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2.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 21(10): 524-534, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879507

RESUMO

The first issue of Nature Reviews Neuroscience was published 20 years ago, in 2000. To mark this anniversary, in this Viewpoint article we asked a selection of researchers from across the field who have authored pieces published in the journal in recent years for their thoughts on notable and interesting developments in neuroscience, and particularly in their areas of the field, over the past two decades. They also provide some thoughts on current lines of research and questions that excite them.


Assuntos
Neurociências/história , História do Século XXI , Humanos
3.
Fluids Barriers CNS ; 17(1): 56, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928243

RESUMO

David S. Miller was Acting Scientific Director of the Division of Intramural Research at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, and Head of the Intracellular Regulation Group in the Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology before he retired in 2016. David received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Maine in 1973. David was a Group Leader at the Michigan Cancer Foundation before joining the NIEHS in 1985. His research covered a wide range from renal excretory transport mechanisms to regulation of transporters at the blood-CSF and blood-brain barriers, from fish, amphibians and birds to mammals. David was an outstanding scientist with irresistible enthusiasm for science and an incredible ability to think outside the box while being an exceptional mentor and friend.


Assuntos
Neurociências/história , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Farmacologia/história , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Toxicologia/história , Estados Unidos
6.
J Neurosci ; 40(34): 6460-6473, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817388

RESUMO

For half a century now, the barrel cortex of common laboratory rodents has been an exceptionally useful model for studying the formation of topographically organized maps, neural patterning, and plasticity, both in development and in maturity. We present a historical perspective on how barrels were discovered, and how thereafter, they became a workhorse for developmental neuroscientists and for studies on brain plasticity and activity-dependent modeling of brain circuits. What is particularly remarkable about this sensory system is a cellular patterning that is induced by signals derived from the sensory receptors surrounding the snout whiskers and transmitted centrally to the brainstem (barrelettes), the thalamus (barreloids), and the neocortex (barrels). Injury to the sensory receptors shortly after birth leads to predictable pattern alterations at all levels of the system. Mouse genetics have increased our understanding of how barrels are constructed and revealed the interplay of the molecular programs that direct axon growth and cell specification, with activity-dependent mechanisms. There is an ever-rising interest in this sensory system as a neurobiological model to study development of somatotopy, patterning, and plasticity at both the morphologic and physiological levels. This article is part of a group of articles commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Society for Neuroscience.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Animais , Axônios/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurociências/história , Córtex Somatossensorial/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sinapses/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Vibrissas/fisiologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(13): 6976-6984, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170012

RESUMO

Consciousness is currently a thriving area of research in psychology and neuroscience. While this is often attributed to events that took place in the early 1990s, consciousness studies today are a continuation of research that started in the late 19th century and that continued throughout the 20th century. From the beginning, the effort built on studies of animals to reveal basic principles of brain organization and function, and of human patients to gain clues about consciousness itself. Particularly important and our focus here is research in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s involving three groups of patients-amnesia, split brain, and blindsight. Across all three groups, a similar pattern of results was found-the patients could respond appropriately to stimuli that they denied seeing (or in the case of amnesiacs, having seen before). These studies paved the way for the current wave of research on consciousness. The field is, in fact, still grappling with the implications of the findings showing that the ability to consciously know and report the identity of a visual stimulus can be dissociated in the brain from the mechanisms that underlie the ability to behave in a meaningful way to the same stimulus.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Neurociências/história , Psicologia/história , Animais , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
12.
J Neurosci ; 40(1): 44-53, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896562

RESUMO

Recent advances in microscopy, genetics, physiology, and data processing have expanded the scope and accelerated the pace of discovery in visual neuroscience. However, the pace of discovery and the ever increasing number of published articles can present a serious issue for both trainees and senior scientists alike: with each passing year the fog of progress thickens, making it easy to lose sight of important earlier advances. As part of this special issue of the Journal of Neuroscience commemorating the 50th anniversary of SfN, here, we provide a variation on Stephen Kuffler's Oldies but Goodies classic reading list, with the hope that by looking back at highlights in the field of visual neuroscience we can better define remaining gaps in our knowledge and thus guide future work. We also hope that this article can serve as a resource that will aid those new to the field to find their bearings.


Assuntos
Neurociências/história , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Conectoma , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Corpos Geniculados/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Retina/citologia , Retina/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/classificação , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia
13.
J Neurosci ; 40(1): 101-106, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896564

RESUMO

On the 50th anniversary of the Society for Neuroscience, we reflect on the remarkable progress that the field has made in understanding the nervous system, and look forward to the contributions of the next 50 years. We predict a substantial acceleration of our understanding of the nervous system that will drive the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat diseases over the course of the next five decades. We also see neuroscience at the nexus of many societal topics beyond medicine, including education, consumerism, and the justice system. In combination, advances made by basic, translational, and clinical neuroscience research in the next 50 years have great potential for lasting improvements in human health, the economy, and society.


Assuntos
Neurociências/tendências , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Previsões , Edição de Genes , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Neurogênese , Neurociências/história , Organoides , Pesquisa , Mudança Social
14.
Clin Anat ; 33(1): 41-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381190

RESUMO

The scientific community's understanding of neuronal plasticity has evolved considerably over recent decades, thanks largely to Josef Altman. Altman's findings laid the groundwork for an entire subfield of neuroscience research dedicated to exploring the potential of the adult brain to create new neurons, which until then had been considered impossible. From the formative years of this field until the 1990s, when adult neurogenesis was finally accepted as a legitimate topic of study, Altman's work was followed by a series of pivotal discoveries by a handful of other dedicated neuroscientists such as Shirley Bayer, Michael Kaplan, and Fernando Nottebohm. In any sphere of activity, some wish to maintain the status quo when change occurs; science is no different. For many years, influential figures in neuroscience dismissed and marginalized the concept of adult neurogenesis, sometimes going so far as to censor the studies and launch personal attacks against their proponents. Nevertheless, despite obstacles to their research, these scientists persisted and built upon one another's work. During the 1970s, Kaplan confirmed neurogenesis in the adult mammalian neocortex and also performed some of the first neurogenesis studies on primates. During the 1980s, Nottebohm drew on his fascination with the songs of canaries and finches to show that neurogenesis happens on a grand scale in the avian brain as well, regardless of age. Today, more than half a century after Altman's discovery, the adult neurogenesis field is growing rapidly and new research is realizing its potential to revolutionize treatment for neurodegenerative disorders and brain injuries. Clin. Anat. 32:41-55, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurogênese , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurociências/história , Adulto , Animais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
15.
Brain Nerve ; 71(12): 1385-1390, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787627

RESUMO

Professor Masao Ito passed away in December last year at the age of 90. He not only performed great scientific achievements in the studies of the cerebellar circuit functions, but also made a great contribution to promotion of the neuroscience researches both in and outside Japan. His contribution includes foundation of the Japan Neuroscience Society, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, working as the president of International Brain Research Organization, foundation of Human Frontier Science Program and foundation of federation of scientific associations in Asia such as FAONS.


Assuntos
Neurociências/história , Academias e Institutos , História do Século XX , Humanos , Japão
16.
Brain Nerve ; 71(12): 1391-1396, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787628

RESUMO

Comment Professor Masao Ito's last lecture, delivered at the University of Tokyo Faculty of Medicine on March 7, 1989, is reproduced here in an abridged form. Its original title was "the Cerebellum and Cerebrum," and this lecture was a real masterpiece, full of insights and suggestions on brain functions, together with humorous phrases here and there. When I tried to reproduce this lecture by using all figures at that time, just one week after Professor Ito passed away, I was struck by his foresight even after thirty years. I deeply appreciate his family's permission for the reproduction.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiologia , Cérebro/fisiologia , Neurociências/história , História do Século XX , Humanos
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1316-1324, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040131

RESUMO

El desarrollo histórico inicial de la neurología peruana tiene como figura a Oscar Trelles quien funda las bases de su progreso. Sin embargo, aún no se ha descrito los hitos ni las personalidades notables de la neurología peruana en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en adelante. El objetivo de este trabajo fue escribir la etapa científica de la neurología en el Perú durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, proponiendo la obra de Pedro Ortiz Cabanillas como una propuesta disruptiva e innovadora en la neurología. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, se diverjo las escuelas formadoras de neurología en la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos y la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, sendas representada por Honorio Delgado y Oscar Trelles. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, Pedro Ortiz da forma a la información como la materia que organiza a los sistemas vivos, en su Teoría Sociobiológica Informacional. En esta plantea que la información se a complejizado en cinco niveles organizativos de sistemas vivos. Conforme las consideraciones de desarrollo de la neurología en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en el Perú, resaltamos a Pedro Ortiz como un pionero que propone una redefinición del entendimiento de la información en los sistemas vivos.


The initial historical development of Peruvian neurology includes Oscar Trelles who is the founder of the groundwork and its progress. However, the milestones of noteworthy individuals in Peruvian neurology work, during the second half of the 20th century and beyond, have not yet been described. The objective of this work was to address the scientific stage of neurology in Peru during the second half of the 20th century, proposing the work of Pedro Ortiz Cabanillas as a disruptive and innovative proposal in neurology. During the second half of the 20th century, the neurology training schools were divided into the National University of San Marcos and the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, represented by Honorio Delgado and Oscar Trelles. During the second half of the twentieth century, Pedro Ortiz relates information as the material that organizes living systems, in his Informational Sociobiological Theory. In this work it is stated that information becomes more complex in five organizational levels of living systems. According to the development considerations of neurology in the second half of the 20th century in Peru, we highlight Pedro Ortiz as a pioneer who proposes a redefinition of the understanding of information in living systems.


Assuntos
História do Século XX , Sociobiologia/história , Neurologia/história , Peru , Neurociências/história
20.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci ; 21(2): 115-116, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636485

RESUMO

Drug development in psychiatry is gradually moving from serendipity to personalized medicine. Some promising paths will be reviewed in this issue.
.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neurociências/tendências , Psicofarmacologia/tendências , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neurociências/história , Psicofarmacologia/história
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