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3.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 450-452, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756861

RESUMO

In this manuscript we pay a tribute to Pierre Marie (1853-1940), highlighting his great contribution to medicine and neurology describing several diseases and syndromes. We mainly emphasize aspects of his personal life and personality traits. Considered one of the three greatest neurologists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, his brilliant career began at La Salpêtrière, followed by the development of a neurological school at Hospice Bicêtre. Pierre Marie had numerous disciples around the world, including Brazil, and published on various neurological and endocrinological themes. Back to La Salpêtrière, he concluded his professional life as a Neurology leader. However, after retirement, his demise was sad and lonely.


Assuntos
Neurologistas/história , Neurologia/história , França , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 175(6): 377-379, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056193

RESUMO

Peduncular hallucinosis (PH) is a rare clinical syndrome with dream-like visual hallucinations intruding normal consciousness. It was initially reported in a 72-year-old woman by Jean Lhermitte in 1992. We uncovered the medical file of this patient with handwritten notes by Lhermitte and commented on it in the light of neurological knowledge that was common at that time. All along his career, Lhermitte has always been fascinated by consciousness disturbances, dreams and hallucinations. He had here the brilliant intuition of linking PH to awareness mechanisms located in the mesencephalic area. This PH case represented a good opportunity to him to emphasize the close relationships between neurology and psychiatry.


Assuntos
Pedúnculo Cerebral/patologia , Alucinações/patologia , Neurologistas , Neurologia/história , Neuropsiquiatria , Idoso , Feminino , França , Alucinações/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neurologistas/história , Neuropsiquiatria/história
7.
Pract Neurol ; 19(5): 427-430, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948556

RESUMO

There are three classes of people: those who see, those who see when they are shown, those who do not see Leonardo da Vinci The three cardinal qualities necessary for the ideal neurologist are observation, the ability to reason backwards inferentially and specialist knowledge. Modern medical technology has greatly increased the ability to diagnose and treat disease but it has also encouraged a benign variant of abulia, which is killing off the art and science of clinical reasoning. Intent gazing at the unfamiliar with old eyes or a long look at the familiar with new eyes offers the neurologist an opportunity to discover hitherto unnoticed diagnostic signs far beyond the resolution of the brain scanner and even the light microscope. While there may be nothing new under the sun, there are plenty of old things that no one has observed, which have the potential to greatly improve clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neurologistas , Neurologia , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Neurologistas/história , Neurologia/história , Pacientes , Padrões de Prática Médica/história
8.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 75: 34-44, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782510

RESUMO

This paper examines the concept of representation in the brain which occurs in the writings of the neurologist John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911). Jackson was immersed in Victorian physiological psychology, a hybrid of British associationism and a reflex theory of the operation of the nervous system. Furthermore, Jackson was deeply influenced by Herbert Spencer, and I argue that Spencer's progressivist evolutionary ideas are in tension with the more mechanistic approach of the reflex theory. I also discuss Jackson's legacy in the 20th century and the longstanding debate about localisation of function in the brain.


Assuntos
Neurologistas/história , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Inglaterra , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
10.
Neurol Sci ; 40(1): 221-225, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232667

RESUMO

Ernst Trömner (1868-1930) was a German neurologist and psychiatrist at the St. Georg Hospital in Hamburg. As clinician and researcher, he contributed to our understanding of various fields within neurology including language and speech disorders, hypnosis and suggestion, sleep physiology and diseases, leukemia with nervous system involvement, gait disorders, metabolic myelopathy, Parkinson's disease, organic psychosis, and schizophrenia. However, his main interest was muscle reflexes. De facto, Trömner described a variant of the Achilles tendon reflex, a modification of the Oppenheim's and Babinski's reflexes, "rediscovered" the corneomandibular reflex and described the joint reflexes of the lower extremities as well as a muscle stretch reflex of the diaphragm. Moreover, Trömner has developed the first sedimentation chamber to assess the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the muscle plessimeter and, probably most considerable, the reflex hammer which is widely used by neurologists around the globe to date and is commonly referred to as the "Trömner hammer." His name has also become inextricably linked with the finger flexor reflex, which is commonly known as the "Trömner reflex." This article briefly summarizes Professor Ernst Trömner's life and his contributions to clinical neurology and psychiatry beyond his most famous eponyms, the hammer and the finger flexor reflex.


Assuntos
Equipamentos para Diagnóstico/história , Neurologistas/história , Reflexo , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
12.
Neurocrit Care ; 30(1): 1-4, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288292

RESUMO

Neurologic examination of the comatose patient has gradually matured. Less than 50 years ago, neurological examination in coma became a regular part of textbooks with separate chapters devoted to the topic but many were deficient in detail. In 1969, C.M. Fisher published an extraordinary 56-page paper on the examination of the comatose patient. The paper-one of Fisher's gems-is not well known and infrequently cited. The many new observations collected in this comprehensive paper are reviewed in this vignette, which highlights not only how these contributions shaped our thinking on coma but also questioned shaky concepts.


Assuntos
Coma/diagnóstico , Exame Neurológico/história , Neurologistas/história , Coma/história , História do Século XX , Humanos
14.
J Hist Neurosci ; 27(3): 214-234, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118409

RESUMO

"The Four Horsemen" was the nickname given to the four neurologists-Abraham Baker, Francis Forster, Russell DeJong, and Adolph Sahs-who were most instrumental in founding and developing the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) beginning around 1948. Forster later humorously added "and their nags" to the epithet to reflect the cohesion of the founders and their wives. This article presents the personal recollections of these founders from correspondence and oral histories. When the AAN was founded, private-practice neurologists and residents were excluded from the academically oriented and restrictive American Neurological Association (ANA). Baker conceptualized the AAN as an inclusive professional society that would accept all neurologists of whatever age and level of training, and that would strive to strengthen their knowledge, competencies, and skills through continuing medical education and guideline development. Baker recruited supportive colleagues to help create and develop the organization. Their intention was not to compete with or subvert the ANA, but to offer an inclusive professional organization for all neurologists. Nevertheless, their efforts produced opposition among ANA members. To defuse the antagonism, neurologist Alphonse Vonderahe proposed an influential House-Senate formulation of the AAN-ANA relationship, modeled after the U.S. Congress, both as a supporting rationale for the AAN and as a conceptual model for the functional relationship between the two organizations. The inclusive approach greatly augmented the ranks of the fledgling AAN, whereas those of the ANA stayed relatively stagnant, with the AAN ultimately becoming the dominant neurological society. These neurologic pioneers laid the groundwork for an invigorated, well-trained, scientifically based specialty of neurology in the second half of the twentieth century.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , Neurologistas/história , Neurologia/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
15.
Medisan ; 22(5)mayo 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-986735

RESUMO

Los inicios de la Neurología en Cuba se remontan a principios del siglo XIX, pero su definición como especialidad independiente se debió fundamentalmente a la intensa labor asistencial, docente e investigativa del profesor José Rafael Estrada González. Un hito importante fue la creación en 1962 del Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía. En la provincia de Santiago de Cuba los primeros neurólogos comenzaron a trabajar en la década de los 70 y a partir de 1983 se inició la docencia de posgrado. En estos años transcurridos se ha consolidado el trabajo docente, asistencial e investigativo de la especialidad, plenamente integrada a todos los programas y tareas del sistema de salud en el país.


The onset of Neurology in Cuba go back to the beginning of the XIX century, but its definition as independent specialty was mainly due to the intense assistance, educational and investigative work of professor José Rafael Estrada González. An important landmark was the creation of the Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute in 1962. In the province of Santiago de Cuba the first neurologists began to work in the 70´s and since 1983 the postgrade teaching began. During those years the educational, assistance and investigative work of the specialty has consolidated, fully integrated to all programs and tasks of the health system in the country.


Assuntos
Humanos , Docentes de Medicina/história , Neurologistas/história , Neurologia/história , Cuba , História da Medicina
16.
J Clin Neurosci ; 52: 32-36, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656001

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the last quarter of the XIX century, Paris, France, particularly the Salpêtrière Hospital was the most important centre of reference of Clinical Neurology in the world. The group based on the Salpêtrière Hospital, led by Professor Charcot, who was arguably the most celebrated neurologist in Europe. OBJECTIVE: In this historical review, we present and locate the addresses of the houses of these famous Parisian neurologists from the late XIX century. DISCUSSION: At that time, Charcot and the triumvirate of his most famous pupils, Pierre Marie, Joseph Babinski and Gilles de la Tourette, lived in different streets of Paris, predominantly in a small cluster in the districts known as 7éme and 8émearrondissements (7th and 8th neighbourhoods). Professor Charcot lived in different streets and arrondissements of Paris, including the Rue du Faubourg Poissonnière, Paris IX; Cité de Trévise, Paris IX; Avenue du Coq, Paris IX; l'Hôtel de Chimay, Quai Malaquais Paris; and finally his most famous address at the Boulevard Saint-Germain, 217 (previously l'Hôtel de Varangeville), in the Faubourg Saint-Germain, Paris VII. (1884). CONCLUSION: The best urban organization in Paris provided an interaction between Charcot and other privileged minds of his day. We were remembering and visiting, as a "Flaneur Neurologique in Paris", the addresses of the houses of these famous and outstanding Parisian neurologists from the late XIX century.


Assuntos
Neurologistas/história , Neurologia/história , França , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
17.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 34(7): 1271-1278, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557512

RESUMO

In this article, we discuss on the role of the British physician and midwifery practitioner John Clarke (1760-1815) in the characterisation of the various types of seizures and epilepsy and related phenomena ('convulsions') occurring in children. In his unfinished work Commentaries on Some of the Most Important Diseases of Children (1815), Clarke discussed the pathophysiology of convulsions and was the first to describe, 12 years before the French neurologist Louis Francois Bravais (1801-1843) and more than 30 years before the Irish-born physician Robert Bentley Todd (1809-1860), the postictal paresis. He believed that convulsions originated from changes in pressure within the ventricles as a consequence of abnormal blood flow to the cerebral vessels. In keeping with the theories of his time (e.g. Baumes 1789, 1805; Brachet 1824), Clarke believed that teething was a major cause of 'infantile convulsions'. His proposed remedies ranged from scarification of the gums to ammonia, application of leeches, cold water, and purgatives. The use of antispasmodics, quite popular at the time, was instead questioned. In his Practical Observations on the Convulsions of Infants (1826), the London practitioner and midwifery John North (1790-1873) deeply criticised Clarke's view that convulsions arise inevitably as a consequence of organic brain lesions. North inferred that the results of autopsies of children who had died of convulsions revealed no brain damages, and claimed that cerebral irritation could also occur as the effect of distant lesions. Other Clarke's contemporaries (e.g. Jean Baptiste Timothée Baumes-1756-1828) inferred that all convulsions reflected a hereditary diathesis, which rendered children (especially those with softer and limper nervous and muscular tissues!) extremely sensitive to all sorts of provocation that could trigger convulsions, including bad digestion (more pronounced at the time of teething), loud noise, and bright light. Although almost every aspect of Clarke's view on convulsions was subsequently proved wrong, his (and his contemporaries') work provides fascinating insights into the theories and therapies of seizures, which were popular at the dawn of modern neurology.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/história , Neurologistas/história , Neurologia/história , Convulsões/história , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
18.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 76(2): 113-116, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489966

RESUMO

The year 2016 was the centennial anniversary of the recognition of the Guillain-Barré syndrome, which was first described by George Guillain, Jean-Alexandre Barré and André Strohl. In celebration of the centennial, this historical review describes aspects of the contributions of Guillain and the Spanish neurologist, Barraquer-Bordas and a brief account of the Fourth International Neurological Congress, which brought together Guillain and Barraquer-Bordas. There were many outstanding Brazilian physicians at that meeting. Finally, the author describes his interaction with Barraquer-Bordas and provides an account of his influence in shaping a generation of Brazilian neurologists, including himself.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/história , Neurologistas/história , Neurologia/história , Brasil , Congressos como Assunto/história , Epônimos , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/virologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Paris , Espanha , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
19.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 76(2): 117-119, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489967

RESUMO

Augusta Marie Déjerine-Klumpke (1859-1927) was a formidable neurologist, neuroanatomist and researcher in France. One of the first women to be accepted for medical internship, externship and research in Paris, Augusta made her name studying and teaching anatomy, histology and dissection, attending clinical activities in neurology, obstetrics, pediatrics and neurologic trauma, performing necropsies, and writing scientific papers and book chapters. Her main research in neurology awarded her an eponym for the avulsion of the lowest root of the brachial plexus (Klumpke's palsy). Married to her professor, the remarkable Dr. Joseph Jules Déjerine, Augusta continued her career and became the first female president of the French Society of Neurology.


Assuntos
Neurologistas/história , Neurologia/história , Médicas/história , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/história , Epônimos , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neuroanatomia/história , Paris
20.
J Hist Neurosci ; 27(2): 117-144, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469679

RESUMO

In 1934, Gabrielle Lévy died at the age of 48. She became well known for an article she published on a hereditary polyneuropathy in cooperation with Gustav Roussy, resulting in the eponym Roussy-Lévy syndrome. Not much is known about this extraordinary neurologist/neuropathologist. Her family declared that she died from the disease she was studying. She was a pupil of Pierre Marie, with whom she worked at the Salpêtrière in Paris and wrote on war neurology. In cooperation with Marie, she published a number of articles on postencephalitic syndromes, which also became the subject of her 1922 thesis. Three years later, she became associate physician at the Paul-Brousse Hospital in Paris, where the study of brain tumors became one of the subjects of her scientific work. Remarkably, Lévy was first author in a few of her many articles, although Roussy confirmed that she often initiated the study and even wrote the main part. In this article her career is considered in the context of the struggle of women physicians to improve their position during the early-twentieth century. She probably died from a brain tumor or a postencephalitic syndrome.


Assuntos
Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/história , Neurologistas/história , Epônimos , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Ilustração Médica , Paris , Doença de Parkinson Pós-Encefalítica/etiologia , Polineuropatias/etiologia
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