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2.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 36: 100637, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889546

RESUMO

Trauma experienced in early life has unique neurobehavioral outcomes related to later life psychiatric sequelae. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as critical, with trauma experienced within species-atypical aberrations in caregiving quality as particularly detrimental. Using data from primarily rodent models, we review the literature on the interaction between trauma and attachment in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver's presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. Together these data suggest that infant trauma processing and its enduring effects are impacted by both the immaturity of brain areas for processing trauma and the unique functioning of the early-life brain, which is biased towards forming robust attachments regardless of the quality of care. Understanding the critical role of the caregiver in further altering early life brain processing of trauma is important for developing age-relevant treatment and interventions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neurobiologia/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente
3.
Neurocirugía (Soc. Luso-Esp. Neurocir.) ; 30(1): 19-27, ene.-feb. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181457

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar el cambio del diagnóstico molecular sobre el histológico de una serie de tumores gliales al revisar el diagnóstico con la clasificación de la OMS de 2016. Materiales y métodos: Se realiza un estudio retrospectivo de los tumores gliales (oligodendrogliomas y astrocitomas) tratados en nuestro centro entre enero de 2012 y junio de 2016, y una revisión diagnóstica según su estudio molecular. Se lleva a cabo el análisis estadístico de variables epidemiológicas, histológicas y de genética molecular (mutaciones en IDH y presencia de codeleción 1p19q), variación en el diagnóstico al introducir la nueva clasificación tumoral e impacto clínico de dicha reclasificación. Resultados: De los 147 casos de tumores gliales revisados, se obtuvo el diagnóstico molecular en 74 casos (50,3%). En 23 casos (31%) cambió el diagnóstico, predominando en 20 (87%) el diagnóstico previo de oligodendroglioma (69,6% grado II y 17,4% grado III). Solo 3 de los 23 casos cambiaron de diagnóstico inicial astrocitario al oligodendroglial. Respecto al patrón molecular en estos 23 casos, se detectó IDH mutado en 16 (69,6%) y codeleción 1p19q negativa en 20 (87%). Según la estirpe celular, de los 27 oligodendrogliomas de esta serie, 20 (74%) cambiaron de diagnóstico por tener la codeleción negativa, pasando a ser astrocitomas. Se observó una tendencia a un mayor cambio de diagnóstico en pacientes jóvenes (<40 años), p=0,065, mayoritariamente con diagnóstico previo de oligodendrogliomas, sin relación con el sexo. Además, se detectó una mayor frecuencia de cambio de diagnóstico entre los tumores con IDH mutado (69,6%), p=0,003. Respecto a la supervivencia o el patrón clínico, no se detectaron cambios significativos entre los tumores con o sin cambio diagnóstico, a pesar de no recibir tratamiento de elección, tras un seguimiento medio de 16 meses, en probable relación con el bajo grado lesional. Conclusiones: Dentro del espectro de tumores astrocitarios y oligodendrogliales en nuestro centro, la clasificación diagnóstica con genética molecular evidencia importantes cambios respecto al diagnóstico morfológico. Estos cambios afectan especialmente a los diagnósticos previos de oligodendrogliomas y a los pacientes jóvenes en los casos revisados, y con patrones moleculares de mutación en la IDH y de ausencia de codeleción 1p19q. Si bien se pueden plantear dudas respecto a la clínica, el pronóstico y el tratamiento realizado en estos casos, se requieren estudios específicos en estos aspectos para lograr unas conclusiones apropiadas


Background and objectives: The aim of this project is to assess diagnostic reclassification based on molecular data over morphology in a series of glial tumours since the introduction of the 2016 WHO classification of brain tumours. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of glial tumours (oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas) treated in our centre between January 2012 and June 2016 in which a review of diagnosis was performed when molecular studies were added. Statistical analysis included evaluation of variables of epidemiology, morphology and molecular data (mainly IDH mutation and 1p19q codeletion), diagnostic changes after new classification was considered, and clinical impact in cases of diagnostic reclassification. Results: From a total of 147 glial tumours reviewed in our centre, molecular diagnosis was obtained in 74 cases (50.3%). Initial diagnosis changed in 23 cases (31%), and 20 (87%) of them had a prior histological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma (69.6% grade II - and 17.4% grade III). Only 3 of these 23 cases diagnosis changed from astrocytoma to oligodendroglioma. Among reclassified tumours, there was a common molecular pattern, as findings showed mutant IDH in 16 cases (69.6%) and no codeletion in 20 cases (87%). According to the cell of origin, of the whole group of 27 oligodendrogliomas in our series (reclassified and non-reclassifed), 20 cases (74%) became astrocytomas, despite typical oligodendroglial morphology, due to absence of 1p19q codeletion. There was a trend for diagnosis reclassification in younger patients (<40 years), P=.065, mainly in those with a prior diagnosis of oligodendroglioma, with no statistical differences based on gender or clinical data. Besides, reclassification was more common among tumours with mutant IDH (69.6%), P=.003, than those with wild type IDH. In terms of survival, despite receiving different treatments, no significant changes were detected between reclassified and non-reclassified tumours after a mean follow-up of 16 months, partly related to lower grade of these lesions. Conclusions: Within the spectrum of the glial tumours treated in our institution, this new classification including molecular genetics over morphological data has provided marked diagnostic changes. These changes appear mainly in tumours previously diagnosed as oligodendrogliomas and in younger patients, with molecular patterns of mutant IDH and 1p19q codeletion. Although diagnosis reclassification may affect clinic, prognosis or therapeutic management of these tumours, deeper and prospective studies on these specific aspects are needed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Glioma/classificação , Glioma/diagnóstico , Classificações em Saúde/métodos , Neurobiologia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Astrocitoma/diagnóstico , Sobrevivência , Algoritmos , Análise Estatística
4.
Rev Neurosci ; 30(3): 317-324, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205652

RESUMO

The concept of stress is a fundamental piece to understand how organisms can adapt to the demands produced by a continuously changing environment. However, modern lifestyle subjects humans to high levels of negative stress or distress, which increases the prevalence of mental illnesses. Definitely, stress has become the pandemic of the 21st century, a fact that demands a great intellectual effort from scientists to understand the neurobiology of stress. This review proposes an innovative point of view to understand that mood disorders and dementia have a common etiology in a stressful environment. We propose that distress produces sensory deprivation, and this interferes with the connection between the brain and the environment in which the subject lives. The auditory system can serve as an example to understand this idea. In this sense, distress impairs the auditory system and induces hearing loss or presbycusis at an early age; this can increase the cognitive load in stressed people, which can stimulate the development of dementia in them. On the other hand, distress impairs the auditory system and increases the excitability of the amygdala, a limbic structure involved in the emotional processing of sounds. A consequence of these alterations could be the increase in the persistence of auditory fear memory, which could increase the development of mood disorders. Finally, it is important to emphasize that stress is an evolutionary issue that is necessary to understand the mental health of humans in these modern times. This article is a contribution to this discussion and will provide insights into the origin of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Demência/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Animais , Atenção/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurobiologia/métodos
7.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(5): 175-186, 1 sept., 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175172

RESUMO

La ingesta de alcohol está facilitada por la relación con la conducta alimentaria, y ambas conductas están altamente influidas por situaciones de estrés y ansiedad. La desregulación de estos procesos puede llegar a situaciones patológicas, como la anorexia, la bulimia o la obesidad. Los elementos neurobiológicos que subyacen a este control no están completamente esclarecidos. El núcleo incertus (NI) en el tegmento pontino constituye un elemento común a la ingesta y a la adicción al alcohol. Las neuronas del NI utilizan como señalización el neuropéptido relaxina-3 (RLN3) y su receptor RXFP3. En esta revisión se analiza la participación del sistema NI-RLN3-RXFP3 en estas conductas bajo condiciones de ansiedad o estrés en modelos animales. La activación del NI tiene un efecto positivo sobre la ingesta (orexígeno) y desarrolla una respuesta amplia en la amígdala, donde se modulan los estados de ansiedad. La actividad de RLN3-RXFP3 en la amígdala podría afectar a la adicción al alcohol, ya que la aplicación del antagonista de RXFP3 en la amígdala extendida atenúa la recaída al alcohol inducida por el estrés. Los datos neuroanatómicos indican que el sistema NI-RLN3-RXFP3 actúa sobre la conducta de ingesta y adicción al alcohol mediante proyecciones paralelas a las vías canónicas mesolímbicas. Con ello, los datos en modelos animales indican que el sistema NI-RLN3-RXFP3 debería tenerse en cuenta como diana en el tratamiento futuro de trastornos de las conductas alimentarias y adictivas


Alcohol intake is facilitated by its relationship with eating behavior and both processes are highly influenced by situations of stress and anxiety. The dysregulation of these processes can reach pathological situations such as anorexia, bulimia or obesity. The neurobiological elements which underlie this control are not completely clarified. The nucleus incertus (NI) in the pontine tegmentum is a common element in the food intake and alcoholism. NI is characterized by using the neuropeptide relaxin-3 (RLN3) as transmitter and its receptor RXFP3. In the present review, we will analyze the participation of the NI-RLN3-RXFP3 system in these behaviors under conditions of anxiety or stress in animal models. The activation of NI has a positive effect on intake (orexigenic) and generates a wide response in the amygdala modulating anxiety states. The activity of RLN3-RXFP3 in the amygdala could affect alcohol addiction since the application of the RXFP3 antagonist in extended amygdala attenuates the relapse to alcohol induced by stress. The neuroanatomical data indicate that the NI-RLN3-RXFP3 system acts on the feeding behavior and alcohol intake by means of projections parallel to the canonical mesolimbic pathways. Thus, data in animal models indicate that the NI-RLN3-RXFP3 system should be taken into account as a target in the future treatment of disorders of eating and alcohol addictive behaviors


Assuntos
Humanos , Relaxina/uso terapêutico , Alcoolismo/terapia , Neuropeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Neurobiologia/métodos , Anorexia , Comportamento Aditivo , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico
8.
Cognition ; 180: 135-157, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053570

RESUMO

Recent decades have ushered in tremendous progress in understanding the neural basis of language. Most of our current knowledge on language and the brain, however, is derived from lab-based experiments that are far removed from everyday language use, and that are inspired by questions originating in linguistic and psycholinguistic contexts. In this paper we argue that in order to make progress, the field needs to shift its focus to understanding the neurobiology of naturalistic language comprehension. We present here a new conceptual framework for understanding the neurobiological organization of language comprehension. This framework is non-language-centered in the computational/neurobiological constructs it identifies, and focuses strongly on context. Our core arguments address three general issues: (i) the difficulty in extending language-centric explanations to discourse; (ii) the necessity of taking context as a serious topic of study, modeling it formally and acknowledging the limitations on external validity when studying language comprehension outside context; and (iii) the tenuous status of the language network as an explanatory construct. We argue that adopting this framework means that neurobiological studies of language will be less focused on identifying correlations between brain activity patterns and mechanisms postulated by psycholinguistic theories. Instead, they will be less self-referential and increasingly more inclined towards integration of language with other cognitive systems, ultimately doing more justice to the neurobiological organization of language and how it supports language as it is used in everyday life.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Linguagem , Neurobiologia/tendências , Psicolinguística/tendências , Humanos , Neurobiologia/métodos , Psicolinguística/métodos
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 105: 1205-1222, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021357

RESUMO

The brain is a vital organ, susceptible to alterations under genetic influences and environmental experiences. Social isolation (SI) acts as a stressor which results in alterations in reactivity to stress, social behavior, function of neurochemical and neuroendocrine system, physiological, anatomical and behavioral changes in both animal and humans. During early stages of life, acute or chronic SIS has been proposed to show signs and symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy and memory loss. Exposure to social isolation stress induces a variety of endocrinological changes including the activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, culminating in the release of glucocorticoids (GCs), release of catecholamines, activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, release of Oxytocin and vasopressin. In several regions of the central nervous system (CNS), SIS alters the level of neurotransmitter such as dopamine, serotonin, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, nitrergic system and adrenaline as well as leads to alteration in receptor sensitivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and opioid system. A change in the function of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory factors, neurotrophins and neurotrophicfactors (NTFs), early growth response transcription factor genes (Egr) and C-Fos expression are also involved as a pathophysiological consequences of SIS which induce neurological and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Neurobiologia/métodos
10.
Cell ; 174(3): 505-520, 2018 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30053424

RESUMO

Although gene discovery in neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and Tourette disorder, has accelerated, resulting in a large number of molecular clues, it has proven difficult to generate specific hypotheses without the corresponding datasets at the protein complex and functional pathway level. Here, we describe one path forward-an initiative aimed at mapping the physical and genetic interaction networks of these conditions and then using these maps to connect the genomic data to neurobiology and, ultimately, the clinic. These efforts will include a team of geneticists, structural biologists, neurobiologists, systems biologists, and clinicians, leveraging a wide array of experimental approaches and creating a collaborative infrastructure necessary for long-term investigation. This initiative will ultimately intersect with parallel studies that focus on other diseases, as there is a significant overlap with genes implicated in cancer, infectious disease, and congenital heart defects.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Neurobiologia/métodos , Neuropsiquiatria
11.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 24(3, BEHAVIORAL NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY): 873-892, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851883

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The goal of this article is to increase clinicians' understanding of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and improve skills in assessing risk for and diagnosing PTSD. The importance and sequelae of lifetime trauma burden are discussed, with reference to trends in prevention, early intervention, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: PTSD has different clinical phenotypes, which are reflected in the changes in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. PTSD is almost always complicated by comorbidity. Treatment requires a multimodal approach, usually including medication, different therapeutic techniques, and management of comorbidity. Interest is growing in the neurobiology of childhood survivors of trauma, intergenerational transmission of trauma, and long-term impact of trauma on physical health. Mitigation of the risk of PTSD pretrauma in the military and first responders is gaining momentum, given concerns about the cost and disability associated with PTSD. Interest is also growing in screening for PTSD in medical populations, with evidence of improved clinical outcomes. Preliminary research supports the treatment of PTSD with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. SUMMARY: PTSD is a trauma-related disorder with features of fear and negative thinking about the trauma and the future. Untreated, it leads to ongoing disruption of life due to avoidance, impaired vocational and social functioning, and other symptoms, depending on the phenotype. Despite a theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms, PTSD remains challenging to treat, although evidence exists for benefit of pharmacologic agents and trauma-focused therapies. A need still remains for treatments that are more effective and efficient, with faster onset.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurobiologia/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Neuropsiquiatr ; 38(133): 301-330, ene.-jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174220

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar en profundidad la evolución del diagnóstico y las alternativas actuales de tratamiento del TDAH, prestando atención a los argumentos del modelo neurobiológico, los datos estadísticos, distintos aspectos de eficacia y seguridad, las tendencias en población adulta y las alternativas de abordaje no farmacológico. Métodos: Búsqueda bibliográfica actualizada a diciembre de 2017 sobre TDAH y términos asociados en Medline y Cochrane Library, ampliada a guías clínicas (NICE, Guía Española), bases de datos de agencias reguladoras (AEMPS, EMA, FDA) y otras fuentes de información complementaria (boletines de fármacos, medios de comunicación, webs). Se solicitaron datos de prescripción al Departamento de Salud del Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea (SNS-O) y de consumo farmacéutico nacional a la Dirección General de Cartera Básica de Servicios del Sistema Nacional de Salud. Resultados y conclusiones: El TDAH se presenta como un fenómeno con prevalencia variable y consumo de fármacos creciente. La evolución de su constructo ha experimentado cambios sustanciales, permaneciendo desconocida su etiología. Los argumentos a favor de una hipótesis biológica son poco consistentes y, a falta de marcadores biológicos fiables, las escalas de síntomas no se correlacionan bien con la funcionalidad de los individuos. La terapia no farmacológica merece ser mejor investigada, destacando la terapia conductual por su potencial utilidad. Los medicamentos podrían aportar cierta eficacia en síntomas a corto plazo, sin garantía de mejora en variables relevantes a largo plazo. Crecen los tratamientos en población adulta y se reemplaza progresivamente el metilfenidato por la lisdexanfetamina. Destacan los efectos adversos cardiovasculares, psiquiátricos y endocrinos. De acuerdo con la medicina basada en la prudencia, deberían considerarse un recurso de uso breve y excepcional


Objective:To carry out an in-depth analysis of the evolution and current management of ADHD, paying attention to the neurobiological model narrative, statistical data, information on drug efficacy and safety, trends in adult population and non-pharmacological alternatives. Methods: A bibliographical search was carried out (December 2017) on ADHD and associated trends through Medline and the Cochrane Library. Clinical practice guidelines (NICE, Spanish guideline), regulatory agencies databases (Spanish Medicines Agency, EMA, FDA) and other complementary sources of information (drug bulletins, news media, websites) were also explored. Moreover, data on drug prescription and national consumption were requested from the Health Department of Navarre and the Department of Basic Common Services Portfolio (Ministry of Health). Results/Conclusions:ADHD is a phenomenon of variable prevalence and increasing drug consumption. The evolution of the ADHD concept has constantly changed in a substantial way and its etiology remains unknown. Arguments in favour of a biologic hypothesis lack consistency and no reliable biological markers have been found. Symptom-based scales are poorly correlated with relevant dysfunction outcomes. More and better designed research studies are expected on non-pharmacological therapies, playing behavioural therapy a lead role because of its potential usefulness. Drug treatment might provide some efficacy in the short term, with no clear improvement in long-term relevant outcomes. While adults are increasingly diagnosed and treated for ADHD, methylphenidate seems to be gradually replaced by lisdexamfetamine. Cardiovascular psychiatric and endocrine adverse events should be closely monitored. According to a prudence-based medicine approach, drugs should always be considered as a short and exceptional help


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/uso terapêutico , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/uso terapêutico , Guanfacina/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Neurobiologia/métodos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/história , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/tendências
13.
Int J Eat Disord ; 51(8): 863-869, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Novel treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) are lacking. Recent scientific advances have identified neurobiologically-driven temperament contributors to AN symptoms that may guide development of more effective treatments. This preliminary study evaluates the acceptability, feasibility and possible benefits of a multicenter open trial of an intensive 5-day neurobiologically-informed multifamily treatment for adults with AN and their supports (SU). The temperament-focused treatment combines psychoeducation of AN neurobiology and SU involvement to develop skills to manage traits contributing to disease chronicity. METHOD: Fifty-four adults with AN and at least one SU (n = 73) received the 5-day treatment. Acceptability, feasibility, and attrition were measured post-treatment. Clinical outcome (BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, family function) was assessed post-treatment and at >3-month follow-up. RESULTS: The treatment had low attrition, with only one drop-out. Patients and SU rated the intervention as highly acceptable, and clinicians reported good feasibility. At post-treatment, patients demonstrated significantly increased BMI, reduced eating disorder psychopathology, and improved family function. Benefits were maintained in the 39 patients who completed follow-up assessment, with 62% reporting full or partial remission. DISCUSSION: Preliminary results are promising and suggest this novel treatment is feasible and acceptable. To establish treatment efficacy, fully-powered randomized controlled trials are necessary.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Neurobiologia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 20(6): 39, 2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777319

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD. Sex differences in brain neurocircuitry, anatomy, and neurobiological processes, such as those involved in learning and memory, are discussed as they have been implicated in risk and resilience for the development of PTSD. Gonadal and stress hormones have been found to modulate sex differences in the neurocircuitry and neurochemistry underlying fear learning and extinction. Preclinical research has not consistently controlled for hormonal and reproductive status of rodents nor have clinical studies consistently examined these factors as potential moderators of risk for PTSD. Sex as a biological variable (SABV) should be considered, in addition to the endocrine and reproductive status of participants, in all stress physiology and PTSD research.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neurobiologia/métodos , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1771: 147-157, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633211

RESUMO

Substrate-integrated multielectrode arrays (MEAs) enable multisite, long-term, and label-free sensing and actuation of neuronal electrical signals in reduced cell culture models for network electrophysiology. Conventional, thin-film fabricated passive MEAs typically provide a few tens of electrode sites. New generations of active CMOS-based high-resolution arrays provide the capabilities of simultaneous recordings from thousands of neurons over fields of view of several square millimeters, yet allowing extracellular electrical imaging to be achieved down to the subcellular scale. In turn, such advancement in chip-based electrical readouts can significantly complement recently developed biotechnological and bimolecular techniques for neurobiology applications. Here, we describe (1) a simple method to fabricate passive MEAs and (2) protocols for preparing and growing primary rat hippocampal neuronal cultures and human iPS-derived neurons on MEAs. The aim is to provide reliable protocols for initiating the reader to this technology and for stimulating their further development and experimental use in neurobiology.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Microeletrodos , Neurobiologia/métodos , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ratos , Análise Serial de Tecidos/instrumentação
17.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 50: 83-91, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427808

RESUMO

With the ability to correct for the aberrations introduced by biological specimens, adaptive optics-a method originally developed for astronomical telescopes-has been applied to optical microscopy to recover diffraction-limited imaging performance deep within living tissue. In particular, this technology has been used to improve image quality and provide a more accurate characterization of both structure and function of neurons in a variety of living organisms. Among its many highlights, adaptive optical microscopy has made it possible to image large volumes with diffraction-limited resolution in zebrafish larval brains, to resolve dendritic spines over 600µm deep in the mouse brain, and to more accurately characterize the orientation tuning properties of thalamic boutons in the primary visual cortex of awake mice.


Assuntos
Microscopia , Neurobiologia/instrumentação , Neurobiologia/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Óptica e Fotônica , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Dendritos/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Larva , Neurônios/citologia , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483352

RESUMO

Temperament of healthy people and mental illnesses, particularly affective disorders, have been conjectured to lie along a continuum of neurobehavioural regulation. Understanding the nature of this continuum may better inform the construction of taxonomies for both categories of behaviour. Both temperament and mental illness refer to patterns of behaviour that manifest over long time scales (weeks to years) and they appear to share many underlying neuroregulatory systems. This continuum is discussed from the perspectives of nonlinear dynamical systems theory, neurobiology and psychiatry as applied to understanding such multiscale time-series behaviour. Particular emphasis is given to issues of generativity, fungibility, metastability, non-stationarity and contextuality. Implications of these dynamical properties for the development of taxonomies will be discussed. Problems with the over-reliance of psychologists on statistical and mathematical methods in deriving their taxonomies (particularly those based on factor analysis) will be discussed from a dynamical perspective. An alternative approach to temperament based upon functionality, and its discriminative capabilities in mental illness, is presented.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos Afetivos/psicologia , Individualidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Neurobiologia/métodos , Psiquiatria/métodos , Temperamento/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Neurobiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica não Linear , Psiquiatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Teoria de Sistemas , Terminologia como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Health Commun ; 33(8): 1004-1012, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622027

RESUMO

This study examined the neural basis of processing high- and low-message sensation value (MSV) antidrug public service announcements (PSAs) in high (HSS) and low sensation seekers (LSS) using fMRI. HSS more strongly engaged the salience network when processing PSAs (versus LSS), suggesting that high-MSV PSAs attracted their attention. HSS and LSS participants who engaged higher level cognitive processing regions reported that the PSAs were more convincing and believable and recalled the PSAs better immediately after testing. In contrast, HSS and LSS participants who strongly engaged visual attention regions for viewing PSAs reported lower personal relevance. These findings provide neurobiological evidence that high-MSV content is salient to HSS, a primary target group for antidrug messages, and additional cognitive processing is associated with higher perceived message effectiveness.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neurobiologia/métodos , Comunicação Persuasiva , Anúncios de Utilidade Pública como Assunto , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurosci Lett ; 679: 15-23, 2018 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29107087

RESUMO

Animal toxins are traditional and indispensible molecular tools that find application in different fields of biochemistry, neurobiology and pharmacology. These compounds possess several outstanding properties such as high affinity and selectivity with respect to particular molecular targets, most importantly ion channels and neuroreceptors, and stability. In addition to using toxins per se, a wide variety of labelled modifications have been obtained including radioactive and fluorescent derivatives. Here, we discuss the major types of labelled toxins, methods of their production and principal possibilities of application ranging from receptor localization and visualization to development of screening systems and diagnostic tools, and drug discovery.


Assuntos
Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Neurobiologia/métodos , Neurotoxinas/química , Neurotoxinas/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Halogenação/efeitos da radiação , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo
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