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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1692-1709, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375587

RESUMO

Kainate receptors (KARs) are glutamate-gated cation channels with diverse roles in the central nervous system. Bi-allelic loss of function of the KAR-encoding gene GRIK2 causes a nonsyndromic neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) with intellectual disability and developmental delay as core features. The extent to which mono-allelic variants in GRIK2 also underlie NDDs is less understood because only a single individual has been reported previously. Here, we describe an additional eleven individuals with heterozygous de novo variants in GRIK2 causative for neurodevelopmental deficits that include intellectual disability. Five children harbored recurrent de novo variants (three encoding p.Thr660Lys and two p.Thr660Arg), and four children and one adult were homozygous for a previously reported variant (c.1969G>A [p.Ala657Thr]). Individuals with shared variants had some overlapping behavioral and neurological dysfunction, suggesting that the GRIK2 variants are likely pathogenic. Analogous mutations introduced into recombinant GluK2 KAR subunits at sites within the M3 transmembrane domain (encoding p.Ala657Thr, p.Thr660Lys, and p.Thr660Arg) and the M3-S2 linker domain (encoding p.Ile668Thr) had complex effects on functional properties and membrane localization of homomeric and heteromeric KARs. Both p.Thr660Lys and p.Thr660Arg mutant KARs exhibited markedly slowed gating kinetics, similar to p.Ala657Thr-containing receptors. Moreover, we observed emerging genotype-phenotype correlations, including the presence of severe epilepsy in individuals with the p.Thr660Lys variant and hypomyelination in individuals with either the p.Thr660Lys or p.Thr660Arg variant. Collectively, these results demonstrate that human GRIK2 variants predicted to alter channel function are causative for early childhood development disorders and further emphasize the importance of clarifying the role of KARs in early nervous system development.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Receptores de Ácido Caínico/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Epilepsia/patologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Conformação Proteica , Receptores de Ácido Caínico/química , Receptores de Ácido Caínico/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445125

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant brain disorder caused by mutant huntingtin (mHtt). Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, the mutational expansion of polyglutamine in mHtt is proposed to induce protein aggregates and neuronal toxicity. Previous studies have shown that the decreased insulin sensitivity is closely related to mHtt-associated impairments in HD patients. However, how mHtt interferes with insulin signaling in neurons is still unknown. In the present study, we used a HD cell model to demonstrate that the miR-302 cluster, an embryonic stem cell-specific polycistronic miRNA, is significantly downregulated in mHtt-Q74-overexpressing neuronal cells. On the contrary, restoration of miR-302 cluster was shown to attenuate mHtt-induced cytotoxicity by improving insulin sensitivity, leading to a reduction of mHtt aggregates through the enhancement of autophagy. In addition, miR-302 also promoted mitophagy and stimulated Sirt1/AMPK-PGC1α pathway thereby preserving mitochondrial function. Taken together, these results highlight the potential role of miR-302 cluster in neuronal cells, and provide a novel mechanism for mHtt-impaired insulin signaling in the pathogenesis of HD.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Doença de Huntington/genética , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Insulina/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/patologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitofagia/genética , Neurônios/patologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445248

RESUMO

The functional neural circuits are partially repaired after an ischemic stroke in the central nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, neurovascular units, including neurons, endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes maintain homeostasis; however, these cellular networks are damaged after an ischemic stroke. The present review discusses the repair potential of stem cells (i.e., mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial precursor cells, and neural stem cells) and gaseous molecules (i.e., nitric oxide and carbon monoxide) with respect to neuroprotection in the acute phase and regeneration in the late phase after an ischemic stroke. Commonly shared molecular mechanisms in the neurovascular unit are associated with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its related factors. Stem cells and gaseous molecules may exert therapeutic effects by diminishing VEGF-mediated vascular leakage and facilitating VEGF-mediated regenerative capacity. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the regeneration ability by which endogenous neural stem cells and endothelial cells produce neurons and vessels capable of replacing injured neurons and vessels in the CNS.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , AVC Isquêmico/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , AVC Isquêmico/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Células-Tronco/patologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445634

RESUMO

Cannabinoids have been reported as orexigenic, i.e., as promoting food intake that, among others, is controlled by the so-called "hunger" hormone, ghrelin. The aim of this paper was to look for functional and/or molecular interactions between ghrelin GHSR1a and cannabinoid CB2 receptors at the central nervous system (CNS) level. In a heterologous system we identified CB2-GHSR1a receptor complexes with a particular heteromer print consisting of impairment of CB2 receptor/Gi-mediated signaling. The blockade was due to allosteric interactions within the heteromeric complex as it was reverted by antagonists of the GHSR1a receptor. Cannabinoids acting on the CB2 receptor did not affect cytosolic increases of calcium ions induced by ghrelin acting on the GHSR1a receptor. In situ proximity ligation imaging assays confirmed the expression of CB2-GHSR1a receptor complexes in both heterologous cells and primary striatal neurons. We tested heteromer expression in neurons from offspring of high-fat-diet mouse mothers as they have more risk to be obese. Interestingly, there was a marked upregulation of those complexes in striatal neurons from siblings of pregnant female mice under a high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Grelina/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Obesidade/patologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Receptores de Grelina/metabolismo , Animais , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Feminino , Grelina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptores de Grelina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
5.
Life Sci ; 283: 119865, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358549

RESUMO

AIMS: Stroke has risen to the fifth and third most common causes of death in the United States and the rest of the world, respectively. Vortioxetine (VTX) is a multimodal antidepressant agent that balances 5-HT receptors and represses the serotonin transporter. Our study aimed to examine the neuroprotective impacts of VTX against cerebral ischemia caused by occluding the middle cerebral artery (MCA). MAIN METHODS: Until the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induction, VTX (10 mg/kg/day) was taken orally for 14 days. Behavioral assessments were carried out 24 h after the MCAO technique. The hippocampal and cortical tissues of the brain were isolated to assess the histological changes and the levels of the biochemical parameters. KEY FINDINGS: MCAO damage led to severe neurological deficits and histopathological damage. However, VTX improved MCAO-induced neurological deficits and ameliorated histopathological changes in both hippocampal and cortical tissues of MCAO rats. Western blot analysis showed increments of p-PERK, CHOP, ASK-1, NICD, HES-1, HES-5, and p-eIF2α expression levels in MCAO rats. Moreover, ELISA revealed an increase in the levels of ATF4, IRE1, Apaf-1, and HIF-1α, while VTX administration ameliorated most of these perturbations induced after MCAO injury. SIGNIFICANCE: This research suggests that VTX could be a potent neuroprotective agent against ischemic stroke by inhibiting a variety of oxidative, apoptotic, inflammatory, and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways.


Assuntos
Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Vortioxetina/farmacologia , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/metabolismo , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Masculino , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360675

RESUMO

In recent decades, interest in natural compounds has increased exponentially due to their numerous beneficial properties in the treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. A group of plant derivatives with great scientific interest is terpenic compounds. Among the plants richest in terpenes, the genus Ferula L. is one of the most representative, and ferutinin, the most common sesquiterpene, is extracted from the leaves, rhizome, and roots of this plant. As reported in the scientific literature, ferutinin possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as valuable estrogenic properties. Neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases are devastating conditions for which a definite cure has not yet been established. The mechanisms involved in these diseases are still poorly understood, and oxidative stress is considered to be both a key modulator and a common denominator. In the proposed experimental system, co-cultured human neurons (SH-SY5Y) and human oligodendrocytes (MO3.13) were treated with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide at a concentration of 1 µg/mL for 24 h or pretreated with ferutinin (33 nM) for 24 h and subsequently exposed to lipopolysaccharide 1 µg/mL for 24 h. Further studies would, however, be needed to establish whether this natural compound can be used as a support strategy in pathologies characterized by progressive inflammation and oxidative stress phenomena.


Assuntos
Benzoatos/farmacologia , Cicloeptanos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Cocultura , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360652

RESUMO

Recent studies implicate astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, their role in pathogenesis is poorly understood. Astrocytes have well-established functions in supportive functions such as extracellular ionic homeostasis, structural support, and neurovascular coupling. However, emerging research on astrocytic function in the healthy brain also indicates their role in regulating synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability via the release of neuroactive substances named gliotransmitters. Here, we review how this "active" role of astrocytes at synapses could contribute to synaptic and neuronal network dysfunction and cognitive impairment in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Astrócitos/patologia , Sinalização do Cálcio , Comunicação Celular , Neurônios/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371875

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been recognized to cause neurobehavioral dysfunctions and disorder of cognition and behavioral patterns in childhood. Momordica charantia L. (MC) has been widely known for its nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. To date, the effect of MC for the prevention and handling of PAHs-induced neurotoxicity has not been reported. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects of MC and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT22); moreover, in silico analysis was performed with the phytochemicals MC to decipher their potential function as neuroprotectants. MC was demonstrated to possess neuroprotective effect by reducing reactive oxygen species' (ROS') production and down-regulating cyclin D1, p53, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein expressions, resulting in the inhibition of cell apoptosis and the normalization of cell cycle progression. Additionally, 28 phytochemicals of MC and their competence on inhibiting cytochrome P450 (CYP: CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1) functions were resolved. In silico analysis of vitamin E and stigmasterol revealed that their binding to either CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 was more efficient than the binding of each positive control (alizarin or purpurin). Together, MC is potentially an interesting neuroprotectant including vitamin E and stigmasterol as probable active components for the prevention for PAHs-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica charantia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Estigmasterol/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Camundongos , Momordica charantia/química , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ligação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estigmasterol/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina E/isolamento & purificação
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371921

RESUMO

The study of different natural products can provide a wealth of bioactive compounds, and more interestingly, their combination can exert a new strategy for several neurodegenerative diseases with major public health importance, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the synergistic neuroprotective effects of a mixed extract composed of docosahexaenoic acid, Ginkgo biloba, D-pinitol, and ursolic acid in several transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and a senescence-accelerated prone mice 8 (SAMP8) model. First, we found a significantly higher survival percentage in the C. elegans group treated with the natural product mixture compared to the single extract-treated groups. Likewise, we found a significantly increased lifespan in group of C. elegans treated with the natural product mixture compared to the other groups, suggesting synergistic effects. Remarkably, we determined a significant reduction in Aß plaque accumulation in the group of C. elegans treated with the natural product mixture compared to the other groups, confirming synergy. Finally, we demonstrated better cognitive performance in the group treated with the natural product mixture in both AD models (neuronal Aß C. elegans strain CL2355 and the SAMP8 mice model), confirming the molecular results and unraveling the synergist effects of this combination. Therefore, our results proved the potential of this new natural product mixture for AD therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Longevidade , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Amiloide
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4863, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381050

RESUMO

Spreading of aggregate pathology across brain regions acts as a driver of disease progression in Tau-related neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia. Aggregate seeds released from affected cells are internalized by naïve cells and induce the prion-like templating of soluble Tau into neurotoxic aggregates. Here we show in a cellular model system and in neurons that Clusterin, an abundant extracellular chaperone, strongly enhances Tau aggregate seeding. Upon interaction with Tau aggregates, Clusterin stabilizes highly potent, soluble seed species. Tau/Clusterin complexes enter recipient cells via endocytosis and compromise the endolysosomal compartment, allowing transfer to the cytosol where they propagate aggregation of endogenous Tau. Thus, upregulation of Clusterin, as observed in AD patients, may enhance Tau seeding and possibly accelerate the spreading of Tau pathology.


Assuntos
Clusterina/metabolismo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Animais , Clusterina/genética , Progressão da Doença , Endocitose , Humanos , Camundongos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/patologia , Ligação Proteica , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/genética
11.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(3): 287-295, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390633

RESUMO

Objective: Decompression sickness (DCS) causes serious brain hypoxic-ischemic injury. This experiment was designed to observe whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) pretreatment played a neuroprotective effect in decompression sickness rat models and to explore the mechanism of protective effects. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were pretreated with HBO2 and then underwent decompression to establish the DCS rat model. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated by detecting peroxides (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in brains. The levels of metal elements manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg) in brain tissues were assessed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Necrosis and apoptosis of neurons were assessed by H-E staining and immunohistochemical staining. Results: HBO2 pretreatment reduced the degree of necrosis and apoptosis in brain tissues of decompression sickness rat models. In addition, HBO2 pretreatment increased GPx, SOD and CAT activities and reduced MDA accumulation. It also increased the content of Mn, Zn, Fe and Mg in brain tissue, which are all related to free radical metabolism. Conclusion: These results suggested that HBO2 pretreatment has protective effects on brain injury of rats with decompression sickness. The mechanism of the protective effects may be related to reducing oxidative damage by affecting metal elements in vivo.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença da Descompressão/complicações , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Animais , Apoptose , Encéfalo/patologia , Química Encefálica , Caspase 3/análise , Catalase/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Descompressão , Doença da Descompressão/metabolismo , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Magnésio/análise , Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Manganês/análise , Manganês/metabolismo , Necrose , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Zinco/análise , Zinco/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/análise
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361060

RESUMO

Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a serine-threonine kinase that phosphorylates various transcriptional and chromatin regulators, thus modulating numerous important cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, and oxidative stress. The role of HIPK2 in the pathogenesis of cancer and fibrosis is well established, and evidence of its involvement in the homeostasis of multiple organs has been recently emerging. We have previously demonstrated that Hipk2-null (Hipk2-KO) mice present cerebellar alterations associated with psychomotor abnormalities and that the double ablation of HIPK2 and its interactor HMGA1 causes perinatal death due to respiratory failure. To identify other alterations caused by the loss of HIPK2, we performed a systematic morphological analysis of Hipk2-KO mice. Post-mortem examinations and histological analysis revealed that Hipk2 ablation causes neuronal loss, neuronal morphological alterations, and satellitosis throughout the whole central nervous system (CNS); a myopathic phenotype characterized by variable fiber size, mitochondrial proliferation, sarcoplasmic inclusions, morphological alterations at neuromuscular junctions; and a cardiac phenotype characterized by fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These data demonstrate the importance of HIPK2 in the physiology of skeletal and cardiac muscles and of different parts of the CNS, thus suggesting its potential relevance for different new aspects of human pathology.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Fibrose/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose/metabolismo , Proteínas HMGA/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fosforilação
13.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103512, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurologic manifestations are well-recognized features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the longitudinal association of biomarkers reflecting CNS impact and neurological symptoms is not known. We sought to determine whether plasma biomarkers of CNS injury were associated with neurologic sequelae after COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with confirmed acute COVID-19 were studied prospectively. Neurological symptoms were recorded during the acute phase of the disease and at six months follow-up, and blood samples were collected longitudinally. Healthy age-matched individuals were included as controls. We analysed plasma concentrations of neurofilament light-chain (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp), and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15). FINDINGS: One hundred patients with mild (n = 24), moderate (n = 28), and severe (n = 48) COVID-19 were followed for a median (IQR) of 225 (187-262) days. In the acute phase, patients with severe COVID-19 had higher concentrations of NfL than all other groups (all p < 0·001), and higher GFAp than controls (p < 0·001). GFAp was also significantly increased in moderate disease (p < 0·05) compared with controls. NfL (r = 0·53, p < 0·001) and GFAp (r = 0·39, p < 0·001) correlated with GDF-15 during the acute phase. After six months, NfL and GFAp concentrations had normalized, with no persisting group differences. Despite this, 50 patients reported persistent neurological symptoms, most commonly fatigue (n = 40), "brain-fog" (n = 29), and changes in cognition (n = 25). We found no correlation between persistent neurological symptoms and CNS injury biomarkers in the acute phase. INTERPRETATION: The normalization of CNS injury biomarkers in all individuals, regardless of previous disease severity or persisting neurological symptoms, indicates that post COVID-19 neurological sequelae are not accompanied by ongoing CNS injury. FUNDING: The Swedish State Support for Clinical Research, SciLifeLab Sweden, and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation have provided funding for this project.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Astrócitos/virologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Idoso , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Suécia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360881

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major public health problem and devastating subtype of stroke with high morbidity and mortality. Notably, there is no effective treatment for ICH. Neuroinflammation, a pathological hallmark of ICH, contributes to both brain injury and repair and hence, it is regarded as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Recent studies document that microRNAs, small non-coding RNA molecules, can regulate inflammatory brain response after ICH and are viable molecular targets to alter brain function. Therefore, there is an escalating interest in studying the role of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of ICH. Herein, we provide, for the first time, an overview of the microRNAs that play roles in ICH-induced neuroinflammation and identify the critical knowledge gap in the field, as it would help design future studies.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Encefalite/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5080, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426574

RESUMO

Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) neurons that synthesize corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) drive binge alcohol drinking and anxiety. Here, we found that female C57BL/6J mice binge drink more than males and have greater basal BNSTCRF neuron excitability and synaptic excitation. We identified a dense VGLUT2 + synaptic input from the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) that releases glutamate directly onto BNSTCRF neurons but also engages a large BNST interneuron population to ultimately inhibit BNSTCRF neurons, and this polysynaptic PVTVGLUT2-BNSTCRF circuit is more robust in females than males. Chemogenetic inhibition of the PVTBNST projection promoted binge alcohol drinking only in female mice, while activation reduced avoidance behavior in both sexes. Lastly, repeated binge drinking produced a female-like phenotype in the male PVT-BNSTCRF excitatory synapse without altering the function of PVTBNST neurons per se. Our data describe a complex, feedforward inhibitory PVTVGLUT2-BNSTCRF circuit that is sex-dependent in its function, behavioral roles, and alcohol-induced plasticity.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/patologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Sistema Límbico/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Sinapses/patologia , Tálamo/patologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores , Integrases/metabolismo , Sistema Límbico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Núcleos Septais/patologia , Núcleos Septais/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Tálamo/fisiopatologia
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1669-1691, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314705

RESUMO

Transportin-2 (TNPO2) mediates multiple pathways including non-classical nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of >60 cargoes, such as developmental and neuronal proteins. We identified 15 individuals carrying de novo coding variants in TNPO2 who presented with global developmental delay (GDD), dysmorphic features, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and neurological features. To assess the nature of these variants, functional studies were performed in Drosophila. We found that fly dTnpo (orthologous to TNPO2) is expressed in a subset of neurons. dTnpo is critical for neuronal maintenance and function as downregulating dTnpo in mature neurons using RNAi disrupts neuronal activity and survival. Altering the activity and expression of dTnpo using mutant alleles or RNAi causes developmental defects, including eye and wing deformities and lethality. These effects are dosage dependent as more severe phenotypes are associated with stronger dTnpo loss. Interestingly, similar phenotypes are observed with dTnpo upregulation and ectopic expression of TNPO2, showing that loss and gain of Transportin activity causes developmental defects. Further, proband-associated variants can cause more or less severe developmental abnormalities compared to wild-type TNPO2 when ectopically expressed. The impact of the variants tested seems to correlate with their position within the protein. Specifically, those that fall within the RAN binding domain cause more severe toxicity and those in the acidic loop are less toxic. Variants within the cargo binding domain show tissue-dependent effects. In summary, dTnpo is an essential gene in flies during development and in neurons. Further, proband-associated de novo variants within TNPO2 disrupt the function of the encoded protein. Hence, TNPO2 variants are causative for neurodevelopmental abnormalities.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Carioferinas/genética , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , beta Carioferinas/genética , Proteína ran de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/metabolismo , Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/patologia , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Carioferinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Carioferinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/metabolismo , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/patologia , Mutação , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , beta Carioferinas/metabolismo , Proteína ran de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299412

RESUMO

Gintonin is a kind of ginseng-derived glycolipoprotein that acts as an exogenous LPA receptor ligand. Gintonin has in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective effects; however, little is known about the cellular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotection. In the present study, we aimed to clarify how gintonin attenuates iodoacetic acid (IAA)-induced oxidative stress. The mouse hippocampal cell line HT22 was used. Gintonin treatment significantly attenuated IAA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, ATP depletion, and cell death. However, treatment with Ki16425, an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, suppressed the neuroprotective effects of gintonin. Gintonin elicited [Ca2⁺]i transients in HT22 cells. Gintonin-mediated [Ca2⁺]i transients through the LPA1 receptor-PLC-IP3 signaling pathway were coupled to increase both the expression and release of BDNF. The released BDNF activated the TrkB receptor. Induction of TrkB phosphorylation was further linked to Akt activation. Phosphorylated Akt reduced IAA-induced oxidative stress and increased cell survival. Our results indicate that gintonin attenuated IAA-induced oxidative stress in neuronal cells by activating the LPA1 receptor-BDNF-TrkB-Akt signaling pathway. One of the gintonin-mediated neuroprotective effects may be achieved via anti-oxidative stress in nervous systems.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208178

RESUMO

The heat shock protein (HSP) 70 is considered the main hallmark in preclinical studies to stain the peri-infarct region defined area penumbra in preclinical models of brain ischemia. This protein is also considered as a potential disease modifier, which may improve the outcome of ischemic damage. In fact, the molecule HSP70 acts as a chaperonine being able to impact at several level the homeostasis of neurons. Despite being used routinely to stain area penumbra in light microscopy, the subcellular placement of this protein within area penumbra neurons, to our knowledge, remains undefined. This is key mostly when considering studies aimed at deciphering the functional role of this protein as a determinant of neuronal survival. The general subcellular placement of HSP70 was grossly reported in studies using confocal microscopy, although no direct visualization of this molecule at electron microscopy was carried out. The present study aims to provide a direct evidence of HSP70 within various subcellular compartments. In detail, by using ultrastructural morphometry to quantify HSP70 stoichiometrically detected by immuno-gold within specific organelles we could compare the compartmentalization of the molecule within area penumbra compared with control brain areas. The study indicates that two cell compartments in control conditions own a high density of HSP70, cytosolic vacuoles and mitochondria. In these organelles, HSP70 is present in amount exceeding several-fold the presence in the cytosol. Remarkably, within area penumbra a loss of such a specific polarization is documented. This leads to the depletion of HSP70 from mitochondria and mostly cell vacuoles. Such an effect is expected to lead to significant variations in the ability of HSP70 to exert its physiological roles. The present findings, beyond defining the neuronal compartmentalization of HSP70 within area penumbra may lead to a better comprehension of its beneficial/detrimental role in promoting neuronal survival.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Citosol/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Vacúolos/patologia
19.
Gene ; 799: 145811, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224829

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with motor symptoms linked to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. α-Synuclein is an aggregation-prone neural protein that plays a role in the pathogenesis of PD. In our previous paper, we found that saffron; the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae), and its constituents (crocin and crocetin) suppressed aggregation of α-synuclein and promoted the dissociation of α-synuclein fibrils in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary saffron and its constituent, crocetin, in vivo on a fly PD model overexpressing several mutant α-synuclein in a tissue-specific manner. Saffron and crocetin significantly suppressed the decrease of climbing ability in the Drosophila overexpressing A30P (A30P fly PD model) or G51D (G51D fly PD model) mutated α-synuclein in neurons. Saffron and crocetin extended the life span in the G51D fly PD model. Saffron suppressed the rough-eyed phenotype and the dispersion of the size histogram of the ocular long axis in the eye of A30P fly PD model. Saffron had a cytoprotective effect on a human neuronal cell line with α-synuclein fibrils. These data showed that saffron and its constituent crocetin have protective effects on the progression of PD disease in animals in vivo and suggest that saffron and crocetin can be used to treat PD.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacologia , Crocus/química , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mutação , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Vitamina A/farmacologia , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/toxicidade
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299057

RESUMO

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a peptide suggested to play a role in gastrointestinal tract tissue reaction to pathology. Gastric ulceration is a common disorder affecting huge number of people, and additionally, it contributes to the loss of pig livestock production. Importantly, ulceration as a focal disruption affecting deeper layers of the stomach wall differs from other gastrointestinal pathologies and should be studied individually. The pig's gastrointestinal tract, due to its many similarities to the human counterpart, provides a valuable experimental model for studying digestive system pathologies. To date, the role of CART in gastric ulceration and the expression of the gene encoding CART in porcine gastrointestinal tube are completely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to verify the changes in the CART expression by Q-PCR (gene encoding CART in the tissue) and double immunofluorescence staining combined with confocal microscopy (CART immunofluorescence in enteric nervous system) in the porcine stomach tissues adjacent to gastric ulcerations. Surprisingly, we found that gastric ulcer caused a significant decrease in the expression of CART-encoding gene and huge reduction in the percentage of CART-immunofluorescent myenteric perikarya and neuronal fibers located within the circular muscle layer. Our results indicate a unique CART-dependent gastric response to ulcer disease.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico/metabolismo , Plexo Mientérico/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Estômago/fisiologia , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/patologia , Feminino , Plexo Mientérico/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Suínos
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