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1.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 450-452, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756861

RESUMO

In this manuscript we pay a tribute to Pierre Marie (1853-1940), highlighting his great contribution to medicine and neurology describing several diseases and syndromes. We mainly emphasize aspects of his personal life and personality traits. Considered one of the three greatest neurologists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, his brilliant career began at La Salpêtrière, followed by the development of a neurological school at Hospice Bicêtre. Pierre Marie had numerous disciples around the world, including Brazil, and published on various neurological and endocrinological themes. Back to La Salpêtrière, he concluded his professional life as a Neurology leader. However, after retirement, his demise was sad and lonely.


Assuntos
Neurologistas/história , Neurologia/história , França , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Neurology ; 95(2): 72-76, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554764

RESUMO

Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt (1885-1964) is an internationally known Professor of Psychiatry and Neurology. During the time of National Socialism (1933-1945), he worked in the Charite University Hospital Berlin and moved to Kiel University as Head of the Department for Psychiatry and Neurology in 1938. Until the turn of the millennium, Creutzfeldt was considered to be of moral integrity and an opponent of the Nazi regime and its eugenics measures. Publications of the last years came to the conclusion that this depiction does not hold up. They questioned his relations to the ideas and structures of the National Socialist system, his role as a consultant in the National Socialist's forced sterilization program, a possible involvement in the Nazi euthanasia measures, and his position as a psychiatric consultant for the German navy. The article considers 2 aspects concerning the National Socialist racial hygiene in greater detail by using newly found source material. It is shown that Creutzfeldt, although he did not actively resist, was not acting in the interest of the Nazi regime, but rather was trying to save as much patients as possible by changing their diagnoses and prevent them from being killed in the euthanasia program.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional/história , Neurologia/história , Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Eutanásia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Esterilização Involuntária/história
4.
Neurology ; 94(23): 1028-1031, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467130

RESUMO

Treatment of functional symptoms has a long history, and interventions were often used in soldiers returning from battle. On the 75th anniversary of the end of the Second World War, I review the portrayal of neurology in documentary film. Two documentaries were released in 1946 and 1948 (Let There Be Light and Shades of Gray, respectively), which showed a number of soldiers with functional neurology including paralysis, stuttering, muteness, and amnesia. The films showed successful treatments with hypnosis and sodium amytal by psychoanalytic psychiatrists. These documentaries link neurology with psychiatry and are remarkable examples of functional neurology and its treatment on screen.


Assuntos
Distúrbios de Guerra/história , Medicina Militar/história , Filmes Cinematográficos/história , Neurologia/história , Transtornos Somatoformes/história , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/história , II Guerra Mundial , Adulto , Amobarbital/uso terapêutico , Distúrbios de Guerra/psicologia , Distúrbios de Guerra/reabilitação , Distúrbios de Guerra/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Seguimentos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Hipnose/história , Histeria/história , Masculino , Simulação de Doença/diagnóstico , Militares , Neurologia/educação , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/reabilitação , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/reabilitação , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Veteranos
10.
Eur Neurol ; 83(1): 91-96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340016

RESUMO

Movies could provide unexpected information on the state of medical knowledge in different historical periods. The first centenary of the German silent horror movie Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari) by Robert Wiene (1873-1938) could be a timely occasion to reflect on the scientific debate of hypnosis and its legal implications between the 19th and the 20th century. In particular, this article describes the positions of the School of Salpêtrière (Charcot) and the School of Nancy (Bernheim) on the possibility of crimes committed by subjects under hypnosis and the influence of these theories on medical community and public opinion of Germany in the interwar period.


Assuntos
Crime/história , Hipnose/história , Filmes Cinematográficos/história , Crime/ética , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Hipnose/ética , Neurologia/ética , Neurologia/história
12.
Eur Neurol ; 83(1): 105-110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the work was to study the origin of the idea that herpes labialis (HL) in patients with pneumonia and meningitis was believed to be of prognostic importance. BACKGROUND: HL is caused by a primary infection or reactivation of herpes simplex type I. In the past, it has been related to pneumonia and meningitis; moreover, HL was believed to be of prognostic importance. METHODS: A selection of 19th- and 20th-century textbooks and referred articles was consulted. The relation between meningitis and herpes, type of meningitis, and attributed diagnostic and prognostic importance were studied. In addition, the HL-pneumonia association was studied. RESULTS: The Strasbourg physician Charles-Polydore Forget was the first to describe the HL-meningitis association in 1843. Tourdes (1843), Drasche (1859), and Salomon (1864) attributed a favorable prognostic importance to the HL-meningitis relation. In a comprehensive monograph (1866), August Hirsch, although confirming the association, denied the prognostic importance through critical analysis of the data. Few authors attributed a diagnostic importance to the occurrence of HL, suggesting meningococcal meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: The HL-meningitis relation, but not the prognostic importance, has been mentioned in most neurological textbooks since then. In contrast to meningitis, in which a prognostic attribution of HL was only a short-lived 19th-century idea, the favorable prognostic importance of HL in pneumonia continued to be described until the 1950s. A possible protective effect of herpesviruses has been found in recent years. One could speculate that the disappearance of the prognostic HL-pneumonia relation could be related to the introduction of antibiotics in the late 1940s.


Assuntos
Herpes Labial/história , Meningites Bacterianas/história , Neurologia/história , Adulto , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pneumonia/história , Prognóstico
14.
Nervenarzt ; 91(Suppl 1): 13-21, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067081

RESUMO

Max Nonne, an internationally renowned German neurologist, acted from 1918 to 1924 as president of the (first) Society of German Neurologists (GDN). Appointed honorary president in 1925, he held this position in the (second) German Neurological Society (DGN) until his death. Since 1961, this association has honored 16 neurologists with a commemorative medal named after Nonne. His outstanding findings in various fields of neurology are uncontested and some of them live on as eponyms (Nonne-Apelt syndrome, Nonne-Froin syndrome, Nonne-Milroy-Meige syndrome); however, recent archival studies and an analysis of individual publications deeply darkened the image of the "grey eminence" of German neurology. Records kept at the Hamburg State Archive prove that in a memorandum from 1941/1942 following the example of Binding and Hoche, Nonne firmly approved the killing of "life absolutely unworthy of living". In a report addressed to the District Court of Hamburg he attested in 1946 that many physicians charged with manslaughter acted in accordance with the regulations governing "child euthanasia", resulting in the withdrawal of the accusation. In a further statement from 1949 he confirmed that the killing of children and the "euthanasia program" during the NS era were consistent with the state of medical science. An earlier book chapter authored by Nonne immediately after World War I suggested that his social-Darwinistically colored concept of mankind was developed clearly before the Nazi era. Notwithstanding the arrangement to which he came with the new powers after 1933 and his acceptance of tributes to him by them, he repeatedly stood up for his Jewish colleagues. He was never a Nazi, nevertheless, he engaged in activities that fostered NS "euthanasia" going far beyond a "mentality of approval".


Assuntos
Eutanásia , Neurologia , Epônimos , Eutanásia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Socialismo Nacional , Neurologistas , Neurologia/história
15.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 53-55, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074183

RESUMO

The author presents a brief synopsis of the life and works of Professor Francis Rohmer, a French neurologist whose great relevance to the development of the French Neurological Society is only outshined by his humanistic role, in spite of harsh conditions, when a prisoner at the Dachau Concentration Camp in Germany, during World War II.


Assuntos
Neurologia/história , França , História do Século XX , Sociedades Médicas/história
16.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(2): 67-71, 16 ene., 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187249

RESUMO

Introducción: Las alucinaciones visuales constituyen una de las manifestaciones más singulares de diversas situaciones clínicas, ya sea en el ámbito de las enfermedades mentales, de las alteraciones físicas o del consumo de drogas. Sin embargo, el análisis detallado de su vivencia en relación con las causas que pueden producirlas es poco frecuente. Objetivo: Considerar la representación de las alucinaciones visuales en las publicaciones del neurólogo y escritor Oliver Sacks, con especial atención a su obra Hallucinations. Desarrollo: Las alucinaciones han llamado la atención de la cultura, la religión y el arte, lo que ha conllevado múltiples interpretaciones. El interés de Sacks por la percepción de las sensaciones le llevó a investigar los mecanismos por los que se producen las alucinaciones, debido al escaso conocimiento que se tenía sobre el tema. Las alucinaciones aparecieron ya en obras como Migraine, Awakenings o A leg to stand on. En Musicophilia abordó las alucinaciones auditivas, y en Hallucinations las consideró de forma monográfica. En esta última obra, Sacks analizó especialmente las presentes en el síndrome de Charles Bonnet, en situaciones de privación sensorial y en pacientes con epilepsia, las precipitadas por la levodopa y las causadas por drogas de abuso. Conclusiones: Hallucinations es una de las obras de Oliver Sacks con mayor contenido neurooftalmológico. La descripción de las alucinaciones de sus pacientes o las experimentadas en su propia piel y la reflexión sobre el mundo de la percepción hacen de Hallucinations una de las obras más fascinantes de Sacks


Introduction: Hallucinations are one of the most bizarre experiences in several diseases. They appear in mental diseases as well as in physical illnesses and may be the consequence of the usage of drugs of abuse. However, a detailed analysis of how patients feel under hallucinations caused by different diseases is uncommon. Aim: This article analyses how visual hallucinations are considered in the works of the neurologist and writer Oliver Sacks, with special attention to his book Hallucinations. Development: Hallucinations have been under consideration by culture, religion and arts, which has led to multiple interpretations. Sackss interest in perception of sensations led him to work on the analysis of hallucinations, given the limited knowledge on the topic. References to hallucinations appeared in several of his books like Migraine, Awakenings and A leg to stand on. In Musicophilia Sacks approached the auditory hallucinations and in Hallucinations he considered them in depth. In the latter work, Sacks analyses especially those present in Charles Bonnet syndrome, in situations of sensory deprivation, in patients with epilesy, those present during treatment with levodopa and those caused by drug of abuse. Conclusions: Hallucinations is one of Sacks’s books with greater neuroophthalmological content. The descriptions of the hallucinations of his patients or those experienced by himself, as well as the reflective analysis on the world of perception make this book one of the most fascinating works of Oliver Sacks


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XX , Alucinações/história , Neurologia/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Alucinações/epidemiologia , Alucinógenos/história , Literatura/história
18.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(1): 1-19, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852875

RESUMO

The Japanese Society of Neurology and Psychiatry was founded in 1902 as a joint society of Neurology and Psychiatry, but was renamed the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology in 1935 because of the stagnation of activities of Neurology and the rise of those of Psychiatry. After World War II, activities of Neurology were restored and the Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN) independent from the Societies of Internal Medicine and Psychiatry was established in 1960 after overcoming many difficulties. In 1975, neurology was approved by law as one of the specialized fields of medicine. After that, neurology and JSN developed dramatically, both in research and medical practices. As of 2018, JSN had 9,000 members and more than 5,500 board-certified neurology specialists. JSN successfully hosted the World Congress of Neurology twice in 1981 and 2017. In 2002, JSN accepted the offer to join the Japanese Board of Medical Specialties as one of the subspecialties of Internal Medicine. In 2018 JSN enacted a new policy to upgrade the neurology specialist from a subspecialty of Internal Medicine to an independent major medical field. Lessons of the 116 years of history of the Society would teach us a sensible way to achieve the goals.


Assuntos
Neurologia/história , Neurologia/tendências , Sociedades Médicas/história , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Japão
20.
Neuropathology ; 40(1): 3-13, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802544

RESUMO

Pitié and La Salpêtrière, both founded in the17th century, were for long two distinct hospitals until they merged in 1964. The name La Salpêtrière is inherited from the initial purpose of the buildings designed to produce saltpeter for gun powder. But the place was soon transformed into an asylum to shelter the poor and the insane. From the care of this underprivileged population, alienists such as Pinel have paved the way for modern medicine for the mentally ill at the time of the French Revolution. In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot and his students laid the foundations of modern neurology from the observation of the large population hosted in La Salpêtrière, mostly women with severe chronic diseases. Charcot led clinicopathological studies in almost all the fields of nervous system disorders. His successors (including Raymond, Dejerine, Pierre Marie) maintained the same close relationship between clinical neurology and neuropathology. In parallel with the development of neurosurgery at Pitié hospital, neuropathology first spread through small laboratories attached to clinical departments. The merger of the two hospitals in the early '60s coincided with the creation of a large university hospital in which the care and study of diseases of the nervous system were preponderant. An independent laboratory of neuropathology was created, led by Raymond Escourolle. This period was on the eve of important developments in neuroscience around the world. Today, the Pitié-Salpêtrière neuropathology laboratory still plays a central role between neurology and neurosurgery clinics and major research institutes such as the Brain Institute, callled Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle (ICM), and the Institute of Myology.


Assuntos
Hospitais Universitários/história , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/história , Neurologia/história , Neuropatologia/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
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