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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(8): 088103, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909804

RESUMO

The ability of humans and animals to quickly adapt to novel tasks is difficult to reconcile with the standard paradigm of learning by slow synaptic weight modification. Here, we show that fixed-weight neural networks can learn to generate required dynamics by imitation. After appropriate weight pretraining, the networks quickly and dynamically adapt to learn new tasks and thereafter continue to achieve them without further teacher feedback. We explain this ability and illustrate it with a variety of target dynamics, ranging from oscillatory trajectories to driven and chaotic dynamical systems.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia
2.
Nature ; 585(7826): 603-608, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939090

RESUMO

Ferroptosis-an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic cell death process-is involved in various degenerative diseases and represents a targetable susceptibility in certain cancers1. The ferroptosis-susceptible cell state can either pre-exist in cells that arise from certain lineages or be acquired during cell-state transitions2-5. However, precisely how susceptibility to ferroptosis is dynamically regulated remains poorly understood. Here we use genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 suppressor screens to identify the oxidative organelles peroxisomes as critical contributors to ferroptosis sensitivity in human renal and ovarian carcinoma cells. Using lipidomic profiling we show that peroxisomes contribute to ferroptosis by synthesizing polyunsaturated ether phospholipids (PUFA-ePLs), which act as substrates for lipid peroxidation that, in turn, results in the induction of ferroptosis. Carcinoma cells that are initially sensitive to ferroptosis can switch to a ferroptosis-resistant state in vivo in mice, which is associated with extensive downregulation of PUFA-ePLs. We further find that the pro-ferroptotic role of PUFA-ePLs can be extended beyond neoplastic cells to other cell types, including neurons and cardiomyocytes. Together, our work reveals roles for the peroxisome-ether-phospholipid axis in driving susceptibility to and evasion from ferroptosis, highlights PUFA-ePL as a distinct functional lipid class that is dynamically regulated during cell-state transitions, and suggests multiple regulatory nodes for therapeutic interventions in diseases that involve ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Éteres/metabolismo , Ferroptose , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Éteres/química , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Peroxissomos/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4067, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792493

RESUMO

The brain is organized morphologically and functionally into a columnar structure. According to the radial unit hypothesis, neurons from the same lineage form a radial unit that contributes to column formation. However, the molecular mechanisms that link neuronal lineage and column formation remain elusive. Here, we show that neurons from the same lineage project to different columns under control of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) in the fly brain. Dscam1 is temporally expressed in newly born neuroblasts and is inherited by their daughter neurons. The transient transcription of Dscam1 in neuroblasts enables the expression of the same Dscam1 splice isoform within cells of the same lineage, causing lineage-dependent repulsion. In the absence of Dscam1 function, neurons from the same lineage project to the same column. When the splice diversity of Dscam1 is reduced, column formation is significantly compromised. Thus, Dscam1 controls column formation through lineage-dependent repulsion.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3845, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737295

RESUMO

Many experimental studies suggest that animals can rapidly learn to identify odors and predict the rewards associated with them. However, the underlying plasticity mechanism remains elusive. In particular, it is not clear how olfactory circuits achieve rapid, data efficient learning with local synaptic plasticity. Here, we formulate olfactory learning as a Bayesian optimization process, then map the learning rules into a computational model of the mammalian olfactory circuit. The model is capable of odor identification from a small number of observations, while reproducing cellular plasticity commonly observed during development. We extend the framework to reward-based learning, and show that the circuit is able to rapidly learn odor-reward association with a plausible neural architecture. These results deepen our theoretical understanding of unsupervised learning in the mammalian brain.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Condutos Olfatórios/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Mamíferos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Odorantes/análise , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Recompensa
5.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000826, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776935

RESUMO

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) regulates synaptic plasticity in multiple ways, supposedly including the secretion of neuromodulators like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here, we show that neuromodulator secretion is indeed reduced in mouse α- and ßCaMKII-deficient (αßCaMKII double-knockout [DKO]) hippocampal neurons. However, this was not due to reduced secretion efficiency or neuromodulator vesicle transport but to 40% reduced neuromodulator levels at synapses and 50% reduced delivery of new neuromodulator vesicles to axons. αßCaMKII depletion drastically reduced neuromodulator expression. Blocking BDNF secretion or BDNF scavenging in wild-type neurons produced a similar reduction. Reduced neuromodulator expression in αßCaMKII DKO neurons was restored by active ßCaMKII but not inactive ßCaMKII or αCaMKII, and by CaMKII downstream effectors that promote cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. These data indicate that CaMKII regulates neuromodulation in a feedback loop coupling neuromodulator secretion to ßCaMKII- and CREB-dependent neuromodulator expression and axonal targeting, but CaMKIIs are dispensable for the secretion process itself.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/citologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/deficiência , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/citologia , Fosforilação , Cultura Primária de Células , Subunidades Proteicas/deficiência , Sinapses/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
6.
Science ; 369(6505): 858-862, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792401

RESUMO

The conversion of neural stem cells into neurons is associated with the remodeling of organelles, but whether and how this is causally linked to fate change is poorly understood. We examined and manipulated mitochondrial dynamics during mouse and human cortical neurogenesis. We reveal that shortly after cortical stem cells have divided, daughter cells destined to self-renew undergo mitochondrial fusion, whereas those that retain high levels of mitochondria fission become neurons. Increased mitochondria fission promotes neuronal fate, whereas induction of mitochondria fusion after mitosis redirects daughter cells toward self-renewal. This occurs during a restricted time window that is doubled in human cells, in line with their increased self-renewal capacity. Our data reveal a postmitotic period of fate plasticity in which mitochondrial dynamics are linked with cell fate.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Mitose , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Sirtuínas/metabolismo
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008080, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745134

RESUMO

Neural computation is determined by neurons' dynamics and circuit connectivity. Uncertain and dynamic environments may require neural hardware to adapt to different computational tasks, each requiring different connectivity configurations. At the same time, connectivity is subject to a variety of constraints, placing limits on the possible computations a given neural circuit can perform. Here we examine the hypothesis that the organization of neural circuitry favors computational flexibility: that it makes many computational solutions available, given physiological constraints. From this hypothesis, we develop models of connectivity degree distributions based on constraints on a neuron's total synaptic weight. To test these models, we examine reconstructions of the mushroom bodies from the first instar larva and adult Drosophila melanogaster. We perform a Bayesian model comparison for two constraint models and a random wiring null model. Overall, we find that flexibility under a homeostatically fixed total synaptic weight describes Kenyon cell connectivity better than other models, suggesting a principle shaping the apparently random structure of Kenyon cell wiring. Furthermore, we find evidence that larval Kenyon cells are more flexible earlier in development, suggesting a mechanism whereby neural circuits begin as flexible systems that develop into specialized computational circuits.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Larva/citologia , Larva/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/citologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
8.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000548, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745077

RESUMO

Sleep is vital for survival. Yet under environmentally challenging conditions, such as starvation, animals suppress their need for sleep. Interestingly, starvation-induced sleep loss does not evoke a subsequent sleep rebound. Little is known about how starvation-induced sleep deprivation differs from other types of sleep loss, or why some sleep functions become dispensable during starvation. Here, we demonstrate that down-regulation of the secreted cytokine unpaired 2 (upd2) in Drosophila flies may mimic a starved-like state. We used a genetic knockdown strategy to investigate the consequences of upd2 on visual attention and sleep in otherwise well-fed flies, thereby sidestepping the negative side effects of undernourishment. We find that knockdown of upd2 in the fat body (FB) is sufficient to suppress sleep and promote feeding-related behaviors while also improving selective visual attention. Furthermore, we show that this peripheral signal is integrated in the fly brain via insulin-expressing cells. Together, these findings identify a role for peripheral tissue-to-brain interactions in the simultaneous regulation of sleep quality and attention, to potentially promote adaptive behaviors necessary for survival in hungry animals.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inanição/genética , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sono/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Inanição/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18412-18423, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694205

RESUMO

Stem cells with the capability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell derivatives provide platforms for drug screening and promising treatment options for a wide variety of neural diseases. Nevertheless, clinical applications of stem cells have been hindered partly owing to a lack of standardized techniques to characterize cell molecular profiles noninvasively and comprehensively. Here, we demonstrate that a label-free and noninvasive single-cell Raman microspectroscopy (SCRM) platform was able to identify neural cell lineages derived from clinically relevant human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). By analyzing the intrinsic biochemical profiles of single cells at a large scale (8,774 Raman spectra in total), iPSCs and iPSC-derived neural cells can be distinguished by their intrinsic phenotypic Raman spectra. We identified a Raman biomarker from glycogen to distinguish iPSCs from their neural derivatives, and the result was verified by the conventional glycogen detection assays. Further analysis with a machine learning classification model, utilizing t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE)-enhanced ensemble stacking, clearly categorized hiPSCs in different developmental stages with 97.5% accuracy. The present study demonstrates the capability of the SCRM-based platform to monitor cell development using high content screening with a noninvasive and label-free approach. This platform as well as our identified biomarker could be extensible to other cell types and can potentially have a high impact on neural stem cell therapy.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236760, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726372

RESUMO

The neural mechanisms underlying forward suppression in the auditory cortex remain a puzzle. Little attention is paid to thalamic contribution despite the important fact that the thalamus gates upstreaming information to the auditory cortex. This study compared the time courses of forward suppression in the auditory thalamus, thalamocortical inputs and cortex using the two-tone stimulus paradigm. The preceding and succeeding tones were 20-ms long. Their frequency and amplitude were set at the characteristic frequency and 20 dB above the minimum threshold of given neurons, respectively. In the ventral division of the medial geniculate body of the thalamus, we found that the duration of complete forward suppression was about 75 ms and the duration of partial suppression was from 75 ms to about 300 ms after the onset of the preceding tone. We also found that during the partial suppression period, the responses to the succeeding tone were further suppressed in the primary auditory cortex. The forward suppression of thalamocortical field excitatory postsynaptic potentials was between those of thalamic and cortical neurons but much closer to that of thalamic ones. Our results indicate that early suppression in the cortex could result from complete suppression in the thalamus whereas later suppression may involve thalamocortical and intracortical circuitry. This suggests that the complete suppression that occurs in the thalamus provides the cortex with a "silence" window that could potentially benefit cortical processing and/or perception of the information carried by the preceding sound.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores , Tálamo/fisiologia , Animais , Córtex Auditivo/citologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Feminino , Corpos Geniculados/citologia , Corpos Geniculados/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/citologia , Tálamo/citologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3565, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678087

RESUMO

Perception of visual motion is important for a range of ethological behaviors in mammals. In primates, specific visual cortical regions are specialized for processing of coherent visual motion. However, whether mouse visual cortex has a similar organization remains unclear, despite powerful genetic tools available for measuring population neural activity. Here, we use widefield and 2-photon calcium imaging of transgenic mice to measure mesoscale and cellular responses to coherent motion. Imaging of primary visual cortex (V1) and higher visual areas (HVAs) during presentation of natural movies and random dot kinematograms (RDKs) reveals varied responsiveness to coherent motion, with stronger responses in dorsal stream areas compared to ventral stream areas. Moreover, there is considerable anisotropy within visual areas, such that neurons representing the lower visual field are more responsive to coherent motion. These results indicate that processing of visual motion in mouse cortex is distributed heterogeneously both across and within visual areas.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Córtex Visual/citologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17842-17853, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669437

RESUMO

Stem cells are capable of unlimited proliferation but can be induced to form brain cells. Factors that specifically regulate human development are poorly understood. We found that human stem cells expressed high levels of the envelope protein of an endogenized human-specific retrovirus (HERV-K, HML-2) from loci in chromosomes 12 and 19. The envelope protein was expressed on the cell membrane of the stem cells and was critical in maintaining the stemness via interactions with CD98HC, leading to triggering of human-specific signaling pathways involving mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT1)-mediated epigenetic changes. Down-regulation or epigenetic silencing of HML-2 env resulted in dissociation of the stem cell colonies and enhanced differentiation along neuronal pathways. Thus HML-2 regulation is critical for human embryonic and neurodevelopment, while it's dysregulation may play a role in tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Retrovirus Endógenos/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Autorrenovação Celular/genética , Cadeia Pesada da Proteína-1 Reguladora de Fusão/metabolismo , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Ligação Proteica , Células-Tronco/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
13.
Gene ; 757: 144934, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640307

RESUMO

Overexpression of DNA Methyltransferase I (DNMT1) is considered as one of the etiological factors for schizophrenia (SZ). However, information on genes subjected to dysregulation because of DNMT1 overexpression is limited. To test whether a larger group of SZ-associated genes are affected, we selected 15 genes reported to be dysregulated in patients (Gad1, Reln, Ank3, Cacna1c, Dkk3, As3mt, Ppp1r11, Smad5, Syn1, Wnt1, Pdgfra, Gsk3b, Cxcl12, Tcf4 and Fez1). Transcript levels of these genes were compared between neurons derived from Dnmt1tet/tet (Tet/Tet) mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that overexpress DNMT1 with R1 (wild-type) neurons. Transcript levels of thirteen genes were significantly altered in Tet/Tet neurons of which, the dysregulation patterns of 11 were similar to patients. Transcript levels of eight out of these eleven were also significantly altered in Tet/Tet ESCs, but the dysregulation patterns of only five were similar to neurons. Comparative analyses among ESCs, embryoid bodies and neurons divided the 15 genes into four distinct groups with a majority showing developmental stage-specific patterns of dysregulation. Reduced Representational Bisulfite Sequencing data from neurons did not show any altered promoter DNA methylation for the dysregulated genes. Doxycycline treatment of Tet/Tet ESCs that eliminated DNMT1, reversed the direction of dysregulation of only four genes (Gad1, Dkk3, As3mt and Syn1). These results suggest that 1. Increased DNMT1 affected the levels of a majority of the transcripts studied, 2. Dysregulation appears to be independent of promoter methylation, 3. Effects of increased DNMT1 levels were reversible for only a subset of the genes studied, and 4. Increased DNMT1 levels may affect transcript levels of multiple schizophrenia-associated genes.


Assuntos
DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Linhagem Celular , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Neurônios/citologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658922

RESUMO

PRESENILIN 2 (PSEN2) is one of the genes mutated in early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOfAD). PSEN2 shares significant amino acid sequence identity with another EOfAD-related gene PRESENILIN 1 (PSEN1), and partial functional redundancy is seen between these two genes. However, the complete range of functions of PSEN1 and PSEN2 is not yet understood. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis of the zebrafish psen2 gene to generate a premature termination codon close downstream of the translation start with the intention of creating a null mutation. Homozygotes for this mutation, psen2S4Ter, are viable and fertile, and adults do not show any gross psen2-dependent pigmentation defects, arguing against significant loss of γ-secretase activity. Also, assessment of the numbers of Dorsal Longitudinal Ascending (DoLA) interneurons that are responsive to psen2 but not psen1 activity during embryogenesis did not reveal decreased psen2 function. Transcripts containing the S4Ter mutation show no evidence of destabilization by nonsense-mediated decay. Forced expression in zebrafish embryos of fusions of psen2S4Ter 5' mRNA sequences with sequence encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) indicated that the psen2S4Ter mutation permits utilization of cryptic, novel downstream translation start codons. These likely initiate translation of N-terminally truncated Psen2 proteins lacking late endosomal/lysosomal localization sequences and that obey the "reading frame preservation rule" of PRESENILIN EOfAD mutations. Transcriptome analysis of entire brains from a 6-month-old family of wild type, heterozygous and homozygous psen2S4Ter female siblings revealed profoundly dominant effects on gene expression likely indicating changes in ribosomal, mitochondrial, and anion transport functions.


Assuntos
Códon de Terminação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação , Presenilina-2/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Alelos , Animais , Contagem de Células , Homozigoto , Hipóxia/genética , Neurônios/citologia , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19287-19298, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723825

RESUMO

Retinal ganglion cell axons forming the optic nerve (ON) emerge unmyelinated from the eye and become myelinated after passage through the optic nerve lamina region (ONLR), a transitional area containing a vascular plexus. The ONLR has a number of unusual characteristics: it inhibits intraocular myelination, enables postnatal ON myelination of growing axons, modulates the fluid pressure differences between eye and brain, and is the primary lesion site in the age-related disease open angle glaucoma (OAG). We demonstrate that the human and rodent ONLR possesses a mitotically active, age-depletable neural progenitor cell (NPC) niche, with unique characteristics and culture requirements. These NPCs generate both forms of macroglia: astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and can form neurospheres in culture. Using reporter mice with SOX2-driven, inducible gene expression, we show that ONLR-NPCs generate macroglial cells for the anterior ON. Early ONLR-NPC loss results in regional dysfunction and hypomyelination. In adulthood, ONLR-NPCs may enable glial replacement and remyelination. ONLR-NPC depletion may help explain why ON diseases such as OAG progress in severity during aging.


Assuntos
Neurônios/citologia , Nervo Óptico/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Astrócitos , Axônios/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Neuroglia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia , Nervo Óptico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0223395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645024

RESUMO

Development of the cerebral cortex may be influenced by the composition of the maternal gut microbiota. To test this possibility, we administered probiotic Lactococcus lactis in drinking water to mouse dams from day 10.5 of gestation until pups reached postnatal day 1 (P1). Pups were assessed in a battery of behavioral tests starting at 10 weeks old. We found that females, but not males, exposed to probiotic during prenatal development spent more time in the center of the open field and displayed decreased freezing time in cue associated learning, compared to controls. Furthermore, we found that probiotic exposure changed the density of cortical neurons and increased the density of blood vessels in the cortical plate of P1 pups. Sex-specific differences were observed in the number of mitotic neural progenitor cells, which were increased in probiotic exposed female pups. In addition, we found that probiotic treatment in the latter half of pregnancy significantly increased plasma oxytocin levels in mouse dams, but not in the offspring. These results suggest that exposure of naïve, unstressed dams to probiotic may exert sex-specific long-term effects on cortical development and anxiety related behavior in the offspring.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactococcus lactis , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Contagem de Células , Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medo , Feminino , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/citologia , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais
17.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(1): 90-99, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621417

RESUMO

Neurons are the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. Precisely regulated dendrite morphogenesis is the basis of neural circuit assembly. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore the regulatory mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis. According to their action regions, we divide them into two categories: the intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of neuronal dendritic morphogenesis. Intrinsic factors are cell type-specific transcription factors, actin polymerization or depolymerization regulators and regulators of the secretion or endocytic pathways. These intrinsic factors are produced by neuron itself and play an important role in regulating the development of dendrites. The extrinsic regulators are either secreted proteins or transmembrane domain containing cell adhesion molecules. They often form receptor-ligand pairs to mediate attractive or repulsive dendritic guidance. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the intrinsic and external molecular mechanisms of dendrite morphogenesis from multiple model organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and mice. These studies will provide a better understanding on how defective dendrite development and maintenance are associated with neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Dendritos , Neurônios , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Camundongos , Morfogênese , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(2): 028101, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701351

RESUMO

We propose an analytically tractable neural connectivity model with power-law distributed synaptic strengths. When threshold neurons with biologically plausible number of incoming connections are considered, our model features a continuous transition to chaos and can reproduce biologically relevant low activity levels and scale-free avalanches, i.e., bursts of activity with power-law distributions of sizes and lifetimes. In contrast, the Gaussian counterpart exhibits a discontinuous transition to chaos and thus cannot be poised near the edge of chaos. We validate our predictions in simulations of networks of binary as well as leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. Our results suggest that heavy-tailed synaptic distribution may form a weakly informative sparse-connectivity prior that can be useful in biological and artificial adaptive systems.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Rede Nervosa/anatomia & histologia , Vias Neurais/anatomia & histologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Dinâmica não Linear
19.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510500

RESUMO

Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that neuro-immune interactions impact nervous system function in both homeostatic and pathologic conditions. A well-studied function of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) is the presentation of cell-derived peptides to the adaptive immune system, particularly in response to infection. More recently it has been shown that the expression of MHCI molecules on neurons can modulate activity-dependent changes in the synaptic connectivity during normal development and neurologic disorders. The importance of these functions to the brain health supports the need for a sensitive assay that readily detects MHCI expression on neurons. Here we describe a method for primary culture of murine hippocampal neurons and then assessment of MHCI expression by flow cytometric analysis. Murine hippocampus is microdissected from prenatal mouse pups at the embryonic day 18. Tissue is dissociated into a single cell suspension using enzymatic and mechanical techniques, then cultured in a serum-free media that limits growth of non-neuronal cells. After 7 days in vitro, MHCI expression is stimulated by treating cultured cells pharmacologically with beta interferon. MHCI molecules are labeled in situ with a fluorescently tagged antibody, then cells are non-enzymatically dissociated into a single cell suspension. To confirm the neuronal identity, cells are fixed with paraformaldehyde, permeabilized, and labeled with a fluorescently tagged antibody that recognizes neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN. MHCI expression is then quantified on neurons by flow cytometric analysis. Neuronal cultures can easily be manipulated by either genetic modifications or pharmacologic interventions to test specific hypotheses. With slight modifications, these methods can be used to culture other neuronal populations or to assess expression of other proteins of interest.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Hipocampo/citologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Hipocampo/embriologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/citologia
20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(13): 7119-7134, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542321

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) of the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system offers the unique opportunity to obtain a partial expression profile for each neuron within a known connectome. Building on recent scRNA-seq data and on a molecular atlas describing the expression pattern of ∼800 genes at the single cell resolution, we designed an iterative clustering analysis aiming to match each cell-cluster to the ∼100 anatomically defined neuron classes of C. elegans. This heuristic approach successfully assigned 97 of the 118 neuron classes to a cluster. Sixty two clusters were assigned to a single neuron class and 15 clusters grouped neuron classes sharing close molecular signatures. Pseudotime analysis revealed a maturation process occurring in some neurons (e.g. PDA) during the L2 stage. Based on the molecular profiles of all identified neurons, we predicted cell fate regulators and experimentally validated unc-86 for the normal differentiation of RMG neurons. Furthermore, we observed that different classes of genes functionally diversify sensory neurons, interneurons and motorneurons. Finally, we designed 15 new neuron class-specific promoters validated in vivo. Amongst them, 10 represent the only specific promoter reported to this day, expanding the list of neurons amenable to genetic manipulations.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Neurônios/classificação , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neurônios/citologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
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