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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1125-1128, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602434

RESUMO

Subarachnoid neurocysticercosis (SANCC) is a severe and progressive brain infection with Taenia solium. We performed a pilot study of noninvasive screening for SANCC in two endemic villages in northern Peru using a urine antigen screen followed by brain magnetic resonance imaging for participants with elevated levels of antigen. Among the 978 participants screened, we identified eight individuals with SANCC, many of whom were asymptomatic. This represents a minimum prevalence of 0.8% of SANCC, a level higher than expected based on prior studies, and a positive predictive value of 62% for our novel urine screening test. Future studies should confirm whether early detection and management improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/urina , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Espaço Subaracnóideo/imunologia , Taenia solium/imunologia , Teníase/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008384, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimating the burden of neglected tropical diseases is a valuable tool to support policymakers in the resource allocation for control and elimination of these diseases. Spatial analysis allows to identify the geographical distribution patterns of infectious and parasitic diseases within a country and allows to assess their possible correlation with other health disorders. Despite being neurocysticercosis (NCC) considered as the most important parasitic disease of the nervous system, few efforts have been addressed to assess the real burden of NCC in endemic countries, to date, there are no studies estimating the burden of NCC in South America. In this study we aimed to use the Disability Adjust Life Years (DALY) and spatial indicators as tools to measure the impact of human neurocysticercosis in Ecuador between 2013 and 2017. METHODS: Mortality, morbidity and spatial data from the national agency of statistics were used to estimate the burden of disease of NCC during a five-year period (2013-2017). NCC cases and its two main sequelae, epilepsy and migraine headache, were stratified by sex and age group to calculate the DALY associated to NCC using the DALY package in R. SATSCAN software was used to assess spatial clusters of NCC and its possible neurological sequelae as epilepsy, status epilepticus, migraine and hydrocephalus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The burden of human neurocysticercosis ranged from 56201 [95% CI 29961-89333] to 59612 [95% CI 31854-94689] DALY per year, corresponding to 3.54 to 3.56 DALY per 1000 population. Average yearly incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were 0.23 [95% CI 0.21-0.26] for NCC, 4.89 [95% CI 4.78-5.00] for epilepsy, 0.130 [95% CI 0.11-0.15] for status epilepticus, 0.62 [95% CI 0.58-0.66] for migraine headache, and 1.02 [95% CI 0.98-1.07] for hydrocephalus. Most important significant spatial clusters (p<0.0001) were located in the southern region of the highlands of the country. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study in South America to calculate estimates for burden of NCC and one of the few using spatial analysis to show the importance of sequelae other than epilepsy that play an important role in the impact of human neurocysticercosis.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia , Taenia solium , Teníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pessoas com Deficiência , Equador/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mapeamento Geográfico , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Neurocisticercose/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19753, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282737

RESUMO

Human echinococcosis has become a major public health problem in most parts of the world. The objective of this article was to study the demographics of patients with hepatic echinococcosis in Ganzi County to elucidate the main risk factors, as well as to report the concurrent prevalence of cerebral echinococcosis and pulmonary echinococcosis.We recruited 195 patients with hepatic echinococcosis from the Datongma area of Ganzi County from January 2018 to November 2018. The patients' demographics, living environments, supported medical resources, knowledge of echinococcosis prevention and control, and hygienic practices were investigated and analyzed. The prevalence of cerebral echinococcosis and pulmonary echinococcosis were also investigated.The data were analyzed to identify risk factors for human echinococcosis. Our analysis showed that the herding Tibetan population within the 20 to 60 age group, and females, in particular, were at the highest risk of human echinococcosis infection. Having stray dogs around habitations and intimate activities with dogs and livestock were also behavioral risk factors. People with poor health literacy and low educational qualifications had possible risks of infection. In terms of hygiene, not using tap water as the drinking water source and lack of medical staff were significantly correlated with echinococcosis prevalence. Four patients were diagnosed with cerebral echinococcosis. Among them, 1 patient had both cerebral echinococcosis and pulmonary echinococcosis.Possible high-risk factors for echinococcosis were being female, herding population, in the 20 to 60 age group, having stray dogs around habitations, having activities with dogs and livestock, having poor health literacy, having low educational qualifications, and not using tap water as a drinking water source. The detection rate for brain echinococcosis in patients with hepatic echinococcosis was high (2.05%). Effective preventive strategies should be implemented in epidemic areas. Head CT scans should be applied for early detection of cerebral echinococcosis to carry out the treatment.


Assuntos
Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Equinococose Hepática/epidemiologia , Equinococose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Animais , Cistos do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose Pulmonar/complicações , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
4.
Clin Radiol ; 75(1): 77.e1-77.e13, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526539

RESUMO

AIM: To review the literature on the imaging appearances of neurocysticercosis (NCC) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and compare it with the local cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from both published and local cases were analysed. HIV-infected cases were divided into "low" (<200 cells/mm3) and "high" (≥200 cells/mm3) CD4 groups. These groups were compared and the effect of treatment was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-three cases were evaluated: 20 of the local cases and 13 published cases. The published cases had parenchymal brain cysts, whereas the local cases had both parenchymal and subarachnoid cysts (p=0.0050). The published cases also had intra-axial cysts, whereas the local cases had both intra- and extra-axial cysts (p=0.012). The published cases had predominantly cystic lesions, whereas the local cases had both cystic and granulomatous lesions (p=0.019). There were no differences between cases with a CD4 count of <200 cells/mm3 and cases with a CD4 count of ≥200 cells/mm3, but interestingly, 3% of the cases with a CD4 count of <500 cells/mm3, compared with 50% of the cases with a CD4 count of ≥500 cells/mm3, had racemose cysts. CONCLUSION: NCC is very prevalent in South Africa and may complicate the diagnosis and treatment of patients with concomitant HIV infection. Patients with a "low" CD4 count may present with atypical lesions, delaying the diagnosis of NCC. Early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) may result in patients presenting with more classical symptoms and imaging appearances, thus improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105208, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589829

RESUMO

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) was first reported in the province of Bali, Indonesia in 1975. Since this time, sporadic cases have been reported annually. This study reports information on 29 NCC cases (20 males and 9 females) admitted to a referral hospital in Denpasar, Bali from 2014 until 2018. Twenty-four cases were from Bali, 2 were from the province of East Nusa Tenggara, and 3 were from the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. Mean patient age was 37.2 years and 69.0% (20/29) were male. Epileptic seizures were the most common clinical manifestation (65.5%, 19/29). Serology (ELISA) was used in 14 cases (48.2%, 14/29), but only 6 cases, including one case with an inactive calcified lesion, were positive (42.9%, 6/14). Two cases underwent surgical resection after their lesions were initially misdiagnosed as brain tumors. These hospital-based findings are discussed along with the present status of NCC in Bali.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/terapia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 479-488, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390436

RESUMO

This study documented the first outbreak of cerebral coenurosis in goats in Salalah, southern Oman. Deaths of 130 (16.6%) adult native goats in a herd (n=780) were reported from January to June 2017. Affected goats showed various nervous signs ended by death. Investigations for thiamine deficiency, polioencephalomalacia, caprine arthritis encephalitis, and listeriosis were negative. Upon necropsy, multiple (1-4) thin-walled cysts 2-3.5 cm in diameter containing clear fluid with numerous clusters of protoscolices in the cerebrum and cerebellum had replaced the brain parenchyma, causing space-occupying lesions. Parasitologically, the recovered cysts were Coenurus cerebralis, based on the arrangement of protoscolices, and the number and size of their hooks. Morphologically, each protoscolex had four suckers and a rostellum with double-crown hooks. The large and small hooks were 157.7±0.5 µm and 115±0.6 µm in length, respectively. Histopathologically, the parasite destroyed the affected tissues associated with multifocal to diffuse lymphocytic, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis; ischemic neuronal necrosis; and malacia. This is the first report of cerebral coenurosis in livestock in Oman, which should alert the local public health authorities for the application of prevention and control measures.


Assuntos
Cabras/parasitologia , Neurocisticercose/veterinária , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/patologia , Omã/epidemiologia
7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 98(Pt A): 168-172, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to study the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and seizure remission rates of epilepsy due to calcific stage of neurocysticercosis (cNCC) in a rural community in south India. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comprehensive Rural Epilepsy Study South India (CRESSI) is a prospective longitudinal study of epilepsy care in a rural community in south India. As part of this study, prevalence of epilepsy was studied in a population of 74,086 in 22 villages. The prevalence study identified 451 people with epilepsy including 62 (13.7%) with epilepsy due to cNCC. Diagnosis of cNCC was based on computed tomography (CT) findings. The clinical characteristics and seizure outcomes were studied in this cohort of 62 patients. The data collected included demographics, seizure type, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), seizure remission rates, and predictors of long-term seizure remissions. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of epilepsy due to cNCC in this rural community was 0.84 per 1000 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-1.07). This lesion accounted for 41% of the established etiology among 451 prevalence cases of epilepsy. Mean age at presentation was 28.87 ±â€¯14.45 (range: 8-65 years) with equal gender distribution. The common location of the lesion was in the perirolandic region. Focal onset motor seizures were the common seizure type. Seizure remission (≥2 years) rate was 80.3%. The independent predictor of drug resistance was failure to respond to monotherapy (odds ratio: 63.9; 95% CI: 8.4-485.4; p < 0.0001). Focal impaired awareness behavioral arrest/automatisms with lesion located in the temporal lobe in all the three patients were drug-resistant. CONCLUSIONS: In this rural community in south India, epilepsy due to cNCC was the commonest acquired epilepsy in people aged ≥20 years. Long-term seizure remission rates were high, and failure to respond to monotherapy was the predictor of drug resistance. Drug-resistant epilepsy was extremely rare with this lesion.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etiologia , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Calcinose , Criança , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
8.
Seizure ; 71: 229-232, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aims of the study were: (a) to evaluate the clinical profile of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) due to different evolutionary stages of neurocysticercosis (NCC), solitary cysticercus granuloma, low cyst load and single calcific lesion in an endemic country; (b) to evaluate the response of CSE to antiepileptic drugs; and (c) to evaluate long-term outcomes METHODS: A retrospective review of case records of patients with CSE due to different evaluative stages of NCC seen over a period of 18 years. RESULTS: During 18 years period, 41 (24 males, mean age 25.3 years, range 8-65 years) patients with CSE due to different evolutionary stages of NCC were admitted to our Neurological Intensive Care Unit. There were 7 patients with 3-5 degenerative cyst load, 20 with solitary cysticercus granuloma (SCG), and 14 with single calcific (cNCC) lesion. Of the 41 patients, CSE was the initial presenting feature in 38 (93%) patients. The mean duration of CSE was 5.85 h (range 0.5-48 h). The mean duration of CSE due to single cNCC was significantly shorter when compared to the duration of CSE due to degenerative stages of NCC (1.96 + 1.39 h vs. 7.87+13.18; p < 0.026). Of the 41 patients, 39 (95%) responded to first-line treatment (intravenous (IV) benzodiazepine followed by IV phenytoin/ fosphenytoin or valproate), two patients required continuous IV midazolam. Both the patients developed aspiration pneumonia. There were no deaths, and all the 41 patients had Glasgow Outcome Score of 5 at 90-day follow-up and were back to their previous occupation. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that CSE due to different evolutionary stages of NCC, SCG, low lesional load, and single calcific lesion is rare even in countries endemic to NCC and is associated with an excellent outcome.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Progressão da Doença , Neurocisticercose/complicações , Neurocisticercose/patologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Criança , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estado Epiléptico/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007501, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a public health and agricultural problem in many low and middle-income countries where health education, sanitation, pig management practices and meat inspection infrastructure are insufficient. Cysticercosis affects both human and animal health and has important economic consequences. Very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the monetary burden of cysticercosis. This study aimed at estimating the 2015 costs associated with cysticercosis in humans and pigs in Mexico. METHODS: The monetary burden of human cysticercosis was estimated based on costs incurred by living with and treating epilepsy and severe chronic headaches associated with neurocysticercosis (NCC). The estimated cost of porcine cysticercosis took into consideration losses due to the reduction in the price of cysticercosis-infected animals. Epidemiologic and economic data were obtained from the published literature, government reports, and setting-specific questionnaires. Latin hypercube sampling methods were employed to sample the distributions of uncertain parameters and to estimate 95% credible regions (95% CRs). All results are reported in 2015 U.S.$. FINDINGS: The overall monetary burden associated with NCC morbidity was estimated at U.S.$215,775,056 (95% CR U.S.$109,309,560 -U.S.$361,924,224), with U.S.$436 (95% CR: U.S.$296 -U.S.$604) lost per patient. If loss of future years of income and productivity due to NCC-associated deaths was included, this value increased by U.S.$54.26 million, assuming that these individuals earned Mexico's median wage salary. An additional U.S.$19,507,171 (95% CR U.S.$5,734,782 -U.S.$35,913,487) was estimated to be lost due to porcine cysticercosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that T. solium cysticercosis results in considerable monetary losses to Mexico.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Cisticercose/economia , Doenças dos Suínos/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Cisticercose/complicações , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/economia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/parasitologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/economia , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia solium , Adulto Jovem
10.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 265-271, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284349

RESUMO

The prevalence of human taeniasis has decreased in Korea. The stool egg positive proportion decreased from 1.9% in 1971 to 0% in 2004 in nationwide surveys. The neurocysticercosis (NCC) is also presumed to decrease. However, detailed information regarding the recent status of NCC in Korea is lacking. We retrospectively reviewed NCC cases from 1990 to 2016 at Asan Medical Center, a 2700-bed tertiary referral hospital in Korea. We identified patients based on clinical symptoms, brain imaging, pathology and serological assay. The cases were classified as parenchymal, extraparenchymal, and mixed NCC. Eighty-one patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 54.5 years, and 79.0% were male. The number of NCC cases was highest from 1995 to 1999, and continuously decreased thereafter. Forty (49.4%) patients had parenchymal NCC, while 25 (30.9%) patients had extraparenchymal NCC, and 16 (19.8%) patients had mixed NCC. The seizure and headache were most common symptom of parenchymal NCC and extraparenchymal NCC respectively. Hydrocephalus was more common in extraparenchymal NCC, and patients with extraparenchymal NCC were more likely to require a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Cases of NCC are decreasing accordingly with human taeniasis and lesion location was the most important determinant of clinical presentation and outcome of NCC in Korea.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(12): 901-907, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314709

RESUMO

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) has a wide spectrum of neurologic and psychiatric manifestations, including epileptic seizures, high intracranial pressure, cognitive dysfunction, and meningoencephalitis. This study presents the clinical diagnosis of 2539 NCC patients in Shandong Province, Eastern China, from 1997 to 2015. The diagnosis was based primarily on clinical features, neuroimaging, immunology, and electroencephalogramy studies. In all age groups, seizures were found to be the most common manifestation, followed by headaches, memory loss, and limb numbness, and disability. After antiparasitic treatment, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that most of the lesions had been completely absorbed in 2106 (82.95%) patients, most of the lesions had been absorbed and a small proportion was converted into calcifications in 433 (17.05%) cases. Indirect hemagglutination (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and circulating antigen (CAg) serum tests initially gave 76.45%, 86.37%, and 80.66% positive results, respectively. After antiparasitic therapy, the positive rates of the IHA, ELISA, and CAg tests were 74.77%, 84.70%, and 3.75%, respectively, showing no significant difference in antibody levels (p > 0.05), but a significant difference in CAg levels (p < 0.01). The clinical antiparasitic treatment of NCC with three to four courses of a combination of albendazole and praziquantel achieved satisfactory therapeutic efficacy.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 479-488, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042536

RESUMO

Abstract This study documented the first outbreak of cerebral coenurosis in goats in Salalah, southern Oman. Deaths of 130 (16.6%) adult native goats in a herd (n=780) were reported from January to June 2017. Affected goats showed various nervous signs ended by death. Investigations for thiamine deficiency, polioencephalomalacia, caprine arthritis encephalitis, and listeriosis were negative. Upon necropsy, multiple (1-4) thin-walled cysts 2-3.5 cm in diameter containing clear fluid with numerous clusters of protoscolices in the cerebrum and cerebellum had replaced the brain parenchyma, causing space-occupying lesions. Parasitologically, the recovered cysts were Coenurus cerebralis, based on the arrangement of protoscolices, and the number and size of their hooks. Morphologically, each protoscolex had four suckers and a rostellum with double-crown hooks. The large and small hooks were 157.7±0.5 µm and 115±0.6 µm in length, respectively. Histopathologically, the parasite destroyed the affected tissues associated with multifocal to diffuse lymphocytic, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis; ischemic neuronal necrosis; and malacia. This is the first report of cerebral coenurosis in livestock in Oman, which should alert the local public health authorities for the application of prevention and control measures.


Resumo Este estudo documentou o primeiro surto de coenurose cerebral em cabras em Salalah, Oman. A morte de 130 (16,6%) caprinos adultos nativos (n=780) foi relatada de janeiro a junho de 2017. As cabras afetadas mostraram distúrbios neurológicos, que culminaram em óbito. Investigações para deficiência de tiamina, polioencefalomalácia, encefalite por artrite caprina e listeriose foram negativas. Na necropsia, múltiplos (1-4) cistos de paredes finas com 2-3,5 cm de diâmetro contendo líquido claro com numerosos aglomerados de protoescólices no cérebro e no cerebelo haviam substituído o parênquima cerebral, causando compressão nas estruturas adjacentes. Os cistos recuperados foram identificados como sendo de Coenurus cerebralis, com base no arranjo dos protoescólices, e no número e tamanho de seus ganchos. Morfologicamente, cada protoescólice tinha quatro ventosas e um rostelo com dupla coroa de ganchos. Os ganchos grandes e pequenos tinham 157,7±0,5 µm e 115±0,6 µm de comprimento, respectivamente. Histopatologicamente, o parasita causou a destruição dos tecidos afetados associada à meningoencefalite linfocítica não-supurativa, que variou de multifocal a difusa, necrose neuronal isquêmica e malacia. Este é o primeiro relato de coenurose em ruminantes no Oman, o que deve servir de alerta para as autoridades locais da área de saúde para a aplicação de medidas de prevenção e controle.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Cabras/parasitologia , Neurocisticercose/veterinária , Omã/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Neurocisticercose/patologia , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia
13.
Brain Res Bull ; 145: 30-38, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170188

RESUMO

Neurocysticercosis is a public health problem and the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this paper, the authors review the epidemiology of cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, as well as the non-specific clinical manifestations which render clinical diagnosis challenging especially in the sub-Saharan African context. Special attention is given to the association of epilepsy and neurocysticercosis, the former being the most common symptom of the later, and the role of the later in epileptogenesis is discussed. The state of the art guidelines regarding diagnostic tests and treatment options are discussed and proposals for prevention are made, given the specific socio-culturaland economic context of the endemic countries, mostly in SSA.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , África , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/terapia , Prevalência , Taenia solium/patogenicidade
14.
Parasitology ; 146(5): 553-562, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430955

RESUMO

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) occurs following brain infection by larvae of the cestode Taenia solium. It is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy worldwide and therefore constitutes a critical health challenge with significant global relevance. Despite this, much is still unknown about many key pathogenic aspects of the disease, including how cerebral infection with T. solium results in the development of seizures. Over the past century, valuable mechanistic insights have been generated using both clinical studies and animal models. In this review, we critically assess model systems for investigating disease processes in NCC. We explore the respective strengths and weaknesses of each model and summarize how they have contributed to current knowledge of the disease. We call for the continued development of animal models of NCC, with a focus on novel strategies for understanding this debilitating but often neglected disorder.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças Negligenciadas , Neurocisticercose , Animais , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia
15.
Indian J Pediatr ; 86(1): 76-82, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28929415

RESUMO

Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminth infection of nervous system in humans caused by the encysted larvae of Taenia solium. It is a major cause of epilepsy in tropical areas and the most common cause of focal-onset seizures in North Indian children. Children with neurocysticercosis have pleomorphic manifestations depending on the location, number and viability of the cysts and host response. In endemic areas, neurocysticercosis should be clinically suspected in any child with recent-onset seizures, headache or focal motor deficits where there is no other suggestion of an underlying neurological disorder. Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is essentially based on neuroimaging; visualization of a scolex is diagnostic. Management includes use of cysticidal drugs usually albendazole, which seems to be effective for lesion resolution and seizure remission, use of steroids and anti-epileptic drugs. Single lesions portend good prognosis with resolution of lesions in >60% of the cases within 6 mo and good seizure control. Prognosis is guarded in cysticercus encephalitis, racemose and extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/terapia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Criança , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neuroimagem , Prognóstico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Taenia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(1): 140-142, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457096

RESUMO

Reintroduction of Taenia solium into a region in Peru where it had been eliminated prompted evaluation of the possibility of reintroduction from an urban reservoir of taeniasis. In a cross-sectional study of an adjacent urban area, we found low prevalence of taeniasis (4/1,621; 0.25%), suggesting minimal risk of parasite reintroduction into rural areas through this route.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Teníase/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/complicações , Teníase/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 890, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the extent and health burden of neurocysticercosis in the general community of the Mbulu district, northern Tanzania. About 1051 randomly select participants were screened for human cysticercosis. The Cysticercus Western Blot IgG and Computed Tomography scan were used to detect infection by cysticerci. The DALYs was used to assess the community's health burden vis-a-vis neurocysticercosis. RESULTS: The sero-prevalence of HCC was 16.27%. About 76% of 25 selected human cysticercosis sero-positives had neurocysticercosis suggestive lesions on CT scan and 74% had history of epilepsy. Epilepsy caused 2.8 years of life lost and 2.2 healthy years of life lost due to disability per 1000 person-years in Mbulu. The average DALYs imposed due to neurocysticercosis and epilepsy were 3.0 and 3.9 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Neurocysticercosis is a serious public health concern in northern Tanzania.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurocisticercose/sangue , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 569, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are food-borne parasites of global importance. In eastern Europe only fragmented information is available on the epidemiology of these zoonotic parasites in humans and animal populations. In particular for T. solium, on-going transmission is suspected. The aim of this systematic review was to collect the available data and describe the current knowledge on the epidemiology of T. solium and T. saginata in eastern Europe. METHODS: Literature published in international databases from 1990 to 2017 was systematically reviewed. Furthermore, local sources and unpublished data from national databases were retrieved from local eastern European experts. The study area included 22 countries. RESULTS: Researchers from 18 out of the 22 countries provided data from local and unpublished sources, while no contacts could be established with researchers from Belarus, Kosovo, Malta and Ukraine. Taeniosis and human cysticercosis cases were reported in 14 and 15 out of the 22 countries, respectively. Estonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia reported cases of porcine cysticercosis. Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine reported bovine cysticercosis. CONCLUSIONS: There is indication that taeniosis and cysticercosis are present across eastern Europe but information on the occurrence of T. solium and T. saginata across the region remains incomplete. Available data are scarce and species identification is in most cases absent. Given the public health impact of T. solium and the potential economic and trade implications due to T. saginata, notification of taeniosis and human cysticercosis should be implemented and surveillance and notification systems in animals should be improved.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Teníase/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Europa Oriental/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia saginata/fisiologia , Taenia solium/fisiologia , Teníase/parasitologia
19.
Euro Surveill ; 23(40)2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301492

RESUMO

IntroductionNeurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the leading causes of epilepsy worldwide. The majority of cases in Europe are diagnosed in immigrants. Currently in Italy, routine serological screening for cysticercosis is recommended for internationally adopted children (IAC) coming from endemic countries. Methods: We retrospectively analyse the results of the serological screening for cysticercosis in IAC 16 years old or younger, attending two Italian third level paediatric clinics in 2001-16. Results: Of 2,973 children included in the study, 2,437 (82.0%) were screened by enzyme-linked immune electro transfer blot (EITB), 1,534 (51.6%) by ELISA, and 998 (33.6%) by both tests. The seroprevalence of cysticercosis ranged between 1.7% and 8.9% according to EITB and ELISA, respectively. Overall, 13 children were diagnosed with NCC accounting for a NCC frequency of 0.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2-0.6%). Among the 168 seropositive children, only seven (4.2%) were diagnosed with NCC. Of these children, three were asymptomatic and four presented epilepsy. Among seronegative children (n = 2,805), seven presented with neurological symptoms that lead to the diagnosis of NCC in six cases. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for the diagnosis of NCC were 54.5%, 98.6%, 14.6%, 99.8% for EITB and 22.2%, 91.1%, 1.4%, 99.5% for ELISA. The yield of the screening programme was 437 NCC cases per 100,000. The number needed to screen to detect one NCC case was 228. The cost per NCC case detected was EUR 10,372. Conclusion: On the base of our findings we suggest the ongoing serological screening for cysticercosis to be discontinued, at least in Italy, until further evidence in support will be available.


Assuntos
Criança Adotada , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Immunoblotting/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/economia , Adolescente , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Doenças Negligenciadas/economia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/economia , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Taenia solium/imunologia
20.
Parasite ; 25: 49, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230445

RESUMO

Cysticercosis is caused by the larvae of the cestode Taenia solium. Few data are available on the prevalence of this disease in pigs and humans in West African countries. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of existing data concerning the spread of this parasitosis in the countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) on the basis of the literature published over the last five decades. Systematic searches for publications were carried out on PubMed and Google Scholar, as well as in certain regional and local journals. From a total of 501 articles initially retrieved concerning T. solium cysticercosis in West African countries, only 120 articles were relevant for this review and therefore finally retained. For pigs, only eight out of sixteen countries of the region have reported porcine cysticercosis. Post-mortem examination of carcasses at slaughterhouses, meat inspection at butcheries or tongue inspection in herds have been the main source of data, but may not entirely reflect actual parasite distribution. For humans, only five out of sixteen countries reported epidemiological data on neurocysticercosis. Most data referred to neurocysticercosis prevalence among epileptic patients or isolated clinical cases. Furthermore, existing data are often old. Overall, T. solium cysticercosis remains largely neglected in West Africa, and its prevalence appears not to be affected by any religion in particular. There is an urgent need to promote and implement health partnerships and programs on this disease in order to collect more data and identify sensitive populations in the countries of the ECOWAS area.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Matadouros , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cisticercose/transmissão , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/epidemiologia , Neurocisticercose/parasitologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia
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