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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e21433, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019381

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intradural schwannomas can occur at any level of the spine. According to the literature, approximately 8% of intradural schwannomas occur in the atlantoaxial spine, and these tumors are usually located in the posterolateral or lateral spinal cord. In contrast, tumors in the ventral midline of the spinal cord are relatively rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old female presented with progressively worsening neck pain and paresthesias in both upper and lower limbs for the past 5 years. DIAGNOSIS: Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and histopathological findings, she was diagnosed with ventral midline primary schwannoma of the cervical spinal cord. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with surgical resection. OUTCOMES: Follow-up visit at 2 years after the surgery showed that the patient is neurologically intact and free of disease. CONLUSION: In summary, for the tumors in the ventral midline of the atlantoaxial spinal cord, the preferred treatment is complete surgical resection by the posterior approach compared to the anterior approach, which often improves clinical symptoms or achieves a healing effect.


Assuntos
Neurilemoma/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Cervical/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Cervical/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cervicalgia/etiologia , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico , Neurilemoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/cirurgia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21603, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872015

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Schwannomas of the seminal vesicles are extremely rare, and only cases of single seminal vesicle schwannomas have been reported. Here, we report a case of multiple schwannoma of the seminal vesicle. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a rare case of multiple schwannoma of the seminal vesicle that occurred in a 48-year-old man during physical examination. Multiple mixed masses in the left region of the seminal vesicle were documented with transrectal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The patient presented no clinical symptoms, no family history of the disease and no history of genetic disease. DIAGNOSIS: Postoperative pathology revealed a diagnosis of seminal vesical schwannoma. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery to remove the mass. OUTCOMES: The patient recovered rapidly and the length of hospitalization was 6 days after operation. At present, there is no recurrence in 10 month follow up. LESSONS: Whether benign or malignant, single or multiple, schwannomas still need to be diagnosed by pathology because of the limitations of examination methods. Surgical resection is still the preferred treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Neurilemoma/patologia , Glândulas Seminais/patologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Glândulas Seminais/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21765, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957306

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neurogenic tumors are the most frequent neoplasms of the lower posterior mediastinum. Traditionally, lower posterior mediastinal tumors are excised by video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, the available robotic treatment for the lower posterior mediastinum tumors to date are rare. Herein, we report a case of a right lower posterior mediastinal tumors successfully treated with retroperitoneal robot-assisted surgery using a transdiaphragmatic approach. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 54-year-old male patient without any symptoms was admitted into our department with a right lower posterior mediastinal paravertebral tumor that was detected during a medical check-up. DIAGNOSIS: A right lower posterior mediastinal paravertebral tumor. INTERVENTIONS: Retroperitoneal robot-assisted resection using a transdiaphragmatic approach was performed. OUTCOMES: The patient was treated with retroperitoneal robot-assisted surgery using a transdiaphragmatic approach and remained disease-free throughout a 6-month follow-up. His postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathological examination revealed a benign schwannoma. CONCLUSION: Our initial experience showed that retroperitoneal robot-assisted resection of a lower posterior mediastinal tumor using a transdiaphragmatic approach is technically feasible and can be considered a potential alternative for either video-assisted thoracic surgery or a thoracotomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Mediastino/cirurgia , Neurilemoma/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias do Mediastino/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurilemoma/patologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22307, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957393

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Schwannoma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor composed of Schwann cells and caused by genetic mutation or deletion. It rarely occurs in seminal vesicles. The optimal therapic strategy for asymptomatic cases is still unclear. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 42-year-old man presented no clinical symptoms. A mass in his left seminal vesicle was found incidentally in a computed tomography scan and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy revealed the mass was schwannoma. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed as schwannoma of the seminal vesicle with no significant extension to the surrounding tissues. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans periodically to estimate the alteration of the lesion and further strategy. OUTCOMES: After 20-month follow-up, computed tomography scans showed no significant alteration to the lesion and no clinical symptoms were reported by the patient. LESSONS: Conservative strategy might be an effective treatment option for asymptomatic patients with seminal vesical schwannoma. The period of follow-up depends on the size of the tumor.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/terapia , Neurilemoma/terapia , Adulto , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias dos Genitais Masculinos/patologia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/patologia , Glândulas Seminais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Seminais/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(11): 921-922, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910042

RESUMO

A 55-year-old woman underwent FDG PET/CT to evaluate a pancreatic mass. The images showed elevated FDG activity in the uncinated process of the pancreas, suggestive of malignancy. However, pathological examination from the resected lesion demonstrated pancreatic schwannoma.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurilemoma/patologia , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21527, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756198

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Schwannoma is a tumor of the peripheral nervous system that originated in the Schwann cells of the neural sheath. Esophageal schwannomas are rare esophageal submucosal tumors, comprising approximately 2% of esophageal tumors. Since the symptoms, signs, and images of esophageal schwannoma are not specific, its preoperative diagnosis remains challenging. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 67-year-old woman visited our department with complaints of gradually developed dysphagia and dyspnea for 4 years. A chest computed tomography scan showed a well-demarcated, enhancing homogeneous tumor measuring 61 × 46 × 60 mm in the upper third of the esophagus. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a smooth elevated lesion located 19 to 24 cm from the incisor teeth. An endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration demonstrated the presence of benign spindle cells. DIAGNOSES: Histopathologic examination revealed spindle-shaped cells in a fasciculated and disarrayed architecture. The immunohistochemical study showed positivity for S-100 protein antibody and absence of staining for CD117, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and Desmin. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of benign esophageal schwannoma. INTERVENTIONS: The tumor was considered to be difficult to repair the esophagus by direct anastomosis after tumor resection. Therefore, subtotal esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy in the right thorax were performed. OUTCOMES: The patient has been doing well with no recurrence at 36 months after the operation. LESSONS: The symptoms and surgical procedures for benign esophageal schwannoma depend on the size and location of the tumor, proper and timely treatment is essential. A definitive diagnosis is confirmed by histology, and complete excision should yield good results.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neurilemoma/patologia , Idoso , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Neurilemoma/cirurgia
7.
J Card Surg ; 35(8): 2084-2086, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652658

RESUMO

Primary benign schwannomas of the heart are very rare. We report the case of a patient with a huge schwannoma of unique aortic origin. The complete resection of the rare tumor has been successfully performed. There is no recurrent tumor in the 5 years follow-up. We focus our attention on the surgical technique.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Neurilemoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Vasculares/cirurgia , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/patologia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Esternotomia/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Vasculares/patologia
8.
Oncogene ; 39(32): 5421-5429, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616891

RESUMO

Schwannomas are tumors of the peripheral nervous system, consisting of different cell types. These include tumorigenic Schwann cells, axons, macrophages, T cells, fibroblasts, blood vessels, and an extracellular matrix. All cell types involved constitute an intricate "tumor microenvironment" and play relevant roles in the development and progression of schwannomas. Although Nf2 tumor suppressor gene-deficient Schwann cells are the primary tumorigenic element and principle focus of current research efforts, evidence is accumulating regarding the contributory roles of other cell types in schwannoma pathology. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of intra- and intercellular mechanisms contributing to schwannoma formation. "Genes load the gun, environment pulls the trigger." -George A. Bray.


Assuntos
Neurilemoma/patologia , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Camundongos
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20940, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702833

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Schwannomas are mesenchymal tumors with low malignant potential that originate from Schwann cells. They can occur in most parts of the body, such as the head, neck, and extremities. Schwannoma in the hepatoduodenal ligament is extremely rare, and only four cases have been reported in the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein, we describe a 58-year-old female who presented with right epigastric pain for 10 days. Preoperative computed tomographic (CT) revealed a 4.5 cm × 3.8 cm tumor in the hepatic hilar area. DIAGNOSES: Schwannoma in the hepatoduodenal ligament with portal vein invasion. INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative findings revealed that the tumor was identified in the hepatoduodenal ligament, and the left branch of the portal vein was compressed. Complete tumor resection with reparation of the portal vein was performed for the patient. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the final diagnosis of benign schwannoma, characterized by abundant spindle-shaped cells and positive reactivity for S-100 protein. OUTCOMES: The patient had a good prognosis and had no recurrence after 37 months of follow-up. LESSONS: Our case of schwannoma in the hepatoduodenal ligament is unique owing to the portal vein invasion, aimed at helping recognize the difficulty of preoperative diagnosis.


Assuntos
Ligamentos/patologia , Neurilemoma/patologia , Omento/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Veia Porta/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ligamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamentos/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/cirurgia , Omento/diagnóstico por imagem , Omento/cirurgia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(10): 808-810, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604115

RESUMO

Schwannoma is a slow-growing benign tumor, which originates from Schwann cells and is usually asymptomatic. The most common sites of schwannomas are the head, neck, and extremities. However, a schwannoma located in the liver is extremely rare. Here, we report a 53-year-old woman with a hepatic lesion accidentally found by ultrasound. It was highly suggestive of hepatic cholangiocarcinoma by MRI. F-FDG PET/CT could not exclude hepatic malignant tumor due to its high metabolism. Finally, it was confirmed as hepatic schwannoma by postoperative pathology.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurilemoma/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório
11.
World Neurosurg ; 139: 31-38, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumors arising from oculomotor nerve are rare, with few cases reported in the literature. Generally, whereas schwannomas are well encapsulated tumors, neurofibromas tend to invade the entire nerve fibers. These differences influence surgical resection and neurological clinical outcome, with neurofibroma often requiring the sacrifice of the nerve. Accordingly, an incorrect preoperative diagnosis can lead to incomplete patient counseling before surgery. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report 2 cases: a patient with oculomotor schwannoma and a patient with oculomotor neurofibroma. After tumor resection, the patient with a diagnosis of schwannoma recovered with 3rd nerve palsy, while patient with the neurofibroma developed a complete oculomotor nerve deficit. For each patient, surgical strategy and neurological outcome are elucidated in relation with differences in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and histology. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an oculomotor neurofibroma. When an oculomotor nerve tumor is suspected, a careful preoperative evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging guides in distinguishing the different histology, in selecting the treatment strategy, and in correctly informing the patient on expected postoperative neurologic outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Nervos Cranianos/cirurgia , Neurilemoma/cirurgia , Neurofibroma/cirurgia , Doenças do Nervo Oculomotor/cirurgia , Adulto , Seio Cavernoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias dos Nervos Cranianos/complicações , Neoplasias dos Nervos Cranianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias dos Nervos Cranianos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neurilemoma/complicações , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/patologia , Neurofibroma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurofibroma/patologia , Doenças do Nervo Oculomotor/complicações , Doenças do Nervo Oculomotor/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Nervo Oculomotor/patologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento , Derivação Ventriculoperitoneal
12.
World Neurosurg ; 138: 440-443, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal schwannomas are benign nerve sheath neoplasms that constitute about 30% of extramedullary spinal cord tumors. They are usually small, well-encapsulated tumors with low mitotic activity and concurrently carry a low risk of recurrence. Here, we report a case of atypical histologic variant of spinal schwannoma that had higher cellular density, nuclear atypia, and lack of encapsulation. To our best knowledge, no such cases of this atypical variant with regards to lumbar spine have been reported in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old male had an incidental left-sided paraspinal mass discovered while undergoing workup for cholecystitis. On examination, the patient was neurologically intact. Imaging revealed the presence of a contrast-enhanced, partially cystic mass arising from the L3-4 intervertebral foramen and causing left psoas muscle displacement. A minimally invasive left L3-4 posterior extracavitary resection was done. Histopathologic examination revealed a partly unencapsulated tumor with higher than usual cellular density and nuclear atypia, resulting in a diagnosis of "atypical schwannoma." Imaging at 6 months' follow-up showed stable postsurgical changes and residual tumor with no evidence of progression/recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Atypical schwannoma has higher cellular density and nuclear atypia and lacks encapsulation. A review of the literature suggests an increased risk of recurrence when compared with typical variants, and complete tumor removal should be attempted.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Neurilemoma/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia , Idoso , Colecistite/complicações , Colecistite/diagnóstico por imagem , Forame Magno/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/patologia , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 114: 104408, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088190

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)1 and 2 signaling is a potent activator of tumor angiogenesis. Although the expressions of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were initially thought to be limited to the endothelial cells, it is now known that both the receptors are expressed in tumor cells. This is the first study wherein VEGFRs-positive tumor cells are quantitatively evaluated for brain tumors with upregulated VEGF/VEGFR signaling. The percentage of VEGFRs-positive tumor cells was quantitatively evaluated in various brain tumors (10 glioblastomas, 22 neurofibromatosis type 2 [NF2]-related schwannomas, 21 sporadic schwannomas, 27 chordomas, 36 meningiomas, 29 hemangioblastomas, 11 hemangiopericytoma, and 13 ependymomas) using immunohistochemistry. VEGF-A expression was also analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Double immunofluorescence staining using anti-PDGFR-ß and anti-CD34 antibody, microvessel density, and vessel diameter were analyzed to evaluate the vascular characteristics. Chordomas demonstrated an extremely higher percentage of VEGFR1 and VEGFR2-positive tumor cells than other tumors. In contrast, meningiomas and hemangiopericytomas showed few VEGFRs-positive tumor cells. The percentage of positive tumor cells in chordomas, hemangioblastomas, and NF2 schwannomas was associated with clinical courses, such as shorter progression free survival, and growth speed. Glioblastomas and NF2 schwannomas showed larger tumor vessels without pericyte coverage. The present study is the first to quantitatively analyze VEGFR1- and VEGFR2- positive tumor cells in various types of refractory brain tumors. This novel parameter significantly correlated with the progressive clinical courses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/classificação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Cordoma/genética , Cordoma/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Ependimoma/genética , Ependimoma/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Hemangioblastoma/genética , Hemangioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Meningioma/genética , Meningioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neurilemoma/genética , Neurilemoma/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
18.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(5): 1315-1320, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036512

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pelvic schwannomas are rare, mostly benign tumors. They are usually asymptomatic until their massive growth compresses adjacent organs. We describe the case of a 53-year-old man with a pelvic schwannoma who initially complained of constipation and urinary retention. AREAS COVERED: We analyzed the clinical presentation, histopathology, diagnostic imaging tools, and the treatment options for pelvic schwannomas, compared with the few other cases reported in the literature. EXPERT COMMENTARY: Pelvic schwannomas are masses that can grow to considerable size, producing symptoms over time. Due to their size and localization, surgery, although difficult, is the only available treatment.


Assuntos
Neurilemoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pélvicas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
World Neurosurg ; 137: 218-225, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This report presents the third case of trochlear schwannoma arising from the pineal region and the first case to be resected using a paramedian infratentorial supracerebellar approach. Schwannomas of cranial nerves have traditionally been thought to arise from the transitional point where the axonal envelopment switches from glial cells to Schwann cells; however, recent temporal bone histopathologic evidence from vestibular schwannomas challenges this view. Of the 38 cases of pathology-confirmed trochlear schwannoma in the literature, there are only 2 cases arising from the pineal region, where the nerve sheath transition zone is located. Here, we discuss an unusual case of trochlear schwannoma arising from this transition zone. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 65-year-old man was admitted to our institute after a traffic accident. He complained of headache and dizziness, and a computed tomography scan revealed an isodense mass in the pineal region with obstructive hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast showed an enhancing mass in the pineal region. The tumor was subtotally resected using a paramedian infratentorial supracerebellar approach, and pathology confirmed the diagnosis of trochlear schwannoma. CONCLUSIONS: Trochlear schwannoma should be considered when a mass is identified in the pineal region. This diagnosis should still be entertained for mass lesions along the free tentorial edge because the tumor may arise distant from the glial-Schwann transition zone located by the dorsal midbrain. We propose a treatment algorithm for this rare tumor that seeks to maximize functional outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Nervos Cranianos/cirurgia , Neurilemoma/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Glândula Pineal , Doenças do Nervo Troclear/cirurgia , Idoso , Angiografia Cerebral , Neoplasias dos Nervos Cranianos/complicações , Neoplasias dos Nervos Cranianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias dos Nervos Cranianos/patologia , Tontura/etiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neurilemoma/complicações , Neurilemoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurilemoma/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Doenças do Nervo Troclear/complicações , Doenças do Nervo Troclear/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Nervo Troclear/patologia
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