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2.
Clin Anat ; 33(1): 41-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381190

RESUMO

The scientific community's understanding of neuronal plasticity has evolved considerably over recent decades, thanks largely to Josef Altman. Altman's findings laid the groundwork for an entire subfield of neuroscience research dedicated to exploring the potential of the adult brain to create new neurons, which until then had been considered impossible. From the formative years of this field until the 1990s, when adult neurogenesis was finally accepted as a legitimate topic of study, Altman's work was followed by a series of pivotal discoveries by a handful of other dedicated neuroscientists such as Shirley Bayer, Michael Kaplan, and Fernando Nottebohm. In any sphere of activity, some wish to maintain the status quo when change occurs; science is no different. For many years, influential figures in neuroscience dismissed and marginalized the concept of adult neurogenesis, sometimes going so far as to censor the studies and launch personal attacks against their proponents. Nevertheless, despite obstacles to their research, these scientists persisted and built upon one another's work. During the 1970s, Kaplan confirmed neurogenesis in the adult mammalian neocortex and also performed some of the first neurogenesis studies on primates. During the 1980s, Nottebohm drew on his fascination with the songs of canaries and finches to show that neurogenesis happens on a grand scale in the avian brain as well, regardless of age. Today, more than half a century after Altman's discovery, the adult neurogenesis field is growing rapidly and new research is realizing its potential to revolutionize treatment for neurodegenerative disorders and brain injuries. Clin. Anat. 32:41-55, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurogênese , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurociências/história , Adulto , Animais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
3.
Brain Nerve ; 71(12): 1385-1390, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787627

RESUMO

Professor Masao Ito passed away in December last year at the age of 90. He not only performed great scientific achievements in the studies of the cerebellar circuit functions, but also made a great contribution to promotion of the neuroscience researches both in and outside Japan. His contribution includes foundation of the Japan Neuroscience Society, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, working as the president of International Brain Research Organization, foundation of Human Frontier Science Program and foundation of federation of scientific associations in Asia such as FAONS.


Assuntos
Neurociências/história , Academias e Institutos , História do Século XX , Humanos , Japão
4.
Brain Nerve ; 71(12): 1391-1396, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787628

RESUMO

Comment Professor Masao Ito's last lecture, delivered at the University of Tokyo Faculty of Medicine on March 7, 1989, is reproduced here in an abridged form. Its original title was "the Cerebellum and Cerebrum," and this lecture was a real masterpiece, full of insights and suggestions on brain functions, together with humorous phrases here and there. When I tried to reproduce this lecture by using all figures at that time, just one week after Professor Ito passed away, I was struck by his foresight even after thirty years. I deeply appreciate his family's permission for the reproduction.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiologia , Cérebro/fisiologia , Neurociências/história , História do Século XX , Humanos
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1316-1324, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040131

RESUMO

El desarrollo histórico inicial de la neurología peruana tiene como figura a Oscar Trelles quien funda las bases de su progreso. Sin embargo, aún no se ha descrito los hitos ni las personalidades notables de la neurología peruana en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en adelante. El objetivo de este trabajo fue escribir la etapa científica de la neurología en el Perú durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, proponiendo la obra de Pedro Ortiz Cabanillas como una propuesta disruptiva e innovadora en la neurología. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, se diverjo las escuelas formadoras de neurología en la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos y la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, sendas representada por Honorio Delgado y Oscar Trelles. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, Pedro Ortiz da forma a la información como la materia que organiza a los sistemas vivos, en su Teoría Sociobiológica Informacional. En esta plantea que la información se a complejizado en cinco niveles organizativos de sistemas vivos. Conforme las consideraciones de desarrollo de la neurología en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en el Perú, resaltamos a Pedro Ortiz como un pionero que propone una redefinición del entendimiento de la información en los sistemas vivos.


The initial historical development of Peruvian neurology includes Oscar Trelles who is the founder of the groundwork and its progress. However, the milestones of noteworthy individuals in Peruvian neurology work, during the second half of the 20th century and beyond, have not yet been described. The objective of this work was to address the scientific stage of neurology in Peru during the second half of the 20th century, proposing the work of Pedro Ortiz Cabanillas as a disruptive and innovative proposal in neurology. During the second half of the 20th century, the neurology training schools were divided into the National University of San Marcos and the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, represented by Honorio Delgado and Oscar Trelles. During the second half of the twentieth century, Pedro Ortiz relates information as the material that organizes living systems, in his Informational Sociobiological Theory. In this work it is stated that information becomes more complex in five organizational levels of living systems. According to the development considerations of neurology in the second half of the 20th century in Peru, we highlight Pedro Ortiz as a pioneer who proposes a redefinition of the understanding of information in living systems.


Assuntos
História do Século XX , Sociobiologia/história , Neurologia/história , Peru , Neurociências/história
7.
World Neurosurg ; 129: 202-209, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201946

RESUMO

Andreas Vesalius, the father of modern anatomy and a predecessor of neuroscience, was a distinguished medical scholar and Renaissance figure of the 16th Century Scientific Revolution. He challenged traditional anatomy by applying empirical methods of cadaveric dissection to the study of the human body. His revolutionary book, De Humani Corporis Fabrica, established anatomy as a scientific discipline that challenged conventional medical knowledge, but often caused controversy. Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain to whom De Humani was dedicated, appointed Vesalius to his court. While in Spain, Vesalius' work antagonized the academic establishment, current medical knowledge, and ecclesial authority. Consequently, his methods were unacceptable to the academic and religious status quo, therefore, we believe that his professional life-as well as his tragic death-was affected by the political state of affairs that dominated 16th Century Europe. Ultimately, he went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land that jeopardized his life. While returning home, his ship was driven ashore on the Greek island of Zakynthos (Zante) where he became ill and suddenly died in 1564 at the age of 49. Vesalius' ideas helped free medicine from the limitations of the 16th Century and advanced scientific knowledge. His influence is still felt more than 500 years later. In this article, we acknowledge Vesalius' neuroanatomic contributions and we discuss the historical facts and political circumstances that influenced his scientific career and personal life, emphasizing the conditions of his pilgrimage to the Holy Land that led to his untimely death.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Neurociências/história , História do Século XVI , Humanos
9.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(supl.1): 39-47, jun. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183847

RESUMO

The synaptic and network theories of memory, which Cajal first advanced in Barcelona around 1890, have been firmly established and elaborated by three generations of neuroscientists. This article outlines a corollary model of memory in the cerebral cortex that derives from those theories and is empirically supported by modern functional methods. The model posits that the elementary unit of memory or knowledge is a network of neurons of the cerebral cortex associated by life experience according to Hebbian principles of synaptic modulation (a cognit). Networks or cognits of perceptual memory are hierarchically organized and distributed in posterior association cortex; those of executive memory, also hierarchically organized, are distributed in frontal association cortex. In the course of goal-directed behavior and language, perceptual and executive cognits engage in the perception-action cycle, the cybernetic cycle that dynamically links the cortical cognitive networks with the environment in the pursuit of goals,. The prefrontal cortex, at the summit of that cycle, and interacting with cortical and subcortical structures, guides behavior and language to their goals by means of its executive functions of planning, executive attention, working memory, decision-making, and inhibitory control


No disponible


Assuntos
Neurônios , Condução Nervosa , Neurociências/educação , Neurociências/história , Memória/fisiologia , Histologia/história , Histologia/educação , Anatomia/educação , Anatomia/história , Tecido Nervoso/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Imagem Eidética/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia
10.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(supl.1): 57-66, jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183849

RESUMO

Santiago Ramón y Cajal created histological images using a variety of artistic techniques and methods. In order to contextualise his practice, I have selected a set of drawings and prints of cartilage cells that were used in Cajal’s reference handbooks. I then introduce a lithograph representing an inflamed cartilage included in Cajal’s first publication. This technique enabled the publishing of graphic information in colour. By reviewing images included in the material that Cajal consulted during his pre-graduate years, I show that he participated in the transnational production of drawing and made use of the printing techniques available to present his research. By analysing a set of original drawings included in Cajal´s notebook, Diario de Observaciones, and his first published lithographs of cartilage cells and neurons, I reveal the graphic specificities of his transition from handmade drawings to print representations. Cajal´s drawing and lithographing relate directly to artistic interests developed in his youth (López Piñero, 1985), and these skills facilitated the technical transit between notebook and published images, enabling him to formalise his knowledge by including histological results in printed material. A determining factor in Cajal’s graphic production relating to the nervous system was his expertise in using chemical silver nitrate, resulting from his interest in photography. Finally, his colour selection is discussed, in order to demonstrate that, even when Cajal drew black lines, he was using black as a specific colour, one he observed through the microscope after staining histological samples


No disponible


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , Conhecimento , Neurociências/história , Patologia/educação , Patologia/história , Sistema Nervoso/anatomia & histologia , Neuroglia , Neurociências/educação , Gravuras e Gravação/classificação , Gravuras e Gravação/história
11.
Cerebellum ; 18(4): 676-687, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054022

RESUMO

In January 1919, Sven Ingvar (1889-1947) defended his doctoral dissertation (required for the M.D. degree) on cerebellar phylogeny, development, and function at Lund University, Sweden. The work was supervised by Cornelius U. Ariëns Kappers (1877-1946) in Amsterdam and by Karl Petrén (1868-1927) in Lund. A physician of many interests, Ingvar became professor of Practical Medicine in his alma mater. His cerebellar papers, spanning over a decade, are the contributions that gained him international recognition in the neurological sciences. A key discovery was the demonstration, with the Marchi method, of the primary vestibulocerebellar afferent fibers. The merits of his work rest with the use of connections to compare lobes and lobules in different species, and the introduction of the idea of vestibular, spinal, and corticopontine storeys; on the other hand, based on current knowledge, one might take a more critical stance toward the proposition of a posterior lobe as a phylogenetically old structure, and the homolog of the human tonsil. Nonetheless, Ingvar was an early pioneer of the "evo-devo" synthesis (or the field of Evolutionary Developmental Biology, which aims at understanding how developmental processes evolve across species). He studied the comparative anatomy of the cerebellum in over 50 species of reptiles, birds, and mammals and theorized about the spatial relations of phylogenetically older and more recent acquisitions in both the cerebellar and the thalamocortical systems.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Neurociências/história , Animais , Evolução Biológica , História do Século XX , Humanos , Suécia , Universidades
15.
Neurology ; 92(12): 575-578, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886071

RESUMO

Wilder Penfield's contributions to the structure-function relationships of the brain are well-known. Less well-known is the influence that Ivan Pavlov and the conditioned reflex had on Penfield's understanding of epileptogenesis, and on his concept of the acquisition of memories, language, and perception-what Penfield referred to as the physiology of the mind. Penfield invoked conditioned reflexes to explain responses to electrocortical stimulation of the temporal lobes that encompass memory, perception, and affect. Penfield referred to these responses as experiential phenomena since he considered that they constituted a record of past experiences. Penfield also invoked the conditioned reflex to explain the acquisition of the interpretive aspects of written and spoken language in the dominant temporal cortex. This article describes and discusses these neglected aspects of Penfield's work, and how they contributed to a broader understanding of the functional integration of the temporal cortex and the limbic system.


Assuntos
Neurociências/história , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Processos Mentais/fisiologia
17.
Neurol India ; 67(1): 6-16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860086

RESUMO

The term 'scientist' was coined to describe Mary Somerville (1780-1872) as her contributions to astronomy commanded recognition of her excellence in science. Up to then, the term 'man of science' had been in use. In fields traditionally considered the province of males, the entry of women was viewed with consternation, apprehension and alarm. Resistance was instinctive in most leading scientists. This attitude was strengthened by illogical and pseudoscientific statements on the frailty of women. The pioneers blazing trails in medicine for their sisters to follow braved ridicule, hostility, and discrimination. At times they used subterfuge. The example of Dr. James Barry (Margaret Ann Bulkley) is well-known. Thanks to them, we now have nationally and internationally eminent scientists from the gentler sex, and some of them in commanding positions. The neurosciences developed in India as a result of the efforts made by pioneer neurosurgeons such as Drs. Jacob Chandy (Vellore), B. Ramamurthi (Madras), R.G. Ginde (Bombay), Dr. Prakash N. Tandon (New Delhi) and neurophysicians such as Drs. Baldev Singh (New Delhi), T.K. Ghosh (Calcutta) and Noshir H. Wadia (Mumbai). They and others such as Drs. V.R. Khanolkar, Darab K. Dastur, B.K. Bachhawat and Obaid Siddiqui encouraged individuals like Dr. Vimla Virmani, Dr. Devika Nag, Dr. T.S. Kanaka and Dr. Gourie Devi in the clinical neurosciences and Drs. Kamal Ranadive, V.S. Lalitha, Veronica Rodrigues and Gomathy Gopinath in the basic neurosciences. Two eminent neuroscientists from abroad (Drs. Nancy Kopell and Indira Raman), and three from India (Drs. Vijaylakshmi Ravindranath, Chitra Sarkar and Vidita Vaidya) have been chosen by me as representatives and their careers, contributions and views on discrimination against women in science discussed in brief. (This is not to deny outstanding work by others but limitations of space have made this choice necessary.) The factors favouring the blossoming of women in science include encouraging and stimulating parents, a conducive environment at home and mentors. A compelling drive to excel, hard work and sincerity are crucial to success. Nasty forms of experiences demoralise women. Sexual harassment by seniors and colleagues in the laboratory and elsewhere can lead to the victim leaving the field altogether. Discrimination in selection, promotion and publication lower morale and impact output in terms of research and contributions to journals and books. Suggestions made by the five eminent neuroscientists named above to liberate women from such negative behaviour by males are presented. The Indian Women Scientists' Association is playing an important role in helping their members, making their work known to society and generally empowering them. Since unity strengthens, collaborative activities with other similar organisations will augment efficacy. One such organisation is the much older Association of Medical Women of India.


Assuntos
Neurociências/história , Neurocirurgiões , Pesquisadores , Mulheres , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Índia
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