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1.
Psychol Aging ; 36(6): 730-743, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516175

RESUMO

Health conditions such as higher disease burden, pain, or lower functional health are associated with poorer self-rated health (SRH) in older age. Poorer SRH, in turn, is a predictor of morbidity and mortality. Personality traits are associated with SRH as well, but little is known about the interaction of personality and health conditions. In the present preregistered analyses, we used five annual waves of the Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study (N = 5,823, M age = 63.09, SD = 2.01) to investigate the associations of personality (neuroticism and conscientiousness) and physical health indices (disease burden, pain, and functional limitations) with levels and change in SRH. In addition, we tested Personality × Health interaction effects. We found that higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness were related to lower levels of SRH, but not to change in SRH after controlling for the health indices. Personality did not moderate the effect of health indices on levels and change in SRH. Exploratory analyses showed that high scores of neuroticism may augment the association of increased pain and functional limitations with declines in SRH. Additional studies with other samples are needed to test if this result can be replicated. Taken together, our findings provide only weak evidence for interaction effects of personality and physical health factors on SRH. More research is needed to understand the interplay of physical and psychological factors in shaping individual SRH. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Neuroticismo , Virtudes , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17452, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465808

RESUMO

Here we attempted to define the relationship between: EEG activity, personality and coping during lockdown. We were in a unique situation since the COVID-19 outbreak interrupted our independent longitudinal study. We already collected a significant amount of data before lockdown. During lockdown, a subgroup of participants willingly continued their engagement in the study. These circumstances provided us with an opportunity to examine the relationship between personality/cognition and brain rhythms in individuals who continued their engagement during lockdown compared to control data collected well before pandemic. The testing consisted of a one-time assessment of personality dimensions and two sessions of EEG recording and deductive reasoning task. Participants were divided into groups based on the time they completed the second session: before or during the COVID-19 outbreak 'Pre-pandemic Controls' and 'Pandemics', respectively. The Pandemics were characterized by a higher extraversion and stronger connectivity, compared to Pre-pandemic Controls. Furthermore, the Pandemics improved their cognitive performance under long-term stress as compared to the Pre-Pandemic Controls matched for personality traits to the Pandemics. The Pandemics were also characterized by increased EEG connectivity during lockdown. We posit that stronger EEG connectivity and higher extraversion could act as a defense mechanism against stress-related deterioration of cognitive functions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Extroversão Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Distanciamento Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1647-1668, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416157

RESUMO

Interpretation of the function of non-coding risk loci for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain-relevant traits via gene expression and alternative splicing quantitative trait locus (e/sQTL) analyses is generally performed in bulk post-mortem adult tissue. However, genetic risk loci are enriched in regulatory elements active during neocortical differentiation, and regulatory effects of risk variants may be masked by heterogeneity in bulk tissue. Here, we map e/sQTLs, and allele-specific expression in cultured cells representing two major developmental stages, primary human neural progenitors (n = 85) and their sorted neuronal progeny (n = 74), identifying numerous loci not detected in either bulk developing cortical wall or adult cortex. Using colocalization and genetic imputation via transcriptome-wide association, we uncover cell-type-specific regulatory mechanisms underlying risk for brain-relevant traits that are active during neocortical differentiation. Specifically, we identified a progenitor-specific eQTL for CENPW co-localized with common variant associations for cortical surface area and educational attainment.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Neocórtex/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Escolaridade , Feminino , Feto , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Neocórtex/citologia , Neocórtex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neuroticismo , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Prognóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444420

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effect of interpersonal mistreatment on the perpetrators' mental health. We proposed that the threat of COVID-19 will increase people's mental health problems through their on-line aggression toward stigmatized groups accused of spreading the disease and that there might be potential gender differences in such effects. We tested our predictions among a sample of U.S. residents (Study 1) and a large sample of Chinese residents living out of Hubei province (Study 2) during a heightened period of concern about COVID-19, February 2020. Specifically, we measured U.S. residents' on-line aggressive behaviors toward Chinese people (Study 1) and Chinese non-Hubei residents' on-line aggressive behaviors toward Hubei residents (Study 2) as well as their neuroticism (Study 1) and mental health states (Study 2). In line with our predictions, both studies showed that perceived infection of COVID-19 can induce on-line aggression toward stigmatized groups, thereby increasing people's mental health problems. Moreover, the relationship between COVID-19 vulnerability, on-line aggression, and psychosomatic symptoms was more prominent in men than in women. These results offer insights into people's responses toward COVID-19 and add to the understanding of people's mental and physical health during the epidemic stage of contagious diseases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Agressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Psych J ; 10(5): 816-833, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278732

RESUMO

Using social media, which provides ways to socialize and present oneself, has become normal for young people. Although previous research shows that self-presentation via social media is associated with a sense of identity, little attention has been given to the association with identity-development processes. Therefore, the present study examined these associations while controlling for offline self-presentation and tested the potential moderating effect of neuroticism. A sample of 647 Japanese young adults (401 women; Mean age  = 22.70; SD age  = 3.25) were recruited to complete an online questionnaire, including measures of identity-development processes, online and offline self-presentation, and neuroticism. A correlation analysis revealed that identity-development processes were associated with online surface-level self-presentation (SSP) but not online inner-level self-presentation (ISP). Further, a moderated regression analysis indicated that the negative associations between online ISP and identity processes were only found among those high in neuroticism. The results of this study suggest that neuroticism may produce variations in young people's identity development.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Neuroticismo , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(6): 2517-2529, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282504

RESUMO

While previous research has argued that neuroticism is a vulnerability factor for the experience of sexual difficulties, the basic cognitive processes associated with the impact of such a personality trait on the processing of sexually explicit stimuli are less understood. The current study examined the influence of neuroticism on the attentional processes and its neurophysiological correlates during the perception of sexual and non-sexual images. Event-related potentials from 30 women and 28 men were recorded during a modified oddball paradigm in which participants of both sexes visualized stimuli from three different categories (sexual, non-sexual positive, and non-sexual negative), and two arousal levels (high and low arousal). A P1 latency effect was found for female participants, in which high neuroticism was associated with longer latencies for pornographic compared to romantic sexual images. Higher levels of neuroticism were also associated with higher P3 amplitudes for highly arousing images, with both sexual and non-sexual content. Results were interpreted in light of the information processing model of sexual arousal and showed that neuroticism seems to impact both automatic and conscious pathways of processing of sexual stimuli.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Nível de Alerta , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 368, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226488

RESUMO

Neuroticism is associated with poor health, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD). The conditional/conjunctional false discovery rate method (cond/conjFDR) was applied to genome wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics on neuroticism (n = 432,109), CAD (n = 184,305) and 12 CVD risk factors (n = 188,577-339,224) to investigate genetic overlap between neuroticism and CAD and CVD risk factors. CondFDR analyses identified 729 genomic loci associated with neuroticism after conditioning on CAD and CVD risk factors. The conjFDR analyses revealed 345 loci jointly associated with neuroticism and CAD (n = 30), body mass index (BMI) (n = 96) or another CVD risk factor (n = 1-60). Several loci were jointly associated with neuroticism and multiple CVD risk factors. Seventeen of the shared loci with CAD and 61 of the shared loci with BMI are novel for neuroticism. 21 of 30 (70%) neuroticism risk alleles were associated with higher CAD risk. Functional analyses of the genes mapped to the shared loci implicated cell division, nuclear receptor, elastic fiber formation as well as starch and sucrose metabolism pathways. Our results indicate polygenic overlap between neuroticism and CAD and CVD risk factors, suggesting that genetic factors may partly cause the comorbidity. This gives new insight into the shared molecular genetic basis of these conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Neuroticismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
9.
Psychol Sci ; 32(7): 1047-1057, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081568

RESUMO

Personality traits are associated with memory in older adulthood: Individuals higher in conscientiousness and openness and lower in neuroticism tend to perform better on memory-recall tasks. We conducted a preregistered study to replicate these associations in a large, multinational cohort and test whether the associations varied by national-level socioeconomic indicators (e.g., per capita gross domestic product). Multilevel modeling was used to analyze data from 71,566 individuals (age: M = 67.9 years, SD = 9.5; 57% women) across 26 European countries and Israel. Higher conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion and lower neuroticism were associated with better memory performance, even when analyses accounted for risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, emotional disorders, and sleeping problems. Consistent with the resource-substitution hypothesis, results showed that higher conscientiousness and agreeableness and lower neuroticism were associated with better memory in countries with lower gross domestic product. This pattern suggests that psychological (trait) resources may help compensate for country-specific disadvantaged contexts.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Aposentadoria , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Neuroticismo
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 398, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic may make them more susceptible to anxiety than the general population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and evaluate the potential effects of resilience, neuroticism, social support, and other sociodemographic factors on anxiety among HCWs from two African countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 373 HCWs was conducted in Botswana and Nigeria, using an anxiety rating scale, neuroticism subscale of Big Five Inventory, Oslo social support scale, and Resilience Scale. Data collection was done between May 1 and September 30, 2020. RESULTS: The participants' mean age (SD) was 38.42 (8.10) years, and 65.1% were females. Forty-nine (13.1%) of the HCWs reported clinical anxiety. In the final model of hierarchical multiple regression, neuroticism (B = 0.51, t = 10.59, p = p < 0.01), resilience (B = 0.34, t = - 7.11, p < 0.01), and social support (B = 0.079, t = - 2.11, p = 0.035) were associated with severe anxiety, after controlling for the significant sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Severe anxiety exists among HCWs in Africa, although the rate was lower than reported elsewhere. Neuroticism, resilience, and social support may be vital targets for psychological intervention in a pandemic as COVID-19; thus, their roles should be further explored.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Affect Disord ; 293: 124-132, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroticism is a heritable trait that contributes to the vulnerability to depression. We used polygenic risk scores (PRS) to examine genetic vulnerability to neuroticism and its associations with reward/punishment processing in a clinical sample with mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. It was hypothesized that higher PRS for neuroticism is associated with attenuated neural responses to reward/punishment. METHOD: Four hundred sixty-nine participants were genotyped and their PRSs for neuroticism were computed. Associations between PRS for neuroticism and anticipatory processing of monetary incentives were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Individuals with higher PRS for neuroticism showed less anticipatory activation in the left amygdala and caudate region to incentives regardless of incentive valence. Further, these individuals exhibited altered sensitivity to gain/loss processing in the right anterior insula. Higher PRSs for neuroticism were also associated with reduced processing of gains in the precuneus. LIMITATIONS: The study population consisted of a transdiagnostic sample with dysfunctions in positive and negative valence processing. PRS for neuroticism may be correlated with current clinical symptoms due to the vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Greater genetic loading for neuroticism was associated with attenuated anticipatory responsiveness in reward/punishment processing with altered sensitivity to valences. Thus, a higher genetic risk for neuroticism may limit the degree to which positive and/or negative outcomes influence the current mood state, which may contribute to the development of positive and negative affective dysfunctions in individuals with mood, anxiety, and addictive disorders.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Herança Multifatorial , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Neuroticismo
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 168, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hearing loss (HL) affects up to 15% of the world's adult population. Coping and personality are hypothesized to underlie quality of life (QoL) and distress scores. We aimed to study the importance of personality and coping in persons with HL for self-reported hearing disability, QoL, and distress. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out, including one hundred and fifty-eight adults seeking hearing aids. Pure-tone average hearing thresholds (PTA) were determined for each ear. A revised version of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) served as a measure of self-reported hearing disability. Further, the generic part of the European Organization for Research and Treatment (EORTC) QoL questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (distress measure) were answered. Levels of neuroticism and the Theoretically Originated Measure of the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (TOMCATS) coping expectancy were determined. RESULTS: Hearing disability was determined by PTA (better ear) and level of neuroticism. Distress and QoL were determined by neuroticism and coping. CONCLUSION: More neuroticism was associated with worse outcome for the variables hearing disability, distress, and QoL. Helplessness and hopelessness were associated with worse hearing disability, increased distress, and lowered QoL. Patient reported hearing disability was also associated with PTA (better ear). There is a need to investigate further the associations between hearing disability and QoL to psychosocial parameters.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Neuroticismo , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Hum Genet ; 140(9): 1267-1281, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973063

RESUMO

We investigated the relationship between neuroticism and 16 mental and 18 physical traits using summary results of genome-wide association studies for these traits. LD score regression was used to investigate genetic correlations between neuroticism and the 34 health outcomes. Mendelian randomization was performed to investigate mutual causal relationships between neuroticism and the 34 health outcomes. Neuroticism genetically correlates with a majority of health-related traits and confers causal effects on 12 mental traits (major depressive disorder (MDD), insomnia, subjective well-being (SWB, negatively), schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol dependence, loneliness, anorexia nervosa, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and psychiatric disorders) and two physical diseases (cardiovascular disease and hypertensive disease). Conversely, MDD, SWB, and insomnia have a causal effect on neuroticism. We highlighted key genes contributing to the causal associations between neuroticism and MDD, including RBFOX1, RERE, SOX5, and TCF4, and those contributing to the causal associations between neuroticism and cardiovascular diseases, including MAD1L1, ARNTL, RERE, and SOX6. The present study indicates that genetic variation mediates the causal influences of neuroticism on mental health and cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Saúde Mental , Neuroticismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Brain Topogr ; 34(5): 587-597, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988780

RESUMO

Neuroticism is one of the main endophenotypes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and is closely related to the negative effect systems of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) domains. The relationship between neuroticism and aging is dynamic and complex. Moreover, reduced hippocampal volumes are probably the most frequently reported structural neuroimaging finding associated with MDD. However, it remains unclear to what extent hippocampal abnormalities are linked with age and neuroticism changes in people with depression through the adult life span. This study aimed to examine the interplay between aging and neuroticism on hippocampal morphometric across the adult life-span in a relative large sample of patients with depressive disorders (114 patients, 73 females, age range: 18-74 years) and healthy control (HC) subjects (112 healthy controls, 72 females, age range: 19-72 years). MDD patients showed reduced bilateral hippocampal volumes. The effect of aging on the left hippocampal showed linear and the right hippocampal volume non-linear trajectories throughout the adult life span in healthy groups and MDD groups respectively. The hippocampal atrophy was dynamically impacted by depression at the early stages of adult life. Furthermore, we observed that right hippocampal volume reduction was associated with higher neuroticism in depressive patients younger than 30.65 years old. Our results suggest that the age-related atrophy in the right hippocampal volume was more affected by individual differences in neuroticism among younger depressive patients. Hippocampal volume reduction as a vulnerability factor for early-onset and major geriatric depression may have a distinct endophenotype.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Longevidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 293, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress and burnout commonly threaten the mental health of medical students in Malaysia and elsewhere. This study aimed to explore the interrelations of psychological distress, emotional intelligence, personality traits, academic stress, and burnout among medical students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 241 medical students. Validated questionnaires were administered to measure burnout, psychological distress, emotional intelligence, personality traits, and academic stress, respectively. A structural equation modelling analysis was performed by AMOS. RESULTS: The results suggested a structural model with good fit indices, in which psychological distress and academic stress were noted to have direct and indirect effects on burnout. The burnout levels significantly increased with the rise of psychological distress and academic stress. Neuroticism was only found to have significant indirect effects on burnout, whereby burnout increased when neuroticism increased. Emotional intelligence had a significant direct effect on lowering burnout with the incremental increase of emotional intelligence, but it was significantly reduced by psychological distress and neuroticism. CONCLUSION: This study showed significant effects that psychological distress, emotional intelligence, academic stress, and neuroticism have on burnout. Academic stress and neuroticism significantly increased psychological distress, leading to an increased burnout level, while emotional intelligence had a significant direct effect on reducing burnout; however, this relationship was compromised by psychological distress and neuroticism, leading to increased burnout. Several practical recommendations for medical educators, medical students, and medical schools are discussed.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Angústia Psicológica , Estudantes de Medicina , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Inteligência Emocional , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Neuroticismo , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Brain Behav ; 11(6): e02145, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on personality in sport is popular because it allows you to forecast the greediness of actions in sports competition situations. The purpose of this paper is to determine which personality traits characterize individual sports champions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects of the research were Polish athletes (N = 600) between 20 and 29 years of age from 20 individual sports disciplines (each n = 30). Then, a sample of champions (n = 56) and other individual disciplines athletes (n = 544) was selected from the study population. The Big Five model was used to examine their personality (NEO-FFI). RESULTS: Individual sports champions were characterized by a lower level of neuroticism, a higher level of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness in relation to other athletes. CONCLUSION: Each sports discipline is characterized by slightly different psychological requirements for athletes. The undertaken sports activity shapes the personality, and the shaped personality traits have an impact on taking solutions in the starting situation. The level of intensity of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness may determine the result in competition in individual sports.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Esportes , Humanos , Neuroticismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
17.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(7): 665-676, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, much of the research on individual difference correlates of coronavirus guideline adherence is cross-sectional, leaving prospective associations between these factors unaddressed. Additionally, investigations of prospective predictors of mask-wearing, COVID-19 symptoms, and viral testing remain wanting. PURPOSE: The present study examined prospective relations between demographic factors, personality traits, social cognitions and guideline adherence, mask-wearing, symptoms, and viral testing in a U.S. sample (N = 500) during the initial surge of COVID-19 deaths in the United State between late March and early May 2020. METHODS: Guided by a disposition-belief-motivation framework, correlational analyses, and path models tested associations among baseline personality traits, guideline adherence social cognitions, health beliefs, guideline adherence and follow-up guideline adherence, mask-wearing, symptom counts, and 30-day viral testing. RESULTS: Modeling results showed greater baseline agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion were associated with more frequent baseline guideline adherence. More liberal political beliefs, greater guideline adherence intentions, and more frequent guideline adherence at baseline predicted more frequent mask-wearing at follow-up. Sex (female), lower perceived health, and greater neuroticism at baseline predicted greater symptom counts at follow-up. Reports of viral testing were quite low (1.80%), yet were consistent with concurrent national reporting and limited availability of testing. CONCLUSIONS: Results show how inconsistencies and politicization of health policy communication were concomitant with the effects of individual-level political beliefs on mask-wearing during the initial surge. The results further clarify how personality traits related to social responsibility (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness) are associated with following new norms for prescribed behaviors and how symptom reporting can be as much a marker of perceived health as emotional stability.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Máscaras , Personalidade , Cognição Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anosmia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Calafrios , Dispneia , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Febre , Cefaleia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Modelo de Crenças de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Mialgia , Neuroticismo , Faringite , Política , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais , Distúrbios do Paladar , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nurse Educ Today ; 102: 104933, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown the importance of promoting emotional intelligence and resilience, as well as knowing the personality (extraversion versus emotional instability or neuroticism) in both nursing students and nursing professionals, for better academic adherence, due to stressful situations derived from high academic and attendance requirements for healthcare practices in clinical settings. However, there is little research that analyzes the importance of the perceived academic effectiveness of university students and its relationship with the psychological variables of resilience, emotional intelligence and personality. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relationships between perceived academic efficacy, emotional intelligence (EI), resilience and the personality factors of emotional instability and extraversion, as well as to observe the variables that predict perceived academic efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study on a sample of 434 nursing students in Valencia (Spain) aged 17-54 (M = 21; SD = 0.320). They filled in standard tests on perceived academic efficacy, EI, resilience, emotional instability and extraversion. RESULTS: Perceived academic efficacy is closely and positively related to EI and resilience; and to a lesser extent to emotional instability, but negatively. The academic efficacy predictor variables were EI (global trait, well-being and sociability), resilience (social support and emotional regulation) and emotional instability (R2 of 0.201). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived academic efficacy is fundamentally related to EI and resilience positively, and to a lesser extent to emotional instability negatively, fundamentally via these factors: global trait, social support, well-being, problem-solving capacity. Nursing students' perception of academic efficacy is relevant for building professional skills and carrying out the nurse's role in organisations. So, it is necessary to promote training programs to increase the emotional intelligence and resilience of nursing students, aimed at promoting competence in professional practice.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Extroversão Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Neuroticismo , Personalidade , Espanha
19.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251097, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010299

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) epidemic was first detected in China in December 2019 and spread to other countries fast. Some studies have found that COVID-19 pandemic has had adverse mental health consequences. Individual differences such as personality could contribute to people's behaviors during a pandemic. In the current study, we examine how personality traits of neuroticism and extroversion (using the Five-Factor Model as our framework) are related to the mental health of Canadians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from an online survey with 1096 responses, this study performed multiple regression analysis to explore how personality traits of neuroticism and extroversion predict the effects of COVID-19 on the mental health of Canadians. The results showed that personality traits of neuroticism and extroversion are associated with the current mental health of Canadians during COVID-19 pandemic, with extroversion positively related to mental health and neuroticism negatively related to it. Results contribute to the management of individual responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and could help public health services provide personality-appropriate mental health services during this pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010358

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant influence on the lives of people around the world and could be a risk factor for mental health diseases. This study aimed to explore the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic by identifying patterns related to post-traumatic symptoms by considering personality and defensive styles. Specifically, it was hypothesized that neuroticism was negatively associated with impact of event, as opposed to extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness traits. The mediation role of mature, neurotic, and immature defenses in these relationships was also investigated. This study involved 557 Italian individuals (71.3% women, 28.7% men; Mage = 34.65, SD = 12.05), who completed an online survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Forty Item Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and Ten Item Personality Inventory. Results showed a nonsignificant effect for extraversion and openness on impact of event. The negative influence of neuroticism was instead confirmed in a partial parallel mediation involving significant effects from immature and neurotic defenses in the indirect path. Finally, agreeableness and conscientiousness delineated two protective pathways regarding impact of event, determining two total parallel mediation models in which both these personality traits were negatively associated with immature defensive styles, and conscientiousness was also positively related to mature defenses. These findings provide an exploration post-traumatic symptom patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic, involving the big five personality traits and defense mechanisms. These results may be useful for developing interventions, treatments, and prevention activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Pandemias , Inventário de Personalidade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos Relacionados a Trauma e Fatores de Estresse/etiologia
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