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1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(2): 87-92, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115484

RESUMO

Glaucoma, progressive optic neuropathy, is the first cause of blindness in Japan. Blindness in this disease is induced by damages or degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), retinal neurons transmit visual information to brain. An elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is widely recognized as one of the most important risk factors and that IOP directly damages RGCs by mechanical stress, however, accumulating evidences have shown that a majority of Japanese patients for primary open angle glaucoma shows normal level of IOP. Thus, new target for glaucoma pathology is emerged. In this issue, we introduce potential roles of glial cells for pathogenesis of glaucoma. In the CNS, reactive gliosis has been recognized in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Such glial activation is also found in retinae of human glaucoma patients and animal models. Importantly, glial activation precedes RGS degeneration, indicating the possibility that reactive glial cells actively contribute to pathogenesis of glaucoma. In this issue, we will focus on macroglial cells such as Muller cells and astrocytes, and discuss their roles in glaucoma.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Animais , Astrócitos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Ependimogliais/patologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Retina/citologia
2.
Science ; 367(6476): 365-366, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974234
3.
Neuron ; 105(1): 9-11, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951529

RESUMO

Adult oligodendrogenesis is regulated by neuronal activity and learning. Can it affect memory processes? In this issue of Neuron, Steadman et al. (2020) found that newly generated oligodendrocytes are crucial for memory acquisition and consolidation and required for the neuronal coupling between brain regions known to be involved in memory.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Memória , Animais , Aprendizagem , Memória , Camundongos , Neuroglia , Oligodendroglia
4.
Brain Nerve ; 71(12): 1373-1383, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787626

RESUMO

Prof. Masao Ito contributed greatly to the elucidation of the structure and function of cerebellar neuronal circuits. He formulated a cerebellar motor learning theory and an internal model hypothesis and pursued how complex cerebellar functions resulted from the operation of neural circuits. In this article, we first provide a brief overview of the major cell types and the synaptic organization of cerebellar neural circuits. Then we introduce how mature cerebellar neural circuits are shaped through synapse formation and pruning during postnatal development. We also refer to the maturation of inhibitory neurons and glial cells during postnatal development.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Humanos , Sinapses
5.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226575, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy is characterized by progressive changes of both neurons and glia, also referred to as epileptogenesis. No curative treatment options, apart from surgery, are available. DNA methylation (DNAm) is a potential upstream mechanism in epileptogenesis and may serve as a novel therapeutic target. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate epilepsy-related DNAm, gene expression (GE) and their relationship, in neurons and glia. METHODS: We used the intracortical kainic acid injection model to elicit status epilepticus. At 24 hours post injection, hippocampi from eight kainic acid- (KA) and eight saline-injected (SH) mice were extracted and shock frozen. Separation into neurons and glial nuclei was performed by flow cytometry. Changes in DNAm and gene expression were measured with reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and mRNA-sequencing (mRNAseq). Statistical analyses were performed in R with the edgeR package. RESULTS: We observed fulminant DNAm- and GE changes in both neurons and glia at 24 hours after initiation of status epilepticus. The vast majority of these changes were specific for either neurons or glia. At several epilepsy-related genes, like HDAC11, SPP1, GAL, DRD1 and SV2C, significant differential methylation and differential gene expression coincided. CONCLUSION: We found neuron- and glia-specific changes in DNAm and gene expression in early epileptogenesis. We detected single genetic loci in several epilepsy-related genes, where DNAm and GE changes coincide, worth further investigation. Further, our results may serve as an information source for neuronal and glial alterations in both DNAm and GE in early epileptogenesis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neuroglia/química , Neurônios/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/induzido quimicamente , Galanina/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Ácido Caínico/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Osteopontina/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D1/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1185: 125-130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884600

RESUMO

Intravitreal (IVT) injection of ophthalmic therapeutics is the most widely used drug delivery route to the posterior segment of the eye. We employed this method to deliver our inorganic, catalytic antioxidant, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs), to rodent models of retinal degeneration. A single IVT of CeNPs delays disease progression. Even though we have shown that our synthesized CeNPs are retained in the retina for over a year, we still do not know which cell types in the retina preferentially take up these nanoparticles. In this study, we examined the temporal and spatial distribution of fluorescently labeled CeNPs in retinal sections after IVT. We detected elevated fluorescent signals in all the layers where retinal neurons and glia reside and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) up to 90 days post injection. Additionally, we found that free fluorochrome accumulated in retinal vasculature instead of retinal cells. These data suggested that CeNP-conjugation mediated the targeting of the fluorochrome to retinal cells. We propose that CeNPs can be deployed as ophthalmic carriers to the retina.


Assuntos
Carbocianinas/análise , Nanopartículas , Retina/citologia , Animais , Cério , Fluorescência , Injeções Intravítreas , Camundongos , Neuroglia , Neurônios , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1185: 469-473, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884656

RESUMO

The concept that Müller glia (MG) are major retinal supporting cells for neuroprotection under various stresses is well established. However, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms of MG-mediated neuroprotection remain elusive. Particularly, the role and mechanism of MG in neuroprotection under diabetic and hypoxic stresses are largely unknown. In this article, we will discuss the role and mechanisms of a major growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in mediating MG viability and its potential impact on neuronal integrity in diabetes and hypoxia, demonstrate results on alternative mechanisms to VEGF signaling for MG and neural protection, and highlight the relevance of our work to the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, wet age-related macular degeneration, and other hypoxic retinal vascular diseases.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroproteção , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 47(6): 1651-1660, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845742

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a dynamic network of various macromolecules that are synthesized and released by surrounding cells into the intercellular space. Glycoproteins, proteoglycans and fibrillar proteins are main components of the ECM. In addition to general functions such as structure and stability, the ECM controls several cellular signaling pathways. In this context, ECM molecules have a profound influence on intracellular signaling as receptor-, adhesion- and adaptor-proteins. Due to its various functions, the ECM is essential in the healthy organism, but also under pathological conditions. ECM constituents are part of the glial scar, which is formed in several neurodegenerative diseases that are accompanied by the activation and infiltration of glia as well as immune cells. Remodeling of the ECM modulates the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines affecting the fate of immune, glial and neuronal cells. Tenascin-C is an ECM glycoprotein that is expressed during embryonic central nervous system (CNS) development. In adults it is present at lower levels but reappears under pathological conditions such as in brain tumors, following injury and in neurodegenerative disorders and is highly associated with glial reactivity as well as scar formation. As a key modulator of the immune response during neurodegeneration in the CNS, tenascin-C is highlighted in this mini-review.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Tenascina/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
9.
PLoS Genet ; 15(11): e1008478, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693685

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms allow animals to coordinate behavioral and physiological processes with respect to one another and to synchronize these processes to external environmental cycles. In most animals, circadian rhythms are produced by core clock neurons in the brain that generate and transmit time-of-day signals to downstream tissues, driving overt rhythms. The neuronal pathways controlling clock outputs, however, are not well understood. Furthermore, it is unclear how the central clock modulates multiple distinct circadian outputs. Identifying the cellular components and neuronal circuitry underlying circadian regulation is increasingly recognized as a critical step in the effort to address health pathologies linked to circadian disruption, including heart disease and metabolic disorders. Here, building on the conserved components of circadian and metabolic systems in mammals and Drosophila melanogaster, we used a recently developed feeding monitor to characterize the contribution to circadian feeding rhythms of two key neuronal populations in the Drosophila pars intercerebralis (PI), which is functionally homologous to the mammalian hypothalamus. We demonstrate that thermogenetic manipulations of PI neurons expressing the neuropeptide SIFamide (SIFa) as well as mutations of the SIFa gene degrade feeding:fasting rhythms. In contrast, manipulations of a nearby population of PI neurons that express the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) affect total food consumption but leave feeding rhythms intact. The distinct contribution of these two PI cell populations to feeding is accompanied by vastly different neuronal connectivity as determined by trans-Tango synaptic mapping. These results for the first time identify a non-clock cell neuronal population in Drosophila that regulates feeding rhythms and furthermore demonstrate dissociable control of circadian and homeostatic aspects of feeding regulation by molecularly-defined neurons in a putative circadian output hub.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Jejum , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Mamíferos/genética , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1190: 3-22, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760634

RESUMO

Increasing studies have demonstrated multiple signaling molecules responsible for oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells development such as migration, differentiation, myelination, and axo-glial interaction. However, complicated roles in these events are still poorly understood. This chapter focuses on well established intracellular signaling transduction and recent topics that control myelination and are elucidated from accumulating evidences. The underlying molecular mechanisms, which involved in membrane trafficking through small GTPase Arf6 and its activator cytohesins, demonstrate the crosstalk between well established intracellular signaling transduction and a new finding signaling pathway in glial cells links to physiological phenotype and essential role in peripheral nerve system (PNS). Since Arf family proteins affect the expression levels of myelin protein zero (MPZ) and Krox20, which is a transcription factor regulatory factor in early developmental stages of Schwann cells, Arf proteins likely to be key regulator for Schwann cells development. Herein, we discuss how intracellular signaling transductions in Schwann cells associate with myelination in CNS and PNS.


Assuntos
Remielinização , Células de Schwann/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos , Bainha de Mielina/fisiologia , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Oligodendroglia/fisiologia
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1190: 65-83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760639

RESUMO

Propagation of action potentials along axons is optimized through interactions between neurons and myelinating glial cells. Myelination drives division of the axons into distinct molecular domains including nodes of Ranvier. The high density of voltage-gated sodium channels at nodes generates action potentials allowing for rapid and efficient saltatory nerve conduction. At paranodes flanking both sides of the nodes, myelinating glial cells interact with axons, forming junctions that are essential for node formation and maintenance. Recent studies indicate that the disruption of these specialized axonal domains is involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological diseases. Loss of paranodal axoglial junctions due to genetic mutations or autoimmune attack against the paranodal proteins leads to nerve conduction failure and neurological symptoms. Breakdown of nodal and paranodal proteins by calpains, the calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, may be a common mechanism involved in various nervous system diseases and injuries. This chapter reviews recent progress in neurobiology and pathophysiology of specialized axonal domains along myelinated nerve fibers.


Assuntos
Axônios/fisiologia , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/fisiologia , Condução Nervosa , Axônios/patologia , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Neuroglia/fisiologia
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1190: 165-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760644

RESUMO

Myelin is heavily enriched in lipids (comprising approximately 70% of its dry weight), and the amount of cholesterol and glycolipids is higher than in any other cell membrane. Galactocerebroside (GalC) and its sulfated form, sulfatide, comprise the major glycolipid components of myelin. Their functional significance has been extensively studied using membrane models, cell culture, and in vivo experiments in which either GalC/sulfatide or sulfatide is deficient. From these studies, GalC and sulfatide have been distinctly localized within oligodendrocytes and their specific function in myelin has been elucidated. Here, the function of sulfatide in axo-glial interactions in myelin-forming cells as well as within myelin and its potential mechanisms of action are discussed.


Assuntos
Axônios/fisiologia , Bainha de Mielina/química , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Sulfoglicoesfingolipídeos/química , Humanos , Bainha de Mielina/fisiologia , Oligodendroglia/fisiologia
13.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 48(11): 856-860, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775434

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the expression of LC3B, p-AMPKα and p27 in cortical tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Methods: Nineteen specimens of surgically resected TSC cortical tubers were collected at Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, from 2014 to 2017. The expression of the three proteins in the lesions and the adjacent relatively normal regions was detected by immunohistochemical staining (EnVision two-step method). Results: LC3B was mainly expressed in the dysmorphic neuron and giant cell in TSC cortical tubers and in the adjacent relatively normal neurons, and the expression was diffuse or perinuclear cytoplasmic. There was no significant difference in the average optical density between abnormal cells and neurons adjacent to the lesions (0.343±0.195 vs. 0.419±0.088, P>0.05). p-AMPKα was localized in the cytoplasm of dysmorphic neurons and giant cell in TSC cortical tubers. The average optical density of abnormal cells in the lesions was significantly higher than that of neurons adjacent to the lesions (0.306±0.123 vs. 0.233±0.654, P<0.05). P27 showed nuclear positivity, mainly expressed in the neurons and glial cells close to TSC cortical tubers, while the positive rate in the abnormal cells in TSC cortical tubers was low (15/19 vs. 7/19, P<0.05). Conclusion: There is no significant decrease in the level of autophagy in dysmorphic neurons and giant cells in TSC cortical tubers, which may be related to the compensatory mechanism of AMPK signaling pathway, but without activation of downstream p27.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Humanos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 9): 406, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans have adapted to widespread changes during the past 2 million years in both environmental and lifestyle factors. This is evident in overall body alterations such as average height and brain size. Although we can appreciate the uniqueness of our species in many aspects, molecular variations that drive such changes are far from being fully known and explained. Comparative genomics is able to determine variations in genomic sequence that may provide functional information to better understand species-specific adaptations. A large number of human-specific genomic variations have been reported but no currently available dataset comprises all of these, a problem which contributes to hinder progress in the field. RESULTS: Here we critically update high confidence human-specific genomic variants that mostly associate with protein-coding regions and find 856 related genes. Events that create such human-specificity are mainly gene duplications, the emergence of novel gene regions and sequence and structural alterations. Functional analysis of these human-specific genes identifies adaptations to brain, immune and metabolic systems to be highly involved. We further show that many of these genes may be functionally associated with neural activity and generating the expanded human cortex in dynamic spatial and temporal contexts. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive study contributes to the current knowledge by considerably updating the number of human-specific genes following a critical bibliographic survey. Human-specific genes were functionally assessed for the first time to such extent, thus providing unique information. Our results are consistent with environmental changes, such as immune challenges and alterations in diet, as well as neural sophistication, as significant contributors to recent human evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Genes , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Ontologia Genética , Genoma Humano , Genômica , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 1951-1960, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719671

RESUMO

The establishment of neuronal and glial networks in the brain depends on the activities of neural progenitors, which are influenced by cell-intrinsic mechanisms, interactions with the local microenvironment and long-range signaling. Progress in neuroscience has helped identify key factors in CNS development. In parallel, studies in recent years have increased our understanding of molecular and cellular factors in the development and growth of primary brain tumors. To thrive, glioma cells exploit pathways that are active in normal CNS progenitor cells, as well as in normal neurotransmitter signaling. Furthermore, tumor cells of incurable gliomas integrate into communicating multicellular networks, where they are interconnected through neurite-like cellular protrusions. In this Review, we discuss evidence that CNS development, organization and function share a number of common features with glioma progression and malignancy. These include mechanisms used by cells to proliferate and migrate, interact with their microenvironment and integrate into multicellular networks. The emerging intersections between the fields of neuroscience and neuro-oncology considered in this review point to new research directions and novel therapeutic opportunities.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Glioma/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4902, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653841

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly. However, it has been challenging to identify the cell types associated with AMD given the genetic complexity of the disease. Here we perform massively parallel single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of human retinas using two independent platforms, and report the first single-cell transcriptomic atlas of the human retina. Using a multi-resolution network-based analysis, we identify all major retinal cell types, and their corresponding gene expression signatures. Heterogeneity is observed within macroglia, suggesting that human retinal glia are more diverse than previously thought. Finally, GWAS-based enrichment analysis identifies glia, vascular cells, and cone photoreceptors to be associated with the risk of AMD. These data provide a detailed analysis of the human retina, and show how scRNA-seq can provide insight into cell types involved in complex, inflammatory genetic diseases.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Degeneração Macular/genética , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Retina/citologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/metabolismo , Neurônios Retinianos/metabolismo , Vasos Retinianos/citologia , Células Amácrinas/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Microglia/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Células Bipolares da Retina/metabolismo , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Células Horizontais da Retina/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo , Vasos Retinianos/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 1-13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583582

RESUMO

Neuroglia represent a diverse population of non-neuronal cells in the nervous systems, be that peripheral, central, enteric or autonomic nervous system. Arguably, these cells represent about half of the volume of the human brain. This volumetric ratio, and by extension glia to neurone ratio, not only widely differ depending on the size of the animal species brain and its positioning on the phylogenetic tree, but also vary between the regions of an individual brain. Neuroglia derived from a dual origin (ectoderm and mesodermal) and in an assorted morphology, yet their functional traits can be mainly classified into being keepers of homeostasis (water, ions, neurotransmitters, metabolites, fuels, etc.) and defenders (e.g., against microbial organisms, etc.) of the nervous system. As these capabilities go awry, neuroglia ultimately define their fundamental role in most, if not, all neuropathologies. This concept presented in this chapter serves as a general introduction into the world of neuroglia and subsequent topics covered by this book.


Assuntos
Neuroglia/fisiologia , Animais , Homeostase , Humanos , Neurônios , Neurotransmissores , Filogenia
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 15-44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583583

RESUMO

As the nervous system evolved from the diffused to centralised form, the neurones were joined by the appearance of the supportive cells, the neuroglia. Arguably, these non-neuronal cells evolve into a more diversified cell family than the neurones are. The first ancestral neuroglia appeared in flatworms being mesenchymal in origin. In the nematode C. elegans proto-astrocytes/supportive glia of ectodermal origin emerged, albeit the ensheathment of axons by glial cells occurred later in prawns. The multilayered myelin occurred by convergent evolution of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells in vertebrates above the jawless fishes. Nutritive partitioning of the brain from the rest of the body appeared in insects when the hemolymph-brain barrier, a predecessor of the blood-brain barrier was formed. The defensive cellular mechanism required specialisation of bona fide immune cells, microglia, a process that occurred in the nervous system of leeches, bivalves, snails, insects and above. In ascending phylogeny, new type of glial cells, such as scaffolding radial glia, appeared and as the bran sizes enlarged, the glia to neurone ratio increased. Humans possess some unique glial cells not seen in other animals.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Neuroglia/citologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Humanos , Bainha de Mielina , Neurônios/citologia , Oligodendroglia/citologia
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 45-91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583584

RESUMO

Astrocytes are principal cells responsible for maintaining the brain homeostasis. Additionally, these glial cells are also involved in homocellular (astrocyte-astrocyte) and heterocellular (astrocyte-other cell types) signalling and metabolism. These astroglial functions require an expression of the assortment of molecules, be that transporters or pumps, to maintain ion concentration gradients across the plasmalemma and the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Astrocytes sense and balance their neurochemical environment via variety of transmitter receptors and transporters. As they are electrically non-excitable, astrocytes display intracellular calcium and sodium fluctuations, which are not only used for operative signalling but can also affect metabolism. In this chapter we discuss the molecules that achieve ionic gradients and underlie astrocyte signalling.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Cálcio , Homeostase , Humanos , Bombas de Íon/fisiologia , Neuroglia , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Sódio
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