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1.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(9): 675-680, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550857

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the inhibitory effect of programmed cell death factor 4 (PDCD4) on arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3))-induced cell growth and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in neuroblastoma. Methods: The PDCD4 overexpression vector was transfected into neuroblastoma cells and detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot. As(2)O(3) was used to treat PDCD4 overexpressing neuroblastoma cells. MTT assay was used to measure the proliferation. Colony formation assay was used to determine the cell clone forming ability. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to detect the expression of NF-κB p65 and cleaved caspase-3 protein in cells. Results: The transfection of PDCD4 overexpression vector significantly increased the expression level of PDCD4 in neuroblastoma cells. The cell survival rates of the control group, PDCD4 group, As(2)O(3) group and As(2)O(3)+ PDCD4 group were 100%, (72.14±5.20)%, (62.58±3.14)% and (40.87±2.47)%, respectively. The colony formation rates in these four groups were (91.25±8.36)%, (65.32±7.14)%, (57.23±5.28)% and (37.14±3.64)%, respectively. In addition, the cell apoptotic rates of these four groups were (3.57±0.24)%, (28.64±3.20)%, (36.41±4.58)% and (49.65±5.27)%, respectively. Therefore, overexpression of PDCD4 in the absence or presence of As(2)O(3) inhibited cell proliferation and clone formation ability, while promoted apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 in the control group, PDCD4 group, As(2)O(3) group and As(2)O(3)+ PDCD4 group were 0.21±0.03, 0.30±0.02, 0.43±0.05 and 0.57±0.06, respectively. And the expression levels of NF-κB p65 protein were 0.68±0.04, 0.52±0.03, 0.43±0.04, and 0.32±0.02, respectively. Compared with the control group, the expression levels of NF-κB p65 protein in PDCD4 group, As(2)O(3) group and As(2)O(3)+ PDCD4 group were significantly decreased (P<0.05), whereas the expression level of cleaved Caspase-3 protein was significantly increased (P<0.05). The changes in As(2)O(3)+ PDCD4 group were more significant than those in PDCD4 group and As(2)O(3) groups (both P<0.05). Conclusion: PDCD4 enhances the inhibitory effect of As(2)O(3) on the growth and NF-κB signaling pathway in neuroblastoma cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Trióxido de Arsênio/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/fisiologia , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1161: 89-100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562624

RESUMO

The importance of prostaglandin E2 in cancer progression is well established, but research on its role in cancer has so far mostly been focused on epithelial cancer in adults while the knowledge about the contribution of prostaglandin E2 to childhood malignancies is limited. Neuroblastoma, an extracranial solid tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, mainly affects young children. Patients with tumors classified as high-risk have poor survival despite receiving intensive treatment, illustrating a need for new treatments complimenting existing ones. The basis of neuroblastoma treatment e.g. chemotherapy and radiation therapy, target the proliferating genetically unstable tumor cells leading to treatment resistance and relapses. The tumor microenvironment is an avenue, still to a great extent, unexplored and lacking effective targeted therapies. Cancer-associated fibroblasts is the main source of prostaglandin E2 in neuroblastoma contributing to angiogenesis, immunosuppression and tumor growth. Prostaglandin E2 is formed from its precursor arachidonic acid in a two-step enzymatic reaction. Arachidonic acid is first converted by cyclooxygenases into prostaglandin H2 and then further converted by microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 into prostaglandin E2. We believe targeting of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in cancer-associated fibroblasts will be an effective future therapeutic strategy in fighting neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona , Neuroblastoma , Prostaglandina-E Sintases , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/enzimologia , Neuroblastoma/fisiopatologia , Prostaglandina-E Sintases/metabolismo , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(4): 280-283, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487248

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the outcome of patients under 18 months diagnosed with neuroblastoma. Between April 2006 and December 2013, 45 consecutive patients followed in Hospital de Pediatría Garrahan, were retrospectively reviewed. With a median age of 9.3 months (1-18 months) N-myc amplification was detected in 5 out of 38 patients, 1p deletion (del1p) in 4 patients, and 11q aberration in one patient. With a median follow-up of 53 (range: 6-109 months), at 24 months the event free survival (EFS) of all patients was 83% (SE 6%) and overall survival (OS) of 88% (SE 5%). Significant difference was found in OS and EFS between patients with stages L1, L2 and Ms vs. stage M (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01 respectively). EFS for each stage: L1 85% (SE 7%), L2 100%, MS 100%, vs. M 55% (SE 16%). OS: L1 90% (SE 6%), L2 100%, MS 100%, vs. M 66% (SE 15%). OS and EFS results are similar to those reported in international studies. However, better identification of biological prognostic factors will warr ant accurate staging and consequently an appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neuroblastoma/diagnóstico , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neuroblastoma/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
JAMA ; 322(8): 746-755, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454045

RESUMO

Importance: Induction chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplant and subsequent antidisialoganglioside antibody immunotherapy is standard of care for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma, but survival rate among these patients remains low. Objective: To determine if tandem autologous transplant improves event-free survival (EFS) compared with single transplant. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial from November 2007 to February 2012 at 142 Children's Oncology Group centers in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Australia, and New Zealand. A total of 652 eligible patients aged 30 years or younger with protocol-defined high-risk neuroblastoma were enrolled and 355 were randomized. The final date of follow-up was June 29, 2017, and the data analyses cut-off date was June 30, 2017. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive tandem transplant with thiotepa/cyclophosphamide followed by dose-reduced carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan (n = 176) or single transplant with carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan (n = 179). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was EFS from randomization to the occurrence of the first event (relapse, progression, secondary malignancy, or death from any cause). The study was designed to test the 1-sided hypothesis of superiority of tandem transplant compared with single transplant. Results: Among the 652 eligible patients enrolled, 297 did not undergo randomization because they were nonrandomly assigned (n = 27), ineligible for randomization (n = 62), had no therapy (n = 1), or because of physician/parent preference (n = 207). Among 355 patients randomized (median diagnosis age, 36.1 months; 152 [42.8%] female), 297 patients (83.7%) completed the study and 21 (5.9%) were lost to follow-up after completing protocol therapy. Three-year EFS from the time of randomization was 61.6% (95% CI, 54.3%-68.9%) in the tandem transplant group and 48.4% (95% CI, 41.0%-55.7%) in the single transplant group (1-sided log-rank P=.006). The median (range) duration of follow-up after randomization for 181 patients without an event was 5.6 (0.6-8.9) years. The most common significant toxicities following tandem vs single transplant were mucosal (11.7% vs 15.4%) and infectious (17.9% vs 18.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients aged 30 years or younger with high-risk neuroblastoma, tandem transplant resulted in a significantly better EFS than single transplant. However, because of the low randomization rate, the findings may not be representative of all patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00567567.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Indução , Neuroblastoma/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Transplante Autólogo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3487-3492, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite intensive chemotherapy, the survival rates for high-risk neuroblastoma, most of which have MYCN amplification, remain low. Overexpression of N-myc oncoprotein promotes expression of cancer-associated properties. We recently found that combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with the ß1-integrin-activating peptide TNIIIA2 attenuated cancer-associated properties of neuroblastoma cells through N-Myc degradation. However, ATRA has serious side-effects and there are concerns about late adverse effects. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the combination of acyclic retinoid (ACR) with TNIIIA2 on neuroblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of ACR and TNIIIA2 were examined by neuroblastoma cell proliferation and survival assays as well as by using a neuroblastoma xenograft model. The levels of N-Myc and cancer-associated malignant properties were assayed by western blot and colony formation assay, respectively. RESULTS: Combining ACR, which is clinically safe, with TNIIIA2 induced proteasomal degradation of N-Myc and reduction of neuroblastoma cell malignant properties. An in vivo experiment showed therapeutic potential. CONCLUSION: ACR-TNIIIA2 combination treatment may be efficacious and clinical safe chemotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Tenascina/uso terapêutico , Tretinoína/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fenótipo , Tenascina/farmacologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3579-3584, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood; treatments with greater effectiveness are required for NB, especially in advanced cases. This study aimed at evaluating the combined effect of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor alectinib and histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat on NB cell lines harboring wild-type or mutated ALK. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Protein expression was analyzed using western blotting. RESULTS: Combination treatment with alectinib and vorinostat had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of the NB cell line with ALK R1275Q mutation. Cleavage of caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase increased, indicating enhanced caspase-dependent apoptosis. In addition, this combination reduced the protein levels of MYCN proto-oncogene and nuclear factor kappa B, both of which are important for NB tumorigenesis and progression. CONCLUSION: Combined treatment with alectinib and vorinostat might be a novel therapeutic option for NB harboring the ALK R1275Q mutation.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/antagonistas & inibidores , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Mutação , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo
7.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3595-3599, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Activation of AKT serine/ threonine kinase (AKT) predicts poor outcome in neuroblastoma, which highlights the potential of the AKT pathway as a promising target for neuroblastoma treatment. Several studies reported that blockade of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) reduces proliferation in glioblastoma or lung cancer by inhibiting AKT and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathways. In this study, we examined the effect of the AMPAR antagonist perampanel on human neuroblastoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation, caspase activity, and western blot assays were performed to determine the effect of perampanel on the KP-N-SI9s human neuroblastoma cell line. RESULTS: Perampanel inhibited cell proliferation without triggering apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. Down-regulation of AKT protein levels, AKT phosphorylation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were also observed in neuroblastoma cells with perampanel treatment. CONCLUSION: Perampanel inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation through down-regulation of AKT and ERK pathways and has potential for the treatment of neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Piridonas/farmacologia , Receptores de AMPA/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3687-3695, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the main solid extracranial tumor of childhood. The amplification of N-myc oncogene (MYCN) and 1p deletion are the main molecular alterations. These features are what make treatment impossible, especially in high-risk patients with metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study investigated the processes undergone by CHP-212 neuroblastoma cells, after being treated with Casiopeínas® (Cas) IIgly, IIIEa, and IIIia for 2, 10, and 24 h. RESULTS: At 2 h, all the treatments Ied to apoptosis [defined by the presence of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), BCL2-associated X protein, cytochrome c, and caspase-3]. In addition, autophagy with specific molecules beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I (ratio >1). Later at 10 h, autophagy-associated proteins were observed, and at 24 h, only survival proteins nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)2/ERK1>1 were found. Another relevant finding was the presence of caspase-10 throughout the study, especially in cells treated with CasIIgly and CasIIIEa. CONCLUSION: These relationships indicate a possible mechanism of action of Casiopeínas on neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Fenantrolinas/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromos c/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo
9.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 258-280, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although neuroblastoma is a heterogeneous cancer, a substantial portion overexpresses CD71 (transferrin receptor 1) and MYCN. This study provides a mechanistically driven rationale for a combination therapy targeting neuroblastomas that doubly overexpress or have amplified CD71 and MYCN. For this subset, CD71 was targeted by its natural ligand, gambogic acid (GA), and MYCN was targeted with an HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat. A combination of GA and vorinostat was then tested for efficacy in cancer and non-cancer cells. METHODS: Microarray analysis of cohorts of neuroblastoma patients indicated a subset of neuroblastomas overexpressing both CD71 and MYCN. The viability with proliferation changes were measured by MTT and colony formation assays in neuroblastoma cells. Transfection with CD71 or MYCN along with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect expression changes. For pathway analysis, gene ontology (GO) and Protein-protein interaction analyses were performed to evaluate the potential mechanisms of GA and vorinostat in treated cells. RESULTS: For both GA and vorinostat, their pathways were explored for specificity and dependence on their targets for efficacy. For GA-treated cells, the viability/proliferation loss due to GA was dependent on the expression of CD71 and involved activation of caspase-3 and degradation of EGFR. It relied on the JNK-IRE1-mTORC1 pathway. The drug vorinostat also reduced cell viability/proliferation in the treated cells and this was dependent on the presence of MYCN as MYCN siRNA transfection led to a blunting of vorinostat efficacy and conversely, MYCN overexpression improved the vorinostat potency in those cells. Vorinostat inhibition of MYCN led to an increase of the pro-apoptotic miR183 levels and this, in turn, reduced the viability/proliferation of these cells. The combination treatment with GA and vorinostat synergistically reduced cell survival in the MYCN and CD71 overexpressing tumor cells. The same treatment had no effect or minimal effect on HEK293 and HEF cells used as models of non-cancer cells. CONCLUSION: A combination therapy with GA and vorinostat may be suitable for MYCN and CD71 overexpressing neuroblastomas.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc , Neuroblastoma , Receptores da Transferrina , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Xantonas/farmacologia
10.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(7): 516-521, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357838

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of miR-144 on proliferation, apoptosis and cisplatin (DDP) resistance of neuroblastoma cells. Methods: Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the mRNA expressions of miR-144 and MYCN in neuroblastoma cell lines, including SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells HUVEC. The miR-negative control, miR-144 mimics, si-negative control, si-MYCN, miR-144 mimics and pcDNA, miR-144 mimics and pcDNA-MYCN co-transfected SH-SY5Y cells were described as miR-NC, miR-144, si-NC, si-MYCN, miR-144+ pcDNA and miR-144+ pcDNA-MYCN group, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) and cell proliferation were detected by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The protein expressions of MYCN, p21, cyclin D1, Bax, Bcl-2 were analyzed by western blot. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The cell fluorescence activity was detected by double luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: Compared with HUVEC cells, the expressions of miR-144 in neuroblastoma cells SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH significantly decreased, while the mRNA and protein expression of MYCN significantly increased. The IC(50) of DDP was 9.16 µg/ml in SH-SY5Y cells. The absorbance value in 490nm (A(490) value) of miR-144 group was 0.30±0.03, significantly lower than 0.46±0.03 of miR-NC group. The cell apoptotic rate of miR-144 group was 26.94%±2.01%, significantly higher than 9.68%±0.52% of miR-NC group. The IC(50) value of DDP in miR-144 group was 2.95±0.26, significantly lower than 9.23±0.61 of miR-NC group. The expressions of p21, cyclin D1, Bax, Bcl-2 in miR-NC and miR-144 group were 2.67±0.19, 0.41±0.04, 2.12±0.21, 0.18±0.01 and 1.01±0.07, 1.00±0.06, 1.00±0.05, 1.00±0.06, respectively, with statistical significance (all P<0.05). Knockdown of MYCN showed the similar effects with those of miR-144 overexpression in SH-SYSY cells. MiR-144 significantly inhibited the fluorescence activity of ectopic MYCN expressing cells and negatively regulated the expression of MYCN. Overexpression of MYCN can reverse the effects of miR-144 on proliferation inhibition, apoptosis promotion and sensitization of SH-SY5Y cells to DDP. Conclusion: MiR-144 inhibits proliferation, promotes apoptosis and enhances the sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells to DDP through targeting MYCN, which provides a potential treatment for neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/uso terapêutico , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Criança , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
11.
Pharm Res ; 36(8): 115, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fibrin gels (FBGs) are potential delivery vehicles for many drugs, and can be easily prepared from purified components. We previously demonstrated their applicability for the release of different doxorubicin (Dox) nanoparticles used clinically or in an experimental stage, such as its inclusion complex with the amino ß-cyclodextrin polymer (oCD-NH2/Dox). Here we extend these studies by in vitro and in vivo evaluations. METHODS: An in vitro cytotoxicity model consisting of an overlay of a neuroblastoma (NB) cell-containing agar layer above a drug-loaded FBG layer was used. Local toxicity in vivo (histology and blood analysis) was studied in a mouse orthotopic NB model (SHSY5YLuc+ cells implanted into the left adrenal gland). RESULTS: In vitro data show that FBGs loaded with oCD-NH2/Dox have a slightly lower cytotoxicity against NB cell lines than those loaded with Dox. Fibrinogen (FG), and Ca2+ concentrations may modify this activity. In vivo data support a lower general and local toxicity for FBGs loaded with oCD-NH2/Dox than those loaded with Dox. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a possible increase of the therapeutic index of Dox when locally administered through FBGs loaded with oCD-NH2/Dox, opening the possibility of using these releasing systems for the treatment of neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Celulose/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fibrina/química , Nanopartículas/química , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/sangue , Portadores de Fármacos/toxicidade , Feminino , Géis , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/toxicidade
12.
Life Sci ; 225: 117-131, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951743

RESUMO

AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disorder that attributed to the increase of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Recently, evidence indicates that microRNA alterations are involved in the development of AD. In this paper, we demonstrated whether osthole could delay the occurrence of AD by regulating miRNA. METHODS: Microarray was used to discover differential miRNAs in AD. The target genes regulated by miRNA were predicted by databases; The protective effects of osthole on APP/PS1 mice were determined by Morris Water Maze, H&E and Nissl staining; The APP-SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with miRNA-101a-3p inhibitor, the expression of miRNA-101a-3p and APP mRNA in APP/PS1 mice and APP-SH-SY5Y cells were detected by RT-PCR; And western blot and ICC staining were used to detect the APP and Aß proteins expression. KEY FINDINGS: MiRNA-101a-3p was the osthole-mediated miRNA in AD and APP is the target gene. Osthole could increase the learning and memory ability in APP/PS1 mice and inhibit APP mRNA/protein expression by up-regulating miRNA-101a-3p. For exploring the underlying mechanism, miR-101a-3p inhibitor was transfected into the APP-SH-SY5Y cells. We can know that osthole had a protective effect on APP-SH-SY5Y cells, and it could raise miRNA-101a-3p expression and inhibit APP mRNA/protein expression, the formation of Aß protein was inhibited too. SIGNIFICANCE: These results emphasized that osthole had a protective effect on APP/PS1 mice and APP-SH-SY5Y cells. The main cause was due to osthole could inhibit APP expression by up-regulating miRNA-101a-3p so as to help delay the occurrence of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Regulação para Cima
13.
Life Sci ; 226: 1-11, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953644

RESUMO

AIM: Fluoxetine (FXT), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is one of the most common psychiatric medications clinically prescribed; while over-produced serotonin may suppress neurite development. The role of major iridoids like geniposide (GPS) and genipin (GNP) from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit (family Rubiaceae) in ameliorating the anti-neurite outgrowth effect of FXT is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of these iridoids on FXT-suppressed neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells were investigated. MAIN METHODS: Neuro2a cells were treated with FXT and GPS. The effect of GPS-FXT co-treatment on neurite outgrowth was observed using inverted phase-contrast microscope imaging system, while neurite outgrowth markers - microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) were analyzed using RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The transcription factor-cAMP response element binding (CREB), and signaling pathways - mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) were also analyzed with the help of Western blot. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that FXT decreased the neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a cells and also downregulated gene and protein expression of MAP2 and GAP43. It also downregulated the protein expression of phosphorylated-CREB, MAPK, and AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. In contrast, GPS counteracted the effects of FXT. GPS-FXT co-treatment increased the percentage of neurite-bearing cells by 3.6-fold at 200 µM as compared to FXT treatment only. SIGNIFICANCE: This study has provided the possible molecular mechanism showing how FXT exerted its detrimental side-effects on the neurite differentiation, and via the same mechanism how GPS attenuated these side effects.


Assuntos
Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Iridoides/farmacologia , Crescimento Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/análise , Proteína GAP-43/análise , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/análise , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuritos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
14.
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979007

RESUMO

Endocannabinoid (eCB)-binding receptors can be modulated by several ligands and membrane environment, yet the effect of glycosylation remains to be assessed. In this study, we used human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to interrogate whether expression, cellular localization, and activity of eCB-binding receptors may depend on N-linked glycosylation. Following treatment with tunicamycin (a specific inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation) at the non-cytotoxic dose of 1 µg/mL, mRNA, protein levels and localization of eCB-binding receptors, as well as N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues, were evaluated in SH-SY5Y cells by means of quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and confocal microscopy, respectively. In addition, the activity of type-1 and type-2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) was assessed by means of rapid binding assays. Significant changes in gene and protein expression were found upon tunicamycin treatment for CB1 and CB2, as well as for GPR55 receptors, but not for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Deglycosylation experiments with N-glycosidase-F and immunoblot of cell membranes derived from SH-SY5Y cells confirmed the presence of one glycosylated form in CB1 (70 kDa), that was reduced by tunicamycin. Morphological studies demonstrated the co-localization of CB1 with GlcNAc residues, and showed that tunicamycin reduced CB1 membrane expression with a marked nuclear localization, as confirmed by immunoblotting. Cleavage of the carbohydrate side chain did not modify CB receptor binding affinity. Overall, these results support N-linked glycosylation as an unprecedented post-translational modification that may modulate eCB-binding receptors' expression and localization, in particular for CB1.


Assuntos
Endocanabinoides/genética , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Canabinoides/química , Tunicamicina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocanabinoides/química , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ligantes , Microscopia Confocal , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Peptídeo-N4-(N-acetil-beta-glucosaminil) Asparagina Amidase/genética , Receptores de Canabinoides/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Tunicamicina/química
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(3)2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936335

RESUMO

Therapies of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are used increasingly in paediatric oncology. We present and discuss the influence of supportive mistletoe therapy on factors, such as quality of life, physical ability and performance, and course of disease based on the case of a female patient diagnosed at age 18 with metastasised neuroblastoma, which responded insufficiently to chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/fisiopatologia , Fitoterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Chemosphere ; 224: 751-764, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851527

RESUMO

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) are produced by cyanobacteria. Although being considered as a hepatotoxin and a cytotoxin, respectively, different studies have revealed neurotoxic properties for both of them. The aim of the present work was to study their cytotoxic effects, alone and in combination, in the SH-SY5Y cell line. In addition, toxicity mechanisms such as oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and morphological studies were carried out. Results showed a cytotoxic response of the cells after their exposure to 0-100 µg/mL of MC-LR or 0-10 µg/mL CYN in both differentiated and undifferentiated cells. Thus, CYN resulted to be more toxic than MC-LR. Respect to their combination, a higher cytotoxic effect than the toxins alone in the case of undifferentiated cells, and almost a similar response to the presented by MC-LR in differentiated cells were observed. However, after analyzing this data with the isobolograms method, an antagonistic effect was mainly obtained. The oxidative stress study only showed an affectation of glutathione levels at the highest concentrations assayed of MC-LR and the combination in the undifferentiated cells. A significant increase in the AChE activity was observed after exposure to MC-LR in undifferentiated cells, and after exposure to the combination of both cyanotoxins on differentiated cells. However, CYN decreased the AChE activity only on differentiated cultures. Finally, the morphological study revealed different signs of cellular affectation, with apoptotic processes at all the concentrations assayed. Therefore, both cyanotoxins isolated and in combination, have demonstrated to cause neurotoxic effects in the SH-SY5Y cell line.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Antagonismo de Drogas , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Uracila/toxicidade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862004

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common childhood cancer, with a very poor prognosis. More than 60% of children with NB die within five years; therefore, a more effective therapy for NB is required. Although ginsenoside has been shown to significantly inhibit the growth of various cancers, the effect of ginsenoside Rk1 on neuroblastoma has not been known yet. Hence, we examined the anticancer effects of highly pure Rk1 on neuroblastoma cell lines. The apoptotic effects of Rk1 on neuroblastoma cells were examined using cell viability assay, flow cytometry and cell staining assay, and the change in gene expression levels were analysed using RT-PCR, western blots, and immunohistochemistry. The metastatic effect of Rk1 was monitored by wound healing assay, invasion and migration with Matrigels. Rk1 inhibited neuroblastoma cell viability dose-dependently. Rk1-induced apoptosis was investigated through nuclear condensation and mitochondrial membrane potential loss, and it showed that Rk1 can induce cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase but also inhibit the metastatic ability of neuroblastoma cells. Moreover, Rk1 (30 mg/kg) injections markedly inhibited xenograft tumor growth. These findings demonstrate that Rk1 might be valuable in the development of anti-cancer agents for neuroblastoma treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspases/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Ginsenosídeos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(2): 2523-2528, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903573

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of Amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker and vincristine (VCR) an antineoplastic, on human neuroblastomas using different doses. The cytotoxicity assays of the study were performed using the MTT method depending on time and concentration. After obtaining the mixture (up to 85% for SH-SY5Y) and sufficient branches (cortex neurons), the cells were treated with amlodipine (10 µM) and vincristine (0.5, 1 and 2 µg) at different concentrations for 24 h. MTT assay was performed by the commercially available kit (Sigma Aldrich, USA). Cells were harvested, washed and stained with PI and Annexin V, respectively, according to the manufacturer's protocol (Biovision, USA). Than analyzes were carried out. The results were quite impressive. When amlodipine (10 µM) was administered alone there was little change compared to the control. However, all doses of amlodipine (10 µM) and vincristine (0.5, 1 and 2 µg) were greater than the deaths in the doses alone (0.5, 1 and 2 µg) of vincristine alone. (P < 0.05). As a result, the combination of vincristine and amlodipine is more effective than vincristine alone in reducing the viability of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Vincristina/metabolismo , Vincristina/farmacologia , Anlodipino/metabolismo , Anlodipino/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo
19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 243, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-risk neuroblastoma with N-Myc amplification remains a therapeutic challenge in paediatric oncology. Antagonism of pro-death Bcl-2 homology (BH) proteins to pro-survival BH members such as Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 has become a treatment approach, but previous studies suggest that a combined inhibition of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 is necessary. TW-37 inhibits Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 with almost the same affinity. However, single-agent cytotoxicity of TW-37 in neuroblastoma cell lines has not been investigated. METHODS: Cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation and changes in growth properties were determined in SKNAS, IMR-5, SY5Y and Kelly cells after treatment with TW-37. After transfection with Mcl-1 or Bcl-2 siRNA, apoptosis and proliferation were investigated in Kelly cells. Mice with Kelly cell line xenografts were treated with TW-37 and tumor growth, survival and apoptosis were determined. RESULTS: Cell lines with N-Myc amplification were more sensitive to TW-37 treatment, IC50 values for IMR-5 and Kelly cells being 0.28 µM and 0.22 µM, compared to SY5Y cells and SKNAS cells (IC50 0.96 µM and 0.83 µM). Treatment with TW-37 resulted in increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation rates, especially in IMR5 and Kelly cells. Bcl-2 as well as Mcl-1 knockdown induced apoptosis in Kelly cells. TW-37 led to a decrease in tumor growth and a favorable survival (p = 0.0379) in a Kelly neuroblastoma xenografts mouse model. CONCLUSION: TW-37 has strong single-agent cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, combined inhibition of Bcl-2/Mcl-1 by TW-37 in N-Myc amplified neuroblastoma may represent an interesting therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/farmacologia , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/antagonistas & inibidores , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/genética , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 69, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. This cancer has a low frequency of TP53 mutations and its downstream pathway is usually intact. This study assessed the efficacy of the p53 activator, PRIMA-1MET, in inducing neuroblastoma cell death. METHODS: CellTiter 2.0 was used to study susceptibility and specificity of NB cell lines to PRIMA-1MET. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to assess the most common p53 transactivation targets. Induction of p53 and Noxa, and inhibition of Cas3/7, were used to assess impact on cell death after PRIMA-1MET treatment. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle phase and induction of apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. RESULTS: Neuroblastoma cell lines were at least four times more susceptible to PRIMA-1MET than were primary fibroblasts and keratinocyte cell lines. PRIMA-1MET induced cell death rapidly and in all cell cycle phases. Although PRIMA-1MET activated p53 transactivation activity, p53's role is likely limited because its main targets remained unaffected, whereas pan-caspase inhibitor demonstrated no ability to prevent cell death. PRIMA-1MET induced oxidative stress and modulated the methionine/cysteine/glutathione axis. Variations of MYCN and p53 modulated intracellular levels of GSH and resulted in increased/decreased sensitivity of PRIMA-1MET. PRIMA-1MET inhibited thioredoxin reductase, but the effect of PRIMA-1MET was not altered by thioredoxin inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: PRIMA-1MET could be a promising new agent to treat neuroblastoma because it demonstrated good anti-tumor action. Although p53 is involved in PRIMA-1MET-mediated cell death, our results suggest that direct interaction with p53 has a limited role in neuroblastoma but rather acts through modulation of GSH levels.


Assuntos
Glutationa/metabolismo , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
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