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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237770, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this proof-of-concept study is to test feasibility and efficacy of NVP plus Lamivudine (3TC) as novel simplified HIV maintenance dual therapy (DT) strategy. METHODS: Patients under combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) with fully suppressed HIV plasma viral load (pVL) >24 months-whereof >6 months on an NVP- containing regimen-were switched to oral NVP plus 3TC for 24 weeks. Patients could then decide whether to continue DT or return to the previous cART. HIV pVL was monitored monthly until week 144. The primary outcome was confirmed viral failure (RNA >100 copies/ml). Low-level detection of HIV-RNA in plasma was compared in each patient with pre-study viral load measurements. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included, switched to DT and all completed week 24. One patient decided thereafter to discontinue study participation for personal reasons. After a total of 144 observation weeks, none of the patients failed. The frequency of low- level HIV-RNA detection was not different from the period before randomization. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are surprising but given the nature of a proof-of-concept study, the results do not support the use of this dual regimen. However, as this dual HIV maintenance strategy was feasible and effective, over a period of 144 weeks, we suggest NVP plus 3TC warrants further evaluation as potential maintenance option in patients tolerating nevirapine. A properly sized multicentre non-inferiority trial is ongoing to further evaluate the value of this DT maintenance strategy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , RNA Viral/sangue
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Complete follow-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants (HEI) is crucial for a successful prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. This study analyzed the HEI follow-up and factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) in southern Mozambique. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used the data of HEI enrolled between June 2017 and June 2018, followed-up for 18 months. The outcomes were the proportion of infants with completed follow-up and a definitive diagnosis, and the presence of clinical events. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate the cumulative probability of LTFU and of clinical events. Factors associated with LTFU and clinical events were analyzed using Cox regression to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and adjusted HR (AHR), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a significance cutoff of p<0.05. RESULTS: 1413 infants were enrolled (49% males) at a median age of 32 days (IQR 31-41); the median follow-up time was 12 months (IQR 8.2-14.2); 1129 (80%) completed follow-up and had a definitive diagnosis, 58 (4%) were HIV-positive, 225 (16%) were LTFU; 266 (19%) presented a clinical event. Factors associated with LTFU were: age >2 months at entry (AHR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12-2.23), non-exclusive breastfeeding (AHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01-2.06), poor cotrimoxazole adherence (AHR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.59-7.35), and clinical events (AHR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34-0.77). Factors associated with clinical events were: malnutrition (AHR, 10.06; 95% CI, 5.92-17.09), non-exclusive breastfeeding (AHR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.34-2.93), no nevirapine prophylaxis (AHR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.18-2.36), and poor cotrimoxazole adherence (AHR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.10-6.22). CONCLUSION: The high rate of HEI LTFU, associated with delayed linkage to postnatal care, poor prophylaxis adherence, non-exclusive breastfeeding, indicates the need to design a differentiated service delivery model that is tailored to the mothers' and infants' specific needs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Diagnóstico Ausente/estatística & dados numéricos , Moçambique , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978137

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Loss to follow up after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is common in Africa, particularly in Ethiopia and it is a considerable obstacle for the effectiveness of the ART program. Mortality is a competing risk of loss to follow up but it is often overlooked and there is limited evidence about the incidence and predictors of loss to follow up in the presence of competing events. OBJECTIVE: To assess the Incidence and predictors of loss to follow up among adult HIV patients on ART in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018. METHODS: Institution based retrospective follow up study was conducted in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. A Gray's test and cumulative incidence curve were used to compare the cumulative incidence function of loss to follow up. Bivariable and multivariable competing risk regression models were fitted to identify the predictors of lost to follow up and those variables with p-value <0.05 in the multivariable analysis was considered as significant predictors of lost to follow up. RESULT: A total of 531 adult HIV patients on ART were included in the analysis. The incidence rate of loss to follow up in this study was 10.90 (95% CI: 8.9-13.2) per 100 person years. Being age group 15-30 years (aSHR = 2.01; 95%CI;1.11-3.63), being daily laborer(aSHR = 2.60; 95%CI;1.45-4.66), not receiving cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (aSHR = 2.66; 95%CI;1.68-4.21), not receiving isoniazid preventive therapy(aSHR = 4.57; 95% CI;1.60-13.08), ambulatory functional status (aSHR = 1.61; 95% CI; 1.02-2.51) and taking AZT-3TC-NVP medication at start of ART(aSHR = 2.01; 95% CI; 1.16-3.78) were significant predictors of lost to follow up. CONCLUSION: In this study the incidence of lost to follow up was high. Young people, daily laborer, ambulatory patients and those taking AZT-3TC-NVP as well as those who did not take opportunistic prophylaxis were at higher risk of loss to follow up. Therefore, giving special attention to the high-risk groups for lost to follow up highlighted in this study could decrease the rate of LTFU.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Perda de Seguimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Incidência , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
4.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(1): 6-13, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virologic failure (VF) is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan African children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance (DR). Most children still lack access to routine viral load (VL) monitoring for early identification of treatment failure, with implications for the efficacy of second-line ART. METHODS: Children aged 1 to 14 years on ART for ≥12 months at 6 public facilities in Maputo, Mozambique were consecutively enrolled after informed consent. Chart review and caregiver interviews were conducted. VL testing was performed, and specimens with ≥1000 copies/mL were genotyped. RESULTS: Of the 715 children included, the mean age was 103 months, 85.8% had no immunosuppression, 73.1% were taking stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine, and 20.1% had a history prevention of mother-to-child transmission exposure. The mean time on ART was 60.0 months. VF was present in 259 patients (36.3%); 248 (95.8%) specimens were genotyped, and DR mutations were found in 238 (96.0%). Severe immunosuppression and nutritional decline were associated with DR. M184V and Y181C were the most common mutations. In the 238 patients with DR, standard second-line ART would have 0, 1, 2, and 3 effective antiretrovirals in 1 (0.4%), 74 (31.1%), 150 (63.0%), and 13 (5.5%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: This cohort had high rates of VF and DR with frequent compromise of second-line ART. There is urgent need to scale-up VL monitoring and heat-stable protease inhibitor formulations or integrase inhibitorsfor a more a durable first-line regimen that can feasibly be implemented in developing settings.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Estavudina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Masculino , Moçambique , Nevirapina/farmacologia , Estavudina/farmacologia , Falha de Tratamento , Carga Viral
5.
J Trop Pediatr ; 66(4): 385-394, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754710

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is not routinely used in the management of human immunodeficiency virus, but may be useful in pediatric patients who are prone to altered pharmacokinetics. Data on the routine use of antiretroviral TDM in pediatrics are sparse especially data from sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the antiretroviral TDM indications at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, identified pediatric patients who had antiretroviral TDM requests from January 2012 until June 2017 and reviewed their clinical records. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients were identified who presented with 64 clinical problems for which TDM was requested. TDM was requested for lopinavir, efavirenz and nevirapine in 83% (53/64), 14% (9/64) and 3% (2/64) of clinical problems, respectively. Lopinavir was mostly requested in patients when adherence measures did not correlate with the clinical picture, suspected non-adherence, lopinavir-rifampicin interactions and for neonatal safety monitoring. Efavirenz was requested when toxicity was suspected and nevirapine in patients receiving rifampicin. Lopinavir TDM confirmed non-adherence in 25% (4/16) of cases when adherence measures did not correlate with the clinical picture and in 43% (3/7) of cases when non-adherence was suspected by the clinician. Efavirenz TDM confirmed toxicity in 100% (6/6) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lopinavir TDM was mostly requested when adherence measures did not correlate with the clinical picture, when rifampicin was co-administered and for perinatal safety monitoring. Lopinavir TDM excluded pharmacokinetic reasons for failure in patients failing treatment when lopinavir dosing was supervised. Efavirenz TDM was requested for suspected toxicity with a 100% positive predictive value.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Alquinos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciclopropanos , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1024, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018 in Ethiopia, magnitude of human immunodeficiency virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome treatment failure was 15.9% and currently the number of patient receiving second line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is more increasing than those taking first line ART. Little is known about the predictors of treatment failure in the study area. Therefore; more factors that can be risk for first line ART failure have to identified to make the patients stay on first line ART for long times. Consequently, the aim of this study was to identify determinants of first line ART treatment failure among patients on ART at St. Luke referral hospital and Tulubolo General Hospital, 2019. METHODS: A 1:2 un-matched case-control study was conducted among adult patients on active follow up. One new group variables was formed as group 1 for cases and group 0 for controls and then data was entered in to Epi data version 3 and exported to STATA SE version 14 for analysis. From binary logistic regression variables with p value ≤0.25 were a candidate for multiple logistic regression. At the end variables with a p-value ≤0.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 350 (117 cases and 233 controls) patients were participated in the study. Starting ART after 2 years of being confirmed HIV positive (AOR = 3.82 95% CI 1.37,10.6), nevirapine (NVP) based initial ART (AOR = 2.77,95%CI 1.22,6.28) having history of lost to follow up (AOR 3.66,95%CI 1.44,9.27) and base line opportunistic infection (AOR = 1.97,95%CI 1.06,3.63), staying on first line ART for greater than 5 years (AOR = 3.42,95%CI 1.63,7.19) and CD4 less than100cell/ul (AOR = 2.72,95%CI 1.46,5.07) were independent determinants of first line ART treatment failure. CONCLUSION: Lost to follow up, staying on first line ART for greater than 5 years, presence of opportunistic infections, NVP based NNRT, late initiation of ART are determinant factors for first line ART treatment failure. The concerned bodies have to focus and act on those identified factors to maintain the patient on first line ART.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 789, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improved policies to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), adherence to maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant Nevirapine prophylaxis (NVP) is low in South Africa. We describe ART adherence amongst a cohort of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed but uninfected infants from 6 weeks until 18 months post-delivery and identify risk factors for nonadherence. METHODS: Data were collected in 2012-2014 through a nationally representative survey of PMTCT effectiveness. Mother-infant pairs were enrolled during the infant's first immunization visit at 6 weeks. Mothers and HIV-exposed infants (2811 pairs) were followed to 18 months at 3-month intervals. Mothers who self-reported being on ART at 6 weeks postpartum (N = 1572 (55.9%)) and infants on NVP at 6 weeks (N = 2370 (84.3%)) were eligible for this analysis and information about their adherence was captured at each interview they attended thereafter. We defined nonadherence within each 3-month interval as self-report of missing > 5% of daily ART/NVP doses, estimated adherence using a Cox survival curve with Andersen & Gill setup for recurring events, and identified risk factors for nonadherence with an extended Cox regression model (separately for mothers and infants) in Stata 13. Results are not nationally representative as this is a subgroup analysis of the follow-up cohort. RESULTS: Amongst mothers on ART at 6 weeks postpartum, cumulative adherence to maternal ART until 18 months was 63.4%. Among infants on NPV at 6 weeks postpartum, adherence to NVP was 74.5%.. Risk factors for nonadherence to maternal ART, controlling for other factors, included mother's age (16-24 years vs. ≥34 years, adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5), nondisclosure of HIV status to anyone (nondisclosure vs. disclosure: aHR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.1), and timing of ART initiation (initiated ART after delivery vs. initiated ART before delivery: aHR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.0). Provincial variation was seen in nonadherence to infant NVP, controlling for other factors. CONCLUSION: Maintaining ART adherence until 18 months postpartum remains a crucial challenge, with maternal ART adherence among the six week maternal ART cohort below 65% and infant NVP adherence among breastfeeding infants in this cohort below 75%.This is gravely concerning, given the global policy shift to lifelong ART amongst pregnant and lactating women, and the need for extended infant prophylaxis amongst mothers who are not virally suppressed. Our findings suggest that young mothers and mothers who do not disclose their status should be targeted with messages to improve adherence, and that late maternal ART initiation (after delivery) increases the risk of maternal nonadherence.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV/imunologia , Lactente , Mães , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lactação , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
8.
JCI Insight ; 4(19)2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487271

RESUMO

We hypothesized that HIV-1 with dual-class but not single-class drug resistance mutations linked on the same viral genome, present in the virus population before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), would be associated with failure of ART to suppress viremia. To test this hypothesis, we utilized an ultrasensitive single-genome sequencing assay that detects rare HIV-1 variants with linked drug resistance mutations (DRMs). A case (ART failure) control (nonfailure) study was designed to assess whether linkage of DRMs in pre-ART plasma samples was associated with treatment outcome in the nevirapine/tenofovir/emtricitabine arm of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5208/Optimal Combined Therapy After Nevirapine Exposure (OCTANE) Trial 1 among women who had received prior single-dose nevirapine. Ultrasensitive single-genome sequencing revealed a significant association between pre-ART HIV variants with DRMs to 2 drug classes linked on the same genome (dual class) and failure of combination ART with 3 drugs to suppress viremia. In contrast, linked, single-class DRMs were not associated with ART failure. We conclude that linked dual-class DRMs present before the initiation of ART are associated with ART failure, whereas linked single-class DRMs are not.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Mutação , Falha de Tratamento , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Emtricitabina/administração & dosagem , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Malar J ; 18(1): 277, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) require treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) when infected with malaria. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DPQ) is recommended for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but its efficacy and safety has not been evaluated in HIV-infected individuals on ART, among whom drug-drug interactions are expected. Day-42 adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) and incidence of adverse events were assessed in HIV-infected individuals on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART (efavirenz and nevirapine) with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. METHODS: An open label single arm clinical trial was conducted in Malawi (Blantyre and Chikhwawa districts) and Mozambique (Manhiça district) involving patients aged 15-65 years with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria who were on efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based ART. They received a directly-observed 3-day standard treatment of DPQ and were followed up until day 63 for malaria infection and adverse events. Day-42 PCR-corrected-ACPRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. RESULTS: The study enrolled 160 and 61 patients on efavirenz and nevirapine-based ART, with a baseline geometric mean (95% CI) parasite density of 2681 (1964-3661) and 9819 (6606-14,593) parasites/µL, respectively. The day-42 PCR-corrected ACPR (95% CI) was 99.4% (95.6-99.9%) in the efavirenz group and 100% in the nevirapine group. Serious adverse events occurred in 5.0% (8/160) and 3.3% (2/61) of the participants in the efavirenz and nevirapine group, respectively, but none were definitively attributable to DPQ. Cases of prolonged QT interval (> 60 ms from baseline) occurred in 31.2% (48/154) and 13.3% (8/60) of the patients on the efavirenz and nevirapine ART groups, respectively. These were not clinically significant and resolved spontaneously over time. As this study was not designed to compare the efficacy and safety of DPQ in the two ART groups, no formal statistical comparisons were made between the two ART groups. CONCLUSIONS: DPQ was highly efficacious and safe for the treatment of malaria in HIV-infected patients concurrently taking efavirenz- or nevirapine-based ART, despite known pharmacokinetic interactions between dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based ART regimens. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR): PACTR201311000659400. Registered on 4 October 2013, https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/Search.aspx.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alquinos , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Ciclopropanos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 741, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of fixed combination antiretroviral therapy with a low genetic barrier for the treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may affect the local HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) pattern. The present study aimed to investigate changes in the prevalence of HIV TDR following the implementation of a fixed regimen of HIV treatment in Taiwan in 2012. METHODS: TDR was measured in antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals who participated in voluntary counseling and testing between 2007 and 2015 in southern Taiwan. Antiretroviral resistance mutations were interpreted using the HIVdb program from the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. RESULTS: Sequences were obtained from 377 consecutive individuals between 2007 and 2015. The overall prevalence rates of TDR HIV among the study population from 2007 to 2011 and 2012-2015 were 10.6 and 7.9%, respectively. Among the detected mutations, K103 N and V179D + K103R were more frequently observed after 2012. Four HIV-infected patients with K103 N variants were detected after 2012, and 4 of the 5 patients with V179D + K103R variants were found after 2012. No significant differences were observed in the TDRs among nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-NRTIs (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors, multiple drug resistance, and any drug resistance between period 1 (2007-2011) and period 2 (2012-2015). CONCLUSIONS: A fixed treatment regimen with zidovudine/lamivudine + efavirenz or nevirapine as first-line therapy for treatment-naïve patients infected with HIV did not significantly increase the TDR during the 4-year follow-up period. Due to the increase in NNRTI resistance associated with mutations after 2012, a longer follow-up period and larger sample size are needed in future studies.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Alquinos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Ciclopropanos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
11.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(10): 3003-3010, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that etonogestrel concentrations were 82% lower in women using etonogestrel contraceptive implants plus efavirenz-based ART compared with women not receiving ART. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the genetic contribution to this previously observed drug-drug interaction through studying SNPs in genes known to be involved in efavirenz, nevirapine or etonogestrel metabolism in the same group of women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Here, we present a secondary analysis evaluating SNPs involved in efavirenz, nevirapine and etonogestrel metabolism and associated etonogestrel pharmacokinetics among 57 women, 19 not receiving ART (control group), 19 receiving efavirenz- (600 mg daily) based ART and 19 receiving nevirapine- (200 mg twice daily) based ART. Associations between patient genotype and etonogestrel pharmacokinetic parameters were determined through univariate and multivariate linear regression. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02082652). RESULTS: Within the control group, CYP2B6 983 T>C was associated with 27% higher etonogestrel Cmax and 28% higher AUC0-24weeks. In the efavirenz group CYP2B6 516 G>T was associated with 43% lower etonogestrel Cmin and 34% lower AUC0-24weeks. For participants receiving nevirapine, NR1I2 63396 C>T was associated with 39% lower etonogestrel Cmin and 37% lower AUC0-24weeks. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the influence of pharmacogenetics on the extent of drug-drug interactions between etonogestrel and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based ART. Efavirenz plus the etonogestrel contraceptive implant results in a detrimental drug-drug interaction irrespective of patient genetics, which is worsened in women possessing variant alleles for these CYP2B6 SNPs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Desogestrel/farmacocinética , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alquinos , Ciclopropanos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Interações Medicamentosas/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332062

RESUMO

Nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is one of the limited options in HIV-infected children younger than 3 years old (young children) with tuberculosis (TB) coinfection. To date, there are insufficient data to recommend nevirapine-based therapy during first-line antituberculosis (anti-TB) therapy in young children. We compared nevirapine pharmacokinetics (PK) in HIV-infected young children with and without TB coinfection. In the coinfected group, nevirapine PK was evaluated while on anti-TB therapy and after completing an anti-TB therapy regimen. Of 53 participants, 23 (43%) had TB-HIV coinfection. While the mean difference in nevirapine PK parameters between the two groups was not significant (P > 0.05), 14/23 (61%) of the children with TB-HIV coinfection and 9/30 (30%) with HIV infection had a nevirapine minimum concentration (C min) below the proposed target of 3.0 mg/liter (P = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, anti-TB therapy and the CYP2B6 516G>T genotype were joint predictors of nevirapine PK parameters. Differences in nevirapine PK parameters between the two groups were significant in children with CYP2B6 516GG but not the GT or TT genotype. Among 14 TB-HIV-coinfected participants with paired data, the geometric mean C min and area under the drug concentration-time curve from time zero to 12 h (AUC0-12) were about 34% lower when patients were taking anti-TB therapy, while the nevirapine apparent oral clearance (CL/F) was about 45% higher. While the induction effect of anti-TB therapy on nevirapine PK in our study was modest, the CYP2B6 genotype-dependent variability in the TB drug regimen effect would complicate any dose adjustment strategy in young children with TB-HIV coinfection. Alternate ART regimens that are more compatible with TB treatment in this age group are needed. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01699633.).


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nevirapina/farmacocinética , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tuberculose/metabolismo
13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(10): 3021-3029, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined virological outcomes, patterns of acquired HIV drug resistance (ADR), correlates of virological failure (VF) and acquired drug resistance among fisherfolk on first-line ART. METHODS: We enrolled 1169 adults on ART for a median duration of 6, 12, 24, 36 and ≥48 months and used a pooled VL testing approach to identify VF (VL ≥1000 copies/mL). We performed genotyping among VF cases and determined correlates of VF and ADR by logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall virological suppression rate was 91.7% and ADR was detected in 71/97 (73.2%) VF cases. The most prevalent mutations were M184V/I (53.6%) for NRTIs and K103N (39.2%) for NNRTIs. Thymidine analogue mutations were detected in 21.6% of VF cases while PI mutations were absent. A zidovudine-based ART regimen, duration on ART (≥24 months) and secondary/higher education level were significantly associated with VF. A nevirapine-based regimen [adjusted OR (aOR): 1.87; 95% CI: 0.03-0.54)] and VL ≥10000 copies/mL (aOR: 3.48; 95% CI: 1.37-8.85) were ADR correlates. The pooling strategies for VL testing with a negative predictive value (NPV) of ≥95.2% saved US $20320 (43.5%) in VL testing costs. CONCLUSIONS: We observed high virological suppression rates among these highly mobile fisherfolk; however, there was widespread ADR among those with VF at the first VL testing prior to intensive adherence counselling. Timely treatment switching and adherence support is recommended for better treatment outcomes. Adoption of pooled VL testing could be cost effective, particularly in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 583, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are implicated in drug-induced hypersensitivity, including by nevirapine and abacavir. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between HLA polymorphisms and hypersensitivity to antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies that evaluated the associations of HLA polymorphisms with antiretroviral therapy-induced hypersensitivity published in April 2019. The summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered as estimates of the effect. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 17 studies that assessed a total of 4273 patients. First, carriers of HLA-A *24 were associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity among patients with HIV who received antiretroviral therapy (OR: 12.12; P = 0.018). Second, five SNPs of HLA-B genotypes, including *18 (OR: 1.63; P = 0.028), *35 (OR: 2.31; P = 0.002), *39 (OR: 11.85; P = 0.040), *51 (OR: 1.66; P = 0.028), and *81 (OR: 8.11; P = 0.021), were associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity. Conversely, carriers of HLA-B *15 were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity (OR: 0.43; P < 0.001). Third, HLA-C *04 was associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity (OR: 3.09; P < 0.001), whereas a lower risk for hypersensitivity was observed in patients who were carriers of HLA-C *02 (OR: 0.22; P = 0.030), *03 (OR: 0.53; P = 0.049), and *07 (OR: 0.61; P = 0.044). Finally, carriers of HLA-DRB1 *05 (OR: 0.18; P = 0.006) and *15 (OR: 0.23; P = 0.013) were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this meta-analysis indicated patients carrying HLA-A *24, HLA-B *18, *35, *39, *51, *81, HLA-C *04 were associated with a higher risk of hypersensitivity. Conversely, subjects carrying HLA-B *15, HLA-C *02, *03, *07, HLA-DRB1 *05, *15 were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Didesoxinucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Didesoxinucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Razão de Chances
15.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 18: 2325958219856579, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216920

RESUMO

Although drug-resistant HIV variants are considered to be less fit than drug-susceptible viruses, replication competence of these variants harbored by patients has not yet been elucidated in detail. We herein assessed the replication competence of strains obtained from individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. Among 11 306 participants in a drug resistance surveillance in the Philippines, 2629 plasma samples were obtained from individuals after a 12-month treatment with zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC)/nevirapine (NVP). The replication competence of HIV isolates was then assessed by reinoculation into seronegative peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the absence of drugs in vitro. The drug resistance rate was estimated to be 9.2%. Drug-resistant strains were still a minority of closely related strains in a phylogenetic cluster. Among the available 295 samples, 37 HIV strains were successfully isolated. Progeny viruses were produced at a wide range (5.1 × 106 to 3.4 × 109 copies/mL) in primary culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The viral yields were higher than the corresponding plasma viral load (1300 to 3.4 × 106 copies/mL) but correlated with those (r = 0.4). These results suggest that strains with higher intrinsic replication competence are one of the primary targets of newly selected drugs at the increasing phase of the plasma viral load during antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Replicação Viral , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Viral Múltipla , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Filipinas , Filogenia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(6): e25312, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179641

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recommendations on the optimal frequency of plasma viral load (pVL) monitoring in children living with HIV (CLWH) who are stable on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the impact of annual versus semi-annual pVL monitoring on treatment outcomes in Asian CLWH. METHODS: Data on children with perinatally acquired HIV aged <18 years on first-line, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based cART with viral suppression (two consecutive pVL <400 copies/mL over a six-month period) were included from a regional cohort study; those exposed to prior mono- or dual antiretroviral treatment were excluded. Frequency of pVL monitoring was determined at the site-level based on the median rate of pVL measurement: annual 0.75 to 1.5, and semi-annual >1.5 tests/patient/year. Treatment failure was defined as virologic failure (two consecutive pVL >1000 copies/mL), change of antiretroviral drug class, or death. Baseline was the date of the second consecutive pVL <400 copies/mL. Competing risk regression models were used to identify predictors of treatment failure. RESULTS: During January 2008 to March 2015, there were 1220 eligible children from 10 sites that performed at least annual pVL monitoring, 1042 (85%) and 178 (15%) were from sites performing annual (n = 6) and semi-annual pVL monitoring (n = 4) respectively. Pre-cART, 675 children (55%) had World Health Organization clinical stage 3 or 4, the median nadir CD4 percentage was 9%, and the median pVL was 5.2 log10 copies/mL. At baseline, the median age was 9.2 years, 64% were on nevirapine-based regimens, the median cART duration was 1.6 years, and the median CD4 percentage was 26%. Over the follow-up period, 258 (25%) CLWH with annual and 40 (23%) with semi-annual pVL monitoring developed treatment failure, corresponding to incidence rates of 5.4 (95% CI: 4.8 to 6.1) and 4.3 (95% CI: 3.1 to 5.8) per 100 patient-years of follow-up respectively (p = 0.27). In multivariable analyses, the frequency of pVL monitoring was not associated with treatment failure (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.59). CONCLUSIONS: Annual compared to semi-annual pVL monitoring was not associated with an increased risk of treatment failure in our cohort of virally suppressed children with perinatally acquired HIV on first-line NNRTI-based cART.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
AIDS ; 33(11): 1751-1756, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prompt initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected infants is strongly recommended but diagnostic confirmation is important as committing children to life-long ART carries serious health and social implications. METHODS: Two HIV-exposed infants in Johannesburg, South Africa were identified presenting with unusual trajectories of diagnostic nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) and viral load results. RESULTS: Case 1 had repeat indeterminate NAAT results during the first 3 weeks of life; repeat testing thereafter was negative with undetectable viral load including after daily nevirapine prophylaxis ended. ART was not initiated at this time. Case 2 had a single positive NAAT result at 1 month of age that prompted initiation of ART. Subsequent results were negative and ART was discontinued. Repeat negative NAAT with viral load below the limit of quantification or undetectable continued to be obtained. Shortly after and around weaning, positive NAAT results with high viral load (7.1 and 6.03 log10 copies/ml for Cases 1 and 2, respectively) were observed in both children. Both mothers were treated with tenofovir, emtricitabine and efavirenz during breastfeeding. Testing with ultrasensitive assays on early samples conclusively revealed HIV-1 proviral DNA in Case 1. Testing with ultrasensitive assays after the early period but prior to weaning did not detect HIV in either infant. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that breast milk from the mothers of these two rare cases had HIV-specific or nonspecific factors that led to the undetectable results in already infected infants until breastfeeding ended. Our results raise the importance of repeat testing of HIV-exposed breast-fed infants after complete cessation of all breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Viral
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 419, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children represent a very vulnerable population for anti-retroviral therapy (ART) drug resistance. As a global target, 90% of patients receiving ART should have HIV-RNA viral suppression. A threshold of > 1000 RNA copies/ml is used to define non-suppressed viral load. If it is confirmed in the laboratory, adherence should be addressed and should be followed by the switch to second-line ART. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the rate of viral load suppression among children tested at the Amhara Public Health Institute (APHI), Bahir Dar. METHODS: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted from July 01, 2017 to June 30, 2018, in children under the age of 15 years. Socio-demographic, clinical and HIV1RNA viral load data were collected from the excel database. The data were analyzed in SPSS 20.0 statistical software. RESULTS: A total of 1567 children, age ranged from one to 14 years, were tested for HIV viral load. Of which, about 54% were males. Children were treated using nevirapine-based (76.7%), efavirenz-based (21.8%) and protease inhibitor-based (1.5%) anti-retroviral drugs. Non-suppressed HIV viral load was found in 28.3% of the participants. High viral load (> 1000 cp/ml) were found in 24% of the children below the age of five years. Children on nevirapine-based treatment had about two times more non-suppressed viral load (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.41-2.56; P < 0.001) compared to those who had efavirenz-based treatment. However, adherence (P: 0.204) was not associated with non-suppressed viral load. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high rate of non-suppressed HIV viral load among children tested at APHI. Specifically, the odds of having a non-suppressed viral load was higher in NVP based treatment users. Hence, comprehensive management and follow up of children on ART, and testing for resistance as well as viral load could help to reduce the problem in advance.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Alquinos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ciclopropanos , Etiópia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Razão de Chances , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 386, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India lacks data on the incidence of Paediatric HIV. In 2010, the Indian Council of Medical Research commissioned a task force study to estimate the paediatric HIV burden in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India. We estimated the HIV incidence, prevalence and associated risk factors of mother to child transmission of HIV among children exposed to maternal HIV by age 24 months. METHODS: We included Belgaum resident pregnant women who tested HIV positive between January 1st, 2011 and May 31st, 2013 and who provided consent. Their babies were tested for HIV at three time intervals using DNA PCR dry blood spot (DBS) method at 6-10 weeks and 6-9 months, and using Antibody tests at 18-24 months of age. We estimated cumulative incidence using survival analysis that considered censoring of cases and prevalence rates of HIV by age 24 months. Using competing-risk survival regression model, we examined the correlates of transmission of HIV among babies exposed to maternal HIV. RESULTS: Among 487 children of HIV positive mothers recruited in the study, the cumulative incidence rate by 24 months of age was 4.8 per 1000 person months [95% CI: 3.5-6.6]. The HIV prevalence rate among babies exposed to maternal HIV until 24 months was 7.8% [95% CI: 5.7-10.7]. Mother's age above 30 years, and breastfeeding duration of more than six months were factors that significantly increased the HIV transmission; adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 6.98 [95% CI: 1.73-28.16] and 5.28 [95% CI, 1.75-15.90], respectively. The risk of MTCT was significantly reduced if both mother and baby had received Nevirapine at delivery [AHR 0.25; 95%CI: 0.10-0.61] and if either mother or baby had been given Nevirapine at delivery [AHR 0.12; 95%CI: 0.03-0.49]. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest that mother's age above 30 years and breastfeeding beyond 26 weeks is associated with higher rates of HIV transmission from mother to child. It confirms the benefits of providing anti-retrovirals (Nevirapine) in reducing mother to child transmission of HIV. Effective strategies to promote safe infant feeding practices, including avoidance of mixed feeding beyond 26 weeks among HIV infected mothers, is critical to reduce incidence of paediatric HIV in India.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 436, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retention of HIV Exposed Infants (HEIs) in care ensures adequate care. Data on retention of HEIs at large referral hospitals in Uganda is limited. We investigated the retention level of HEIs and associated factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 352 HEIs in care (January 2014 and April 2015) at Arua Regional Referral Hospital, North-western Uganda. Electronic medical data were retrieved and analyzed with Stata. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Students t-tests were used for bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was performed to determine factors independently associated with retention. RESULTS: 236 (67.0%) HEIs were delivered in a health facility and 306 (86.9%) received Nevirapine prophylaxis from birth until 6-weeks. Of mothers, 270 (76.7%) were 25-46 years, 202 (57.4%) attended antenatal care (ANC) at recent pregnancy, and 328 (93.2%) were on life-long anti-retroviral therapy. At 18-months, 277 (78.7%) HEIs were retained in care. Maternal age (25-46 years) (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 2.32; 95% CI, 1.32-4.06), ANC attendance during recent pregnancy (AOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.19-4.3.41) and Nevirapine prophylaxis initiation from birth until 6-weeks (AOR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.50-6.26) were associated with retention. CONCLUSION: Retention was suboptimal. Older maternal age, ANC visits at last pregnancy, and timely NVP initiation increased retention.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda
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