganglion as a pivotal locus participates in the process of neuropathic pain and nerve regeneration. In recent years, gene sequencing technology has seen rapid rise in the biomedicine field. So, we attempt to gain insight into in the mechanism of neuropathic pain and nerve regeneration in the transcriptional level and to explore novel genes through bioinformatics analysis. Methods: The gene expression profiles of GSE96051 were downloaded from GEO database. The gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was constructed by Cytoscape software. Results: Our results showed that both IL-6 and Jun genes and the signaling pathway of MAPK, apoptosis, P53 present their vital modulatory role in nerve regeneration and neuropathic pain. Noteworthy, 13 hub genes associated with neuropathic pain and nerve regeneration, including Ccl12, Ppp1r15a, Cdkn1a, Atf3, Nts, Dusp1, Ccl7, Csf, Gadd45a, Serpine1, Timp1 were rarely reported in PubMed database, these genes may provide us the new orientation in experimental research and clinical study. Conclusions: Our results may provide more deep insight into the mechanism and a promising therapeutic target. The next step is to put our emphasis on an experiment level and to verify the novel genes from 13 hub genes.


Assuntos
Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Gânglios Espinais , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries , Nervo Isquiático
3.
Gene ; 724: 144151, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into Schwann-like cells onto processed nerve allografts may support peripheral nerve repair. The purpose of this study was to understand the biological characteristics of undifferentiated and differentiated MSCs before and after seeding onto a processed nerve allograft by comparing gene expression profiles. METHODS: MSCs from Lewis rats were cultured in maintenance media or differentiated into Schwann-like cells. Both treatment groups were dynamically seeded onto decellularized nerve allografts derived from Sprague-Dawley rats. Gene expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis of representative biomarkers, including neurotrophic (GDNF, PTN, GAP43, PMP22), angiogenic (CD31, VEGF1), extracellular matrix (ECM) (COL1A1, COL3A1, FBLN1, LAMB2) or cell cycle (CAPS3, CCBN2) genes. Gene expression values were statistically evaluated using a 2-factor ANOVA with repeated measures. RESULTS: Baseline gene expression of undifferentiated and differentiated MSCs was significantly altered upon interaction with processed nerve allografts. Interaction between processed allografts and undifferentiated MSCs enhanced expression of neurotrophic (NGF, GDNF, PMP22), ECM (FBLN1, LAMB2) and regulatory cell cycle genes (CCNB2) during a 7-day time course. Interactions of differentiated MSCs with nerve allografts enhanced expression of neurotrophic (NGF, GDNF, GAP43), angiogenic (VEGF1), ECM (FBLN1) and regulatory cell cycle genes (CASP3, CCNB2) within one week. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic seeding onto processed nerve allografts modulates temporal gene expression profiles of differentiated and undifferentiated MSCs. These changes in gene expressions may support the reparative functions of MSCs in supporting nerve regeneration in different stages of axonal growth.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Nervo Isquiático/transplante , Transcriptoma , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Aloenxertos , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Regeneração Nervosa , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células de Schwann/citologia , Nervo Isquiático/citologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo
4.
Anaesthesia ; 75(1): 80-88, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506921

RESUMO

Visibility of the needle tip is difficult to maintain during ultrasound-guided nerve block. A new needle has been developed that incorporates a piezo element 2-2.3 mm from the tip, activated by ultrasound. The electrical signal manifests as a coloured circle surrounding the needle tip, and allows real-time tracking. We hypothesised that novice regional anaesthetists would perform nerve block better with the tracker turned on rather than off. Our primary objective was to evaluate the new needle by measuring the performance of novice anaesthetists conducting simulated sciatic block on the soft embalmed Thiel cadaver. Training consisted of a lecture, scanning in volunteers and practice on cadavers. Testing entailed scanning the sciatic nerve of a cadaver and conducting 20 in-plane sciatic blocks in the mid-to-upper thigh region. Subjects were randomised equally, in groups of five, according to the sequence: tracker on/off/on/off; or tracker off/on/off/on. Video recordings were assessed by six raters for steps performed correctly and errors committed. Eight subjects were recruited and 160 videos were analysed. Using the tracking needle, five correct steps improved and one error reduced. The benefits included: better identification of the needle tip before advancing the needle, OR (95%CI) 3.4 (1.6-7.7; p < 0.001); better alignment of the needle to the transducer, 3.1 (1.3-8.7; p = 0.009); and better visibility of the needle tip 3.0 (1.4-7.3; p = 0.005). In conclusion, use of the tracker needle improved the sciatic block performance of novices on the soft embalmed cadaver.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/instrumentação , Agulhas , Bloqueio Nervoso/instrumentação , Nervo Isquiático , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Cadáver , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos
5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(1): e8669, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859913

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of fasudil on treating experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). Twenty-four EAN mice were randomly assigned to fasudil treatment (Fasudil group) or saline treatment (EAN model group) for 28 days. Clinical symptom score was evaluated every other day; inflammatory cell infiltration, demyelination, anti-myelin basic protein (MBP), inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and arginase-1 were detected in sciatic nerves at day 28. Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tregs proportions in splenocytes were detected at day 28. Clinical symptom score was found to be attenuated in the Fasudil group compared to the EAN model group from day 12 to day 28. Sciatic nerve inflammatory cell counts by HE staining and demyelination by luxol fast blue staining were both reduced, while MBP was increased in the Fasudil group compared to the EAN model group at day 28. Interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-17 were reduced, while IL-4 and IL-10 were elevated in the Fasudil group at day 28. Sciatic nerve M1 macrophages marker iNOS was decreased while M2 macrophages marker arginase-1 was increased in the Fasudil group at day 28. CD4+IFN-γ+ (Th1) and CD4+IL-17+ (Th17) cell proportions were both decreased, CD4+IL-4+ (Th2) cell proportion was similar, while CD25+FOXP3+ (Treg) cell proportion in splenocytes was increased in the Fasudil group. In summary, fasudil presented a good therapeutic effect for treating EAN by attenuating Th1/Th17 cells and promoting Tregs activation as well as M2 macrophages polarization.


Assuntos
1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Neurite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurite Autoimune Experimental/sangue , RNA Mitocondrial , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Nervo Isquiático/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Isquiático/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Georgian Med News ; (295): 145-152, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804218

RESUMO

The work aims at studying the effect of the autologous bone marrow aspirate concentrate on regeneration of the sciatic nerve and atrophy of m. tibialis cranialis. We have simulated autografting of the sciatic nerve in rabbits with application of bone marrow aspirate concentrate around the graft area. We obtained autologous aspirate (2mL) from the proximal part of the femur, added dextrosecitrate (1:8), centrifuged it, and added 0.1 of bovine thrombine to 1.0 mL of supraerythrocytic fraction to obtain gel. On days 30 and 90 we assessed the rate of the sciatic nervere generation and morphological changes of the m.tibialis cranialis as well as the content of products of oxidative modification of lipids and proteins (TBA-active products, diene conjugates and carbonyl groups, respectively) and activity of antioxidant enzymatic system (catalase, glutathion peroxidase, glutathione reductase) in this muscle. Evaluation of the nerve fibers regeneration through the sciatic nerve graft 1 cm long showed that 16.0% of them had regenerated into the graft by day 30 and 60.3% by day 90, with 34.7% having regenerated into the distal stump. Application of bone marrow aspirate concentrate had significantly increased regeneration by day 30, amounting to 31.9% in the graft and up to 8.7% in the distal stump and up to 68.0% and 60.1% by day 90 respectively. Prolonged nerve regeneration resulted in progressive muscle atrophy, with decrease of muscular fibers content up to 68.2% and 27.8%. In the group with aspirate concentrate hypothrophy was delayed (% of muscle fibers being 82.8% and57.2%). The content of peroxidation products has dramatically increased by day 30 and has decreased by day 90 with activation of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzymes (with catalase activity being significantly high in all the terms).We have also observed decreased oxidative modification of lipids and proteins in the aspirate concentrate group, with additional increase of glutathione peroxidase activity demonstrating the supportive effect of the aspirate cells.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , Regeneração Nervosa , Nervo Isquiático , Animais , Bovinos , Glutationa Peroxidase , Coelhos , Nervo Isquiático/transplante , Transplante Autólogo
7.
Indian J Dent Res ; 30(5): 692-696, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854358

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite the enhancing effects of hyaluronidase (HYAL) over duration of anesthesia, this enzyme could cause adverse effects when injected concomitantly with local anesthetics in dental blocks. Objective: This study aimed to assess the tissue alterations caused by a local anesthetic protocol consisting of a late HYAL injection and confirm its functional effectiveness. Materials and Methods: The protocol efficacy was proved by evaluating sensory and motor functions in rats. The sciatic nerve was blocked with 2% lidocaine (LID) with epinephrine (n = 25). Thirty minutes later, 75 TRU/ml HYAL was injected into the same site (experimental group, LID/HYAL). One week later, this protocol was repeated in the contralateral hindlimb, injecting only HYAL's vehicle (control group, LID/vehicle [LID/V]). To observe the integrity of the local tissues, histological specimens were obtained 1, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment with LID/HYAL or LID/V (n = 16 each) and stained with hematoxylin/eosin and picrosirius red. Results: Local inflammation was similar in both groups. The integrity of the nerve fibers was preserved, in spite of some inflammation-associated injuries in the surrounding tissues. The reversible tissue disorganization caused by HYAL, probably facilitated the diffusion of the residual anesthetic to the nerve, resulting in a prolonged anesthetic effect (P < 0.05). Conclusions: No irreversible morphological alterations are caused by the administration of HYAL prior the end of the LID-induced block. Moreover, this protocol prolongs LID's anesthetic effect.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local , Bloqueio Nervoso , Animais , Hialuronoglucosaminidase , Lidocaína , Ratos , Nervo Isquiático
8.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 43(6): 976-980, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688247

RESUMO

Endometriosis (EN) is a common gynecological condition characterized by the presence of functional endometrium located outside the uterine cavity. Sciatic nerve (SN) is rarely affected by EN. Magnetic resonance imaging allows a direct visualization of the spinal and SN, and it is the modality of choice for the study of SN involvement in extrapelvic EN. We report a case of an endometrioma located in the right SN with a systematic review of the literature.


Assuntos
Endometriose/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Isquiático/patologia , Ciática/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Endometriose/complicações , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Nervo Isquiático/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Isquiático/cirurgia , Ciática/etiologia , Ciática/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(11): 1438-1446, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674243

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to explore whether intraoperative nerve monitoring can identify risk factors and reduce the incidence of nerve injury in patients with high-riding developmental dysplasia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a historical controlled study of patients with unilateral Crowe IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Between October 2016 and October 2017, intraoperative nerve monitoring of the femoral and sciatic nerves was applied in total hip arthroplasty (THA). A neuromonitoring technician was employed to monitor nerve function and inform the surgeon of ongoing changes in a timely manner. Patients who did not have intraoperative nerve monitoring between September 2015 and October 2016 were selected as the control group. All the surgeries were performed by one surgeon. Demographics and clinical data were analyzed. A total of 35 patients in the monitoring group (ten male, 25 female; mean age 37.1 years (20 to 46)) and 56 patients in the control group (13 male, 43 female; mean age 37.9 years (23 to 52)) were enrolled. The mean follow-up of all patients was 13.1 months (10 to 15). RESULTS: The two groups had no significant differences in preoperative data. In the monitoring group, ten nerve alerts occurred intraoperatively, and no neural complications were detected postoperatively. In the control group, six patients had neural complications. The rate of nerve injury was lower in the monitoring group than in the control group, but this did not achieve statistical significance. The degree of leg lengthening was significantly greater in the monitoring group than in the control group. In further analyses, patients who had previous hip surgery were more likely to have intraoperative nerve alerts and postoperative nerve injury. CONCLUSION: Nerve injury usually occurred during the processes of exposure and reduction. The use of intraoperative nerve monitoring showed a trend towards reduced nerve injury in THA for Crowe IV DDH patients. Hence, we recommend its routine use in patients undergoing leg lengthening, especially in those with previous hip surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1438-1446.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Nervo Femoral/fisiologia , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/cirurgia , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Nervo Isquiático/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Nervo Femoral/lesões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 242, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692794

RESUMO

The sciatic nerve is the terminal branch of the sacral plexus. Sciatalgia is a nerve root pain. In most cases, sciatica originates from degenerative disc disease. Tumor involving the sciatic nerve is extremely rare. We here report the case of a 33-year old patient with nerve tumor detected on MRI performed for drug-resistant sciatica. Tumor involving the sciatic nerve is rare and diagnosis is difficult. MRI data are crucial for establishing an effective surgical approach.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurofibroma/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Isquiático/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Isquiático/patologia , Ciática/diagnóstico
11.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 43(6): 953-957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Compression of the sciatic nerve in its path along the piriformis muscle can produce sciatica-like symptoms. There are 6 predominant types of sciatic nerve variations with type 1 being the most common (84.2%), followed by type 2 (13.9%). However, there is scarce literature on the prevalence of sciatic nerve variation in those diagnosed with sciatica. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The charts of 95 patients clinically diagnosed with sciatica who had a magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis/hip were retrospectively studied. All patients had T1-weighted axial, coronal, and sagittal images. Magnetic resonance imagings were interpreted separately by 2 board-certified fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists to identify the sciatic nerve variant. RESULTS: Seven cases were excluded because of inadequate imaging. Of the remaining 88 patients, 5 had bilateral sciatica resulting in a sample size of 93 limbs. Fifty-two (55.9%) had type 1 sciatic nerve anatomy, 39 (41.9%) had type 2, and 2 (2.2%) had type 3. The proportions of type 1 and 2 variations were significantly different from the normal distribution (P < 0.001), whereas type 3, 4, 5, and 6 variants were not (P = 1.00). CONCLUSIONS: There is strong statistical significance regarding the relationship between sciatic nerve variation and the clinical diagnosis of sciatica. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging can be considered in sciatica patients to prevent iatrogenic injury in pelvic surgery.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Músculo Piriforme/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Nervo Isquiático/diagnóstico por imagem , Ciática/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nervo Isquiático/patologia , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/inervação
12.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 33(11): 1439-1445, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650763

RESUMO

Objective: To explore a green route for the fabrication of thermo-sensitive chitosan nerve conduits, improve the mechanical properties and decrease the degradation rate of the chitosan nerve conduits. Methods: Taking advantage of the ionic specific effect of the thermo-sensitive chitosan, the strengthened chitosan nerve conduits were obtained by immersing the gel-casted conduits in salt solution for ion-induced phase transition, and rinsing, lyophilization, and 60Co sterilization afterwards. The nerve conduits after immersing in NaCl solutions for 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours were obtained and characterized the general observation, diameters and mechanical properties. According to the above results, the optimal sample was chosen and characterized the microstructure, degradation properties, and cytocompatibility. The left sciatic nerve defect 15 mm in length was made in 20 male Sprague Dawley rats. The autologous nerves (control group, n=10) and the nerve conduits (experimental group, n=10) were used to repair the defects. At 8 weeks after operation, the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was measured. The regenerated nerves were investigated by gross observation and toluidine blue staining. The gastrocnemius muscle was observed by HE staining. Results: With the increased ionic phase transition time, the color of the conduit was gradually deepened and the diameter was gradually decreased, which showed no difference during 12 hours. The tensile strength of the nerve conduit was increased gradually. The ultimate tensile strength showed significant difference between the 48 hours and 12, 24, and 36 hours groups ( P<0.05), and no significant difference between the 48 hours and 72 hours groups ( P>0.05). As a result, the nerve conduit after ion-induced phase transition for 48 hours was chosen for further study. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the nerve conduit had a uniform porous structure. The degradation rate of the the nerve conduit after ion-induced phase transition for 48 hours was significantly decreased as compared with that of the conduit without ion-induced phase transition. The nerve conduit could support the attachment and proliferation of rat Schwann cells on the inner surface. The animal experiments showed that at 8 weeks after operation, the CMAPs of the experimental and control groups were (3.5±0.9) and (4.3±1.1) m/V, respectively, which showed no significant difference between the two groups ( P<0.05), and were significantly lower than that of the contralateral site ï¼»(45.6±5.6 m/V), P>0.05ï¼½. The nerve conduit of the experimental group could repair the nerve defect. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of the histomorphology of the regenerated nerve fibers and the gastrocnemius muscle. Conclusion: The green route for the fabrication of thermo-sensitive chitosan nerve conduits is free of any toxic reagents, and has simple steps, which is beneficial to the industrial transformation of the chitosan nerve conduit products. The prepared chitosan nerve conduit can be applied to rat peripheral nerve defect repair and nerve tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Tecido Nervoso , Animais , Química Verde , Masculino , Regeneração Nervosa , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nervo Isquiático
13.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(10): 729-34, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of deep electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at "Huantiao"(GB30) on hindlimb motor function and expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK ) and p53 proteins in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rats with chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. METHODS: Forty-eight SD rats (half male and half female) were randomly divided into control, model, shallow EA (SEA) stimulation and deep EA (DEA) stimulation groups (n=12 in each group). The CCI model was constructed by implanting a silicone tube close to the sciatic nerve of the left hind limb. For DEA group and SEA group, filiform acupuncture needles were inserted into GB30 about 12-14 mm deep and 5-8 mm deep (monitored by using a high-frequency ultrasound device), respectively, followed by electrical stimulation (2 Hz/100 Hz, 1 mA) using an EA stimulator. The intervention was conducted for 15 min every time, once daily for 14 days. The sciatic nerve function index (SFI) calculated to assess the motor function status. Histopathological changes of the sciatic nerve were displayed by H.E. staining. The expression levels of phosphorylated-p38 MAPK (p-p38) and phosphorylated-tumor protein p53 (p-p53) in DRGs of L4-L5 on the affected side were observed by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: Following modeling, the SFI were significantly decreased (P<0.01), and the expression levels of p-p38 and p-p53 proteins of L4-L5 DRGs were considerably increased in the model group (P<0.05). After the intervention, the SFI were obviously increased, and the expression levels of p-p38 and p-p53 proteins notably down-regulated in both DEA and SEA groups relevant to the model group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The therapeutic effect of DEA was significantly superior to that of SEA in raising SFI and down-regulating expression le-vels of p-p38 and p-p53 proteins (P<0.01, P<0.05). H.E. staining showed disordered arrangement of the sciatic nerve fibers and myelin, disaggregation of the myelin and axons with deformity and vacuolation in some of them and with an increase of Schwann cells in the model group, which was relatively milder in both DEA and SEA groups. CONCLUSION: Both DEA and SEA at GB30 can obviously improve the motor function in CCI rats, which may be associated with its function in down-regulating the expression of p-p38 and p-p53 proteins in L4-L5 DRGs, restraining p38 MAPK signaling. The therapeutic effect of DEA is evidently better than that of SEA.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Animais , Apoptose , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nervo Isquiático , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno
14.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(10): 777-782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663354

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine(TMZ) after end-to-end repair in a peripheral nerve injury model. METHOD: We performed end-to-end primary repair of sciatic nerves in rats and showed TMZ's regenerative effect. For this objective 30 male Sprague Dawley albino rats were used. Surgery+water group, rats were assigned to a placebo group and were given water by oral gavage. Surgery+TMZ group, rats were given trimetazidine by oral gavage. All medications were given for 12 weeks. Motor function test was performed. Afterwards, electromyography (EMG) recording was done. Finally, blood samples were taken, the animals were euthanized andsciatic nerve was removed. RESULTS: The amplitudes of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) increased significantly in the Surgery+TMZ group when compared with the group that have been given Surgery+Water. Nerve growth factor (NGF) immunoexpression in the Schwann cell was significantly increased in the Surgery+TMZ group compared with the Surgery+Water group. Moreover, fibrosis score was reduced in the Surgery+TMZ group compared to the Surgery+Water group.CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we demonstrated the superiority of TMZ on nerve healing in our experimental study which was evaluated with comparative groups (Tab. 3, Fig. 2, Ref. 31).


Assuntos
Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/tratamento farmacológico , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Trimetazidina/farmacologia , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1913-1924, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591560

RESUMO

Axonal injury results in regenerative success or failure, depending on whether the axon lies in the peripheral or the CNS, respectively. The present study addresses whether epigenetic signatures in dorsal root ganglia discriminate between regenerative and non-regenerative axonal injury. Chromatin immunoprecipitation for the histone 3 (H3) post-translational modifications H3K9ac, H3K27ac and H3K27me3; an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin; and RNA sequencing were performed in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve or dorsal column axotomy. Distinct histone acetylation and chromatin accessibility signatures correlated with gene expression after peripheral, but not central, axonal injury. DNA-footprinting analyses revealed new transcriptional regulators associated with regenerative ability. Machine-learning algorithms inferred the direction of most of the gene expression changes. Neuronal conditional deletion of the chromatin remodeler CCCTC-binding factor impaired nerve regeneration, implicating chromatin organization in the regenerative competence. Altogether, the present study offers the first epigenomic map providing insight into the transcriptional response to injury and the differential regenerative ability of sensory neurons.


Assuntos
Axônios/fisiologia , Epigenômica , Gânglios Espinais/fisiologia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Acetilação , Algoritmos , Animais , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Gânglios Espinais/lesões , Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Análise de Sequência de RNA
16.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(8): 2635-2639, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577651

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to determine the effects of different doses and methods of extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT) on the sciatic nerve regeneration of rat model using unbiased quantitative stereological techniques and to know which method and dose were effective. METHODS: Twenty-five Wistar albino rats were used in the experiment. All animals were randomly divided into 5 groups. To the first group (control, n = 5) ESWT and surgery were not applied. To 2nd group (E300*2, n = 5), twice doses of 300 impulses uESWs (unfocused) were applied. To 3rd group (E500*2, n = 5), twice doses of 500 impulses uESWs (unfocused) were applied. To 4th group (E300*2, n = 5), twice doses of 300 impulses of fESWs (focused) were applied. To 5th group (E500*2, n = 5), twice doses of 500 impulses of fESWs (focused) were applied. Rats were sacrificed and nerve samples analyzed on the 22nd day following the operation. RESULTS: There is a variable increase in the axon numbers among the shockwave treated groups in compare to the control group. The focused groups showed better improvement and the 300-focused group has shown the highest regeneration rate. CONCLUSION: The authors found that ESWT promotes nerve regeneration, increases the thickness of the myelin sheath and that the most effective result is in the 300 shock wave.


Assuntos
Regeneração Nervosa , Animais , Tratamento por Ondas de Choque Extracorpóreas , Ondas de Choque de Alta Energia , Masculino , Bainha de Mielina , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Nervo Isquiático
17.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 33(9): 1162-1168, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512460

RESUMO

Objective: To study the expressions of microRNA-221 (miR-221) and the protein of phosphatase and tension protein homologue (PTEN) in the proximal and distal stumps after sciatic nerve injury in rats and their correlation with the repair of peripheral nerve injury, so as to provide a new target for clinical diagnosis of peripheral nerve injury. Methods: Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats of SPF grade were selected to establish sciatic nerve injury models. Twenty-four rats were sacrificed at 0 (immediately after operation), 1, 4, and 7 days after operation. The proximal and distal sciatic nerve fragments were taken under aseptic conditions. The expression of miR-221 was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, and the expression of PTEN protein was detected by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. The relationship between miR-221 and PTEN was verified by dual-luciferase reporter gene. At the same time, the ultrastructure of nerve stump was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results: The results of real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining showed that the relative expression of miR-221 in the proximal and distal stumps increased gradually with time, and the relative expression of PTEN protein decreased gradually, and the differences between different time points after operation were significant ( P<0.05). At 1, 4, and 7 days after operation, the relative expression of miR-221 in proximal stump was significantly higher than that in distal stump, and the relative expression of PTEN protein in proximal stump was significantly lower than that in distal stump ( P<0.05). Dual-luciferase reporter gene suggested that PTEN was the target for miR-221. Transmission electron microscopy observation showed that the normal morphological structure was observed at 0 day after operation, and the proliferation of Schwann cells and degeneration of axons and myelin sheaths gradually increased with time. There was no significant difference between proximal and distal stumps at 1 day after operation. At 4 and 7 days, Schwann cells proliferated more in proximal stump than in distal stump, and the degeneration of axons and myelin sheaths was less. Conclusion: After sciatic nerve injury in rats, the up-regulation of the miR-221 expression targets the down-regulation of PTEN expression, which results in the difference of expression levels of miR-221 and PTEN in proximal and distal stumps. This phenomenon may play a role in promoting nerve repair after peripheral nerve injury.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos , Nervo Isquiático , Animais , Axônios , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Regeneração Nervosa/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nervo Isquiático/fisiopatologia
18.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 30(2): 59-66, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486397

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that nicotine exhibited anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties by interacting with the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). However, the role of nicotine in regeneration during peripheral nerve injury has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether nicotine down-regulated production of proinflammatory cytokines and promoted peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. Rats challenged with sciatic nerve crush injury were treated with nicotine (1.5 mg/kg), three times per day. The expression of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1ß), pinch test results, growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) expression, morphometric analyses, and the sciatic functional indexes were determined in sciatic nerves. Treatment with nicotine decreased local levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß, and increased the expression of GAP-43. Nicotine also improved nerve regeneration and functional recovery. The overall protective effects of nicotine were reversed by concomitant treatment with α7nACHR antagonist methyllycaconitine, indicating that nicotine exerted its specific anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects through the α7nAChR. These findings show that nicotine administration can provide a potential therapeutic pathway for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, by a direct protective effect through the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.


Assuntos
Lesões por Esmagamento/metabolismo , Lesões por Esmagamento/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Nicotina/farmacologia , Nervo Isquiático/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína GAP-43/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Nervo Isquiático/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(8): 571-6, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different frequencies (2 Hz, 100 Hz) of electroacupuncture (EA) on limb locomotion and the expression of inflammatory factors IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α in sciatic nerve, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in lumber(L)4-L5of spinal cord in rats with sciatic nerve injury (SNI), so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying improvement of SNI. METHODS: A total of 48 SD rats (half male and half female) were equally divided into blank control, model, low frequency (2 Hz) EA and high frequency (100 Hz) EA groups. The SNI model was established by clamping the spinal nerve. EA intervention (2 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 mA), starting on the 8th day after modeling, was applied to "Huantiao" (GB30) on the injured side for 15 min, once daily for 14 consecutive days. The sciatic function index (SFI) was calculated to assess the injured hindlimb recovery with reference to BAIN's and colleagues' methods. Histopathological changes of the sciatic nerve were displayed by H.E. staining. The expressions of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in the sciatic nerve tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of NF-κB in the spinal cord was detected by using Western blot. RESULTS: After modeling, the SFI level on day 8 was significantly decreased in the model group (P<0.01), and no significant differences were found among the model, low frequency EA and high frequency EA groups before the EA intervention (P>0.05). Following the treatment (at the 22nd day), the SFI values of both low frequency EA and high frequency EA groups were significantly increased (P<0.01), suggesting an improvement of the limb motor function, and the SFI of the low frequency EA group was notably higher than that of the high frequency EA group (P<0.01). In comparison with the blank control group, the expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α in the sciatic nerve and NF-κB protein in the spinal cord were significantly up-regulated (P<0.05). Following EA intervention, the increased expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB proteins were significantly down-regulated in both low frequency EA and high frequency EA groups (P<0.05), and the therapeutic effect of low frequency EA was markedly superior to that of high frequency EA in down-regulating the expression levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB protein (P<0.05). H.E. staining showed increase of Schwann cells in number, cellular swelling, and disintegration of the axons and myelin sheath, and appearance of vacuolar degeneration in the model group, which was relatively milder in both low frequency EA and high frequency EA groups, particularly in the low frequency EA group. CONCLUSION: EA of GB30 at 2 Hz and 100 Hz can promote the recovery of hindlimb motor function in SNI rats, which is probably related to its function in inhibiting the inflammatory response, and facilitating the repair of the damaged sciatic nerve. 2 Hz EA is better than 100 Hz EA in the therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Neuropatia Ciática , Animais , Feminino , Locomoção , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nervo Isquiático
20.
J Clin Neurosci ; 69: 250-256, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477463

RESUMO

Electroacupuncture (EA) is an adjuvant therapy for peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Both peripheral and central alterations contribute to the rehabilitation process. We employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the diffusion plasticity of afferent and efferent pathways caused by EA in model of peripheral nerve injury and reparation. Twenty-four rats were divided into three groups: normal group, model group and intervention group. Rats of the model group and the intervention group underwent sciatic nerve transection and anastomosis. EA intervention was performed on the intervention group at ST-36 and GB-30 for three months. Gait assessment and DTI were conducted at days post-operative (DPO) 30, 60 and 90. We selected corticospinal tract, spinothalamic tract and internal capsule as regions of interest and analyzed diffusion metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). FA values and RD values displayed significant differences or obvious tendency while AD values maintained a stable level. RD values displayed better indicative performance than FA in internal capsule. The intervention group presented significant correlation between RD values and Regularity Index (RI) during the intervention period. The effect of EA on peripheral nerve injury repairing rats appeared to be accelerated recovery process of sensory and motor neural pathway. We proposed that RD was a potential in vivo indicator for structural plasticity caused by EA and PNI.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Cápsula Interna/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nervo Isquiático/lesões
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA