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1.
Neuropsychology ; 34(1): 1-2, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894998

RESUMO

In this inaugural editorial, as the new editor of Neuropsychology, I would like to describe my vision and priorities for the journal. My vision is to build on Neuropsychology's strengths and successes to date while also anticipating the changes needed to remain one of the leading journals in the field of neuropsychology. The most critical element in a journal's success is its content. Neuropsychology is characterized by amazing breadth, spanning basic and clinical science across the life span. The journal is extremely relevant to society and public health, given the high incidence of neurological disease and brain injury, as well as the resulting human, economic, and societal costs associated with them. At the same time, neuropsychological research also can provide important insights into more positive aspects of human function, such as resilience, creativity, altruism, and friendship, and thereby help to understand and promote wellness. Thus, Neuropsychology will continue to provide an outlet for the most interesting and highest quality science in human brain-behavior relationships that seeks to increase our understanding of neuropsychological functions in both healthy and disordered states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Neuropsicologia/tendências , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências
3.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(2): 209-219, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Computerized tests and use of the internet offer many opportunities for improvement of neuropsychological assessment over traditional paper-and-pencil tests. Nevertheless, many clinical neuropsychologists are conservative in their choice of tests when assessing patients; the majority still seems to prefer using well-established paper-and-pencil tests. METHOD: This deliberately one-sided opinion paper discusses several reasons that may explain the reluctance to embrace modern techniques. These reasons are of a psychometric, technical, theoretical, and strategic nature. CONCLUSIONS: A range of issues regarding each of these reasons need to be solved before digital assessment techniques can fulfill their promises. In the meantime, it seems wise to be cautious, and to be critical in adopting the digital assessment techniques.


Assuntos
Internet/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Atitude , Coleta de Dados/normas , Coleta de Dados/tendências , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Internet/normas , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Neuropsicologia/normas , Psicometria
4.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(2): 187-199, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We introduce this special issue which focuses on how advances in neuroscience and technology can modernize and transform clinical neuropsychological assessment. METHOD: We included both invited and solicited papers to reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of currently used, standardized neuropsychological tests and to explore how we might incorporate new technologies and neuroscientific advances to modernize neuropsychological assessment methods. RESULTS: The papers are organized along the following themes: (1) A critique of the current clinical neuropsychological test armamentarium; (2) A description of new opportunities for collecting neurobehavioral data with technology; (3) Digital science, biomedical big data and the internet; (4) Integrating neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological assessments; (5) Modernization, globalization and culture. CONCLUSION: The process of modernizing methods of assessment in clinical neuropsychology is laborious and requires a coordinated, sustained effort among clinicians, researchers, and the test industry. While embracing technology is necessary, we must also be aware of unintended consequences as we navigate this exciting new territory.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Humanos , Neuropsicologia/métodos
5.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(2): 246-270, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current review briefly addresses the history of neuropsychology as a context for discussion of developmental milestones that have advanced the profession, as well as areas where the progression has lagged. More recently in the digital/information age, utilization and incorporation of emerging technologies has been minimal, which has stagnated ongoing evolution of the practice of neuropsychology despite technology changing many aspects of daily living. These authors advocate for embracing National Institutes of Health (NIH) initiatives, or interchangeably referred to as transformative opportunities, for the behavioral and social sciences. These initiatives address the need for neuropsychologists to transition from fragmented and data-poor approaches to integrated and data-rich scientific approaches that ultimately improve translational applications. Specific to neuropsychology is the need for the adoption of novel means of brain-behavior characterizations. METHOD: Narrative review Conclusions: Clinical neuropsychology has reached a developmental plateau where it is ready to embrace the measurement science and technological advances which have been readily adopted by the human neurosciences. While there are ways in which neuropsychology is making inroads into these areas, a great deal of growth is needed to maintain relevance as a scientific discipline (see Figures 1, 2, and 3) consistent with NIH initiatives to advance scientific developments. Moreover, implications of such progress require discussion and modification of training, ethical, and legal mandates of the practice of neuropsychology.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/tendências , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Neuropsicologia/educação , Smartphone/tendências , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Terapia Assistida por Computador/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(2): 271-286, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Digital devices are now broadly accessible and have the capacity to measure aspects of human behavior with high precision and accuracy, in a standardized manner. The purpose of this article is to characterize opportunities and barriers for modern digital neuropsychology, particularly those that are unique to digital assessment. METHODS: We provide a critical overview of the state-of-the-art in digital neuropsychology, focusing on personal digital devices. RESULTS: We identify three major barriers associated with digital neuropsychology, which affect both the interpretation of test scores and test norms: (1) variability in the perceptual, motor and cognitive demands of the same test across digital device classes (e.g. personal computer, tablet and smartphone); (2) hardware and software variability between devices within the same class that affect stimulus presentation and measurement and (3) rapid changes over time in hardware, software and device ownership, which can lead to rapid obsolescence of particular tests and test norms. We offer specific recommendations to address these barriers and outline new opportunities to understand and measure neuropsychological functioning over time and in everyday environments. CONCLUSIONS: Digital neuropsychology provides new approaches for measuring and monitoring neuropsychological functioning, informed by an understanding of the limitations and potential of digital technology.


Assuntos
Neuropsicologia/tendências , Smartphone/tendências , Software/tendências , Terapia Assistida por Computador/tendências , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Neuropsicologia/normas , Smartphone/normas , Software/normas , Telemedicina , Terapia Assistida por Computador/normas
7.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(2): 357-368, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In cognitive neuroscience, well-controlled and highly specific paradigms have been developed to measure cognitive processes over the last decades, often using computer-assisted presentation and response registration. This approach is in contrast with the traditional paper-and-pencil tests used in clinical neuropsychology, which typically assess cognitive function in a less specific manner, often even at the level of a cognitive domain. As a result, important aspects of cognitive (dys)function may be missed during a neuropsychological assessment. This paper focuses on the main challenges that need to be overcome in order to successfully integrate experimental paradigms from cognitive neuroscience into the clinical practice of neuropsychologists. METHOD: Six challenges are discussed: (i) experimental paradigms are often lengthy and may be overly specific; (ii) technical limitations even today hamper their application in clinics; (iii) the psychometric properties of methods used in cognitive neuroscience are under-examined or poor; (iv) many paradigms from cognitive neuroscience rely on reaction times rather than accuracy, limiting their use in the many brain-injured patients with processing speed deficits; (v) the predictive and ecological validity of these paradigms often unclear; (vi) technological progress (e.g. Moore's law) seriously affects the continuous availability of experimental computerized assessment methods. CONCLUSION: Both cognitive neuroscientists and clinical neuropsychologists should work together to develop and validate novel paradigms for use in clinical assessments that are platform-independent, reliable and valid, user friendly and easy to use in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Neurociência Cognitiva/tendências , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Cognição/fisiologia , Neurociência Cognitiva/normas , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
8.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(2): 287-304, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychology is poised for a fundamental shift as we modernize the ways in which behavior is measured. The amount and complexity of data generated by these new methods will be several orders of magnitude greater than what is currently created by analog measures and will quickly adopt characteristics of "Big Data." Adequate preparation for managing the influx of data will be critical for technology integration and modernization to be successful. Drawing from information technology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering, as well as, biology, genetics, and medicine, the field of biomedical informatics has rapidly evolved from its early days in computational biology to a burgeoning independent discipline that has much to offer neuropsychology. METHOD: Following a critical review of the relevant literature, the present article (1) provides an introductory overview of biomedical informatics and how these concepts are relevant to neuropsychology; (2) describes how biomedical informatics applications can be utilized to leverage existing data sources more effectively; and (3) discusses ideas for future developments designed to facilitate integration of new data derived from novel, technologically driven measurement tools. Within this context, applications intended for use by both the individual neuropsychologist to increase clinical efficiencies, as well as, larger field-wide initiatives intended to generate new information and derive new knowledge are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: By no means a comprehensive review of biomedical informatics, the present paper highlights that our approach to data needs to become a multidisciplinary endeavor in order to develop applications capable of effectively utilizing modern data sources.


Assuntos
Big Data , Informática Médica/tendências , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Mudança Social , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Informática Médica/métodos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia/métodos
10.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(6): 676-687, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741557

RESUMO

This presidential address attempts to predict the future directions of neuropsychology. Predicting the future is always a difficult thing. By examining population trends such as aging and demographics, a clearer picture becomes visible. The population is getting older and more ethnically diverse. Also, examination of the spending trends in health care indicates that neuropsychology needs to be able to adapt to working with larger population-based patient care as well as individual patient care. Shifts in the demographics of neuropsychology, in that the profession previously was 70% male dominate and now is >70% female dominant are also discussed. Trends in NAN's speaker and leader demographics are examined as well as the need to stay current in the trends and latest neuropsychological research lest we become dinosaurs in the next 5-10 years. Recommendations for new neuropsychologists and post-doctoral fellows are also presented.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto , Neuropsicologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Academias e Institutos , Boston , Humanos
11.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; 25(4): 287-294, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781728

RESUMO

Positive psychology has influenced multiple subfields within psychology and areas outside of psychology. While positive psychology's focus on positive mental health and character strengths did not appear to meaningfully impact neuropsychology in its earlier stages, more recent indications suggest that the neuropsychological literature, and perhaps the field as a whole, has begun to embrace related research and practice applications. In this context, positive neuropsychology has emerged as a neuropsychological orientation focused on the study and practice of promoting cognitive health. The present review discusses the origins of positive neuropsychology and elaborates on its six key evidence-based domains: compensatory strategy use, activity engagement, prevention of cognitive impairment, public education, exceptional cognition, and positive cognitive outcomes in neuropsychiatric populations. This broad perspective on cognitive wellness can easily be embraced by both clinicians and researchers and offers multiple directions for future growth. Ultimately, consideration of various methods to promote cognitive health can inform our understanding of optimal brain function, maximize functioning in individuals with cognitive limitations, and enhance quality of life among populations served by neuropsychologists.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Cognição/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Neuropsicologia/tendências
12.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(3): 280-289, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718079

RESUMO

Historically, integrated mental and behavioral healthcare in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) commenced with initiatives in geriatrics. Innovation and system-wide expansion has occurred over decades and culminated in a unified vision for training and practice in the VA medical home model: Patient Aligned Care Team or PACT approach. In one VA hospital, the integration of neuropsychological services in geriatric primary care is pivotal and increases access for patients, as well as contributing to timely and effective care on an interprofessional team. The development and innovative use of an algorithm to identify problems with cognition, health literacy, and mental and behavioral health has been pragmatic and provides useful information for collaborative treatment planning in GeriPACT, VA geriatric primary care. Use of the algorithm also assists with decision-making regarding brief versus comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in the primary care setting. The model presented here was developed by supervising neuropsychologists as part of a postdoctoral residency program in geropsychology. However, postdoctoral residency programs in neuropsychology, as well as neuropsychological clinics, can also use this model to integrate neuropsychological assessment and interventions in geriatric primary care settings.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação Geriátrica , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração , Neuropsicologia , Veteranos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/história , Geriatria , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Neuropsicologia/organização & administração , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
13.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 24(4): 859-863, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691958

RESUMO

For a relatively long period of time, mental functioning was mainly associated with personal profile while brain functioning went by the wayside. After the 90s of the 20th century, or the so called "Decade of the Brain", today, contemporary specialists work on the boundary between fundamental science and medicine. This brings neuroscience, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy closer to each other. Today, we definitely know that brain structures are being built and altered thanks to experience. Psychotherapy can be more effective when based on a neuropsychological approach-this implies identification of the neural foundations of various disorders and will lead to specific psychotherapeutic conclusions. The knowledge about the brain is continually enriched, which leads to periodic rethinking and updating of the therapeutic approaches to various diseases of the nervous system and brain dysfunctions. The aim of translational studies is to match and combine scientific areas, resources, experience and techniques to improve prevention, diagnosis and therapies, and "transformation" of scientific discoveries into potential treatments of various diseases done in laboratory conditions. Neuropsychological studies prove that cognition is a key element that links together brain functioning and behaviour. According to Dr. Kandel, all experimental events, including psychotherapeutic interventions, affect the structure and function of neuronal synapses. The story of why psychotherapy works is a story of understanding the brain mechanisms of psychic processes, a story of how the brain has been evolving to ensure learning, forgetting, and the mechanisms of permanent psychological change. The new evidence on brain functioning necessitates the integration of neuropsychological achievements in the psychotherapeutic process. An integrative approach is needed to take into account the dynamic interaction between brain functioning, psyche, soul, spirit, and social interaction, ie, development of a model of psychotherapeutic work based on cerebral plasticity! Brain-based psychotherapy aims at changing brain functioning not directly, but through experiences. This is neuro-psychologically informed psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Neurociência Cognitiva , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Neurociência Cognitiva/métodos , Neurociência Cognitiva/tendências , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Neuropsiquiatria/métodos , Neuropsiquiatria/tendências , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Neuropsicologia/tendências
14.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(3): 263-268, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409043

RESUMO

The increasing importance of integrated care necessitates that education and training experiences prepare clinical neuropsychologists for competent practice in integrated care settings, which includes (a) general competence related to an integrated/interdisciplinary approach and (b) competence specific to the setting. Formal neuropsychology training prepares neuropsychologists with a wide range of knowledge and skills in assessment, intervention, teaching/supervision, and research that are relevant to such settings. However, less attention has been paid to the knowledge and skills that directly address functioning within integrated teams, such as the ability to develop, maintain, and expand collaboration across disciplines, bidirectional clinical-research translation and implementation in integrated team settings, and how such collaboration contributes to clinical and research activities. Foundational knowledge and skills relevant to interdisciplinary systems have been articulated as part of competencies for entry into clinical neuropsychology, but their emphasis in education and training programs is unclear. Recommendations and resources are provided regarding how competencies relevant to integrated care can be provided across the continuum of education and training (i.e., doctoral, internship, postdoctoral, and post-licensure).


Assuntos
Neuropsicologia/educação , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Psicologia Clínica/educação , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Internato e Residência , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências
15.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 32(8): 1356-1392, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the increasing diversification of the American population, the discipline of neuropsychology is challenged to develop appropriate tools and conceptual models to meet its evolving client base. Thus far, the focus has been on developing appropriate tests and norms to obtain accurate testing data. By contrast, far less attention has been paid to the contextual impact of culture on an evaluation. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming. METHODS: This manuscript introduces the ECLECTIC framework for conceptualizing different facets of culture pertinent for understanding a culturally diverse client when conducting a neuropsychological evaluation. Individual components of the framework (E: education and literacy; C: culture and acculturation; L: language; E: economics; C: communication; T: testing situation: comfort and motivation; I: intelligence conceptualization; and C: context of immigration) are introduced and potential biases to fairness in testing are described. In this manner, the framework specifies how individual facets of culture can impact neuropsychological test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical implementation of the framework will be illustrated with a case sample. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed as well as recommendations for implementation.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Neuropsicologia/normas , Humanos , Linguagem , Neuropsicologia/tendências
16.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 32(2): 217-234, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although psychology has become a female-dominated field, this pattern of gender representation has not held true within the specialty of neuropsychology. In recent years more women have been pursuing careers in neuropsychology, and while the balance of male and female neuropsychologists as a whole has shifted, it is unclear whether the gender composition of leadership has also changed. Our goal was to survey various neuropsychological organizations, training programs, editorial boards, and organizations granting board certification to determine the current gender composition of leadership positions within neuropsychology. METHOD: A literature review was conducted to examine past trends of gender composition in neuropsychology, psychology, medicine, and academia. Data on current gender compositions of the field were culled from publicly available websites and through personal communication with representatives from major psychological and neuropsychological organizations. RESULTS: We found that the overall composition of the field has changed over time, but notable gender disparities in leadership positions remain. Women still comprise the minority of leadership positions within most neuropsychological organizations, editorial boards for neuropsychology journals, and fellow positions in major neuropsychological organizations. More equitable representation has been achieved in the directorships of training programs and ABPP/ABCN board certification. CONCLUSION: We review the historical trends in gender discrepancies in leadership in neuropsychology and discuss these within the broader arenas of academia, research, and medicine. We conclude with a summary addressing potential causes for these discrepancies, including work-life balance issues, discrimination, institutional bias, and various other factors. We also provide pragmatic suggestions to help address these continued disparities.


Assuntos
Liderança , Neuropsicologia/história , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Mulheres , Certificação , Políticas Editoriais , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Previsões , Identidade de Gênero , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Sociedades/organização & administração
17.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 32(3): 326-344, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28920510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Though some neuropsychological groups have proposed criteria and suggestions for clinical report writing there has never been professional consensus or accepted published guidelines on how to write reports. Given the paucity of guidelines and the evolving practice climate, we sought to survey neuropsychologists and referral source stakeholders to understand current report writing practices. METHOD: The data were collected in two SurveyMonkey surveys via professional list servs, email, and LinkedIn clinical interest groups. RESULTS: Results of the survey indicate many neuropsychologists spend multiple hours writing reports that they believe will not be read completely by stakeholders. A striking 73% of referral sources reported slow turnaround time of neuropsychological reports negatively affected their patient care. Referral sources reported they value the diagnosis/impression and recommendations sections the most; in contrast, they did not find the history, behavioral observations, emotional functioning, or descriptions of cognitive domains sections as useful. CONCLUSIONS: The survey findings highlight the disjuncture between what neuropsychologists typically do in their practice of report writing versus what they believe is useful for patients and referral sources. The survey also highlights differences between writing practices of neuropsychologists and what referral sources identify as the most valuable aspects of reports to assist them in caring for their patients.


Assuntos
Neuropsicologia/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Participação dos Interessados , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Redação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Relatório de Pesquisa/tendências
18.
Child Neuropsychol ; 24(7): 859-902, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28874075

RESUMO

Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects millions of people worldwide, including over one million children in the United States. Approximately 25% of children born with CHD require intensive surgical intervention within the first year of life. Despite improved rates of survival into adulthood - rates that exceed 90% in the modern era - children and adolescents with CHD remain at risk for neurological injury and a range of neurobehavioral and psychosocial challenges that pose a threat to quality of life across the lifespan. Consequently, as experts in both clinical psychology and brain development, neuropsychologists are becoming increasingly involved in cardiac follow-up and monitoring to promote optimal developmental outcomes. The primary objective of this paper is to provide an evidence-based, clinically-oriented primer on CHD for pediatric neuropsychologists working with this growing population of survivors. Following an introduction to current standard-of-care guidelines for managing children and adolescents with CHD, we present an overview of brain development within the context of CHD, review neuropsychological outcomes, examine factors influencing variability in outcomes, and discuss implications and strategies for clinical assessment.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/psicologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Neuropsicologia/normas , Pediatras/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Pediatras/tendências , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia
19.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 32(3): 391-421, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Over the past two decades, there has been much research on measures of response bias and myriad measures have been validated in a variety of clinical and research samples. This critical review aims to guide clinicians through the use of performance validity tests (PVTs) from test selection and administration through test interpretation and feedback. METHOD/RESULTS: Recommended cutoffs and relevant test operating characteristics are presented. Other important issues to consider during test selection, administration, interpretation, and feedback are discussed including order effects, coaching, impact on test data, and methods to combine measures and improve predictive power. When interpreting performance validity measures, neuropsychologists must use particular caution in cases of dementia, low intelligence, English as a second language/minority cultures, or low education. CONCLUSIONS: PVTs provide valuable information regarding response bias and, under the right circumstances, can provide excellent evidence of response bias. Only after consideration of the entire clinical picture, including validity test performance, can concrete determinations regarding the validity of test data be made.


Assuntos
Linguagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Neuropsicologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Escolaridade , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 32(2): 235-251, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the increasing number of women in professional fields, women are under-represented in leadership roles. The goal of this paper is to identify potential explanations for the gender gap in leadership. METHOD: The academic literature with respect to gender roles, leadership, and organizational expectations; gender differences in leadership; and the potential role of second generation bias was reviewed. RESULTS: Women are as effective as male leaders in a variety of organizational settings. The role congruity theory suggests that women are placed in a double bind: maintenance of their gender role may result in a failure to meet the requirements of a leader role whereas conforming to a leader role may result in the failure to conform to their gender role. Second generation, or implicit, bias also influences women's leadership opportunities. This is further complicated by expectations that women will engage in more altruistic organizational citizenship behaviors or be penalized. CONCLUSION: Differences in ability do not account for the gender gap in leadership. Cultural factors, including gender role and leadership expectations, organizational demands, and second-generation bias impact women's ability to lead. Pragmatic recommendations to increase women's influence and representation in leadership are provided.


Assuntos
Neuropsicologia/tendências , Sexismo , Mulheres , Adulto , Altruísmo , Cultura , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Organizações
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