Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.424
Filtrar
1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1024, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018 in Ethiopia, magnitude of human immunodeficiency virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome treatment failure was 15.9% and currently the number of patient receiving second line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is more increasing than those taking first line ART. Little is known about the predictors of treatment failure in the study area. Therefore; more factors that can be risk for first line ART failure have to identified to make the patients stay on first line ART for long times. Consequently, the aim of this study was to identify determinants of first line ART treatment failure among patients on ART at St. Luke referral hospital and Tulubolo General Hospital, 2019. METHODS: A 1:2 un-matched case-control study was conducted among adult patients on active follow up. One new group variables was formed as group 1 for cases and group 0 for controls and then data was entered in to Epi data version 3 and exported to STATA SE version 14 for analysis. From binary logistic regression variables with p value ≤0.25 were a candidate for multiple logistic regression. At the end variables with a p-value ≤0.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULT: A total of 350 (117 cases and 233 controls) patients were participated in the study. Starting ART after 2 years of being confirmed HIV positive (AOR = 3.82 95% CI 1.37,10.6), nevirapine (NVP) based initial ART (AOR = 2.77,95%CI 1.22,6.28) having history of lost to follow up (AOR 3.66,95%CI 1.44,9.27) and base line opportunistic infection (AOR = 1.97,95%CI 1.06,3.63), staying on first line ART for greater than 5 years (AOR = 3.42,95%CI 1.63,7.19) and CD4 less than100cell/ul (AOR = 2.72,95%CI 1.46,5.07) were independent determinants of first line ART treatment failure. CONCLUSION: Lost to follow up, staying on first line ART for greater than 5 years, presence of opportunistic infections, NVP based NNRT, late initiation of ART are determinant factors for first line ART treatment failure. The concerned bodies have to focus and act on those identified factors to maintain the patient on first line ART.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 789, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improved policies to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), adherence to maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant Nevirapine prophylaxis (NVP) is low in South Africa. We describe ART adherence amongst a cohort of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed but uninfected infants from 6 weeks until 18 months post-delivery and identify risk factors for nonadherence. METHODS: Data were collected in 2012-2014 through a nationally representative survey of PMTCT effectiveness. Mother-infant pairs were enrolled during the infant's first immunization visit at 6 weeks. Mothers and HIV-exposed infants (2811 pairs) were followed to 18 months at 3-month intervals. Mothers who self-reported being on ART at 6 weeks postpartum (N = 1572 (55.9%)) and infants on NVP at 6 weeks (N = 2370 (84.3%)) were eligible for this analysis and information about their adherence was captured at each interview they attended thereafter. We defined nonadherence within each 3-month interval as self-report of missing > 5% of daily ART/NVP doses, estimated adherence using a Cox survival curve with Andersen & Gill setup for recurring events, and identified risk factors for nonadherence with an extended Cox regression model (separately for mothers and infants) in Stata 13. Results are not nationally representative as this is a subgroup analysis of the follow-up cohort. RESULTS: Amongst mothers on ART at 6 weeks postpartum, cumulative adherence to maternal ART until 18 months was 63.4%. Among infants on NPV at 6 weeks postpartum, adherence to NVP was 74.5%.. Risk factors for nonadherence to maternal ART, controlling for other factors, included mother's age (16-24 years vs. ≥34 years, adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5), nondisclosure of HIV status to anyone (nondisclosure vs. disclosure: aHR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.1), and timing of ART initiation (initiated ART after delivery vs. initiated ART before delivery: aHR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.0). Provincial variation was seen in nonadherence to infant NVP, controlling for other factors. CONCLUSION: Maintaining ART adherence until 18 months postpartum remains a crucial challenge, with maternal ART adherence among the six week maternal ART cohort below 65% and infant NVP adherence among breastfeeding infants in this cohort below 75%.This is gravely concerning, given the global policy shift to lifelong ART amongst pregnant and lactating women, and the need for extended infant prophylaxis amongst mothers who are not virally suppressed. Our findings suggest that young mothers and mothers who do not disclose their status should be targeted with messages to improve adherence, and that late maternal ART initiation (after delivery) increases the risk of maternal nonadherence.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV/imunologia , Lactente , Mães , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lactação , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 741, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of fixed combination antiretroviral therapy with a low genetic barrier for the treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may affect the local HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) pattern. The present study aimed to investigate changes in the prevalence of HIV TDR following the implementation of a fixed regimen of HIV treatment in Taiwan in 2012. METHODS: TDR was measured in antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals who participated in voluntary counseling and testing between 2007 and 2015 in southern Taiwan. Antiretroviral resistance mutations were interpreted using the HIVdb program from the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. RESULTS: Sequences were obtained from 377 consecutive individuals between 2007 and 2015. The overall prevalence rates of TDR HIV among the study population from 2007 to 2011 and 2012-2015 were 10.6 and 7.9%, respectively. Among the detected mutations, K103 N and V179D + K103R were more frequently observed after 2012. Four HIV-infected patients with K103 N variants were detected after 2012, and 4 of the 5 patients with V179D + K103R variants were found after 2012. No significant differences were observed in the TDRs among nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-NRTIs (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors, multiple drug resistance, and any drug resistance between period 1 (2007-2011) and period 2 (2012-2015). CONCLUSIONS: A fixed treatment regimen with zidovudine/lamivudine + efavirenz or nevirapine as first-line therapy for treatment-naïve patients infected with HIV did not significantly increase the TDR during the 4-year follow-up period. Due to the increase in NNRTI resistance associated with mutations after 2012, a longer follow-up period and larger sample size are needed in future studies.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
4.
Malar J ; 18(1): 277, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) require treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) when infected with malaria. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DPQ) is recommended for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but its efficacy and safety has not been evaluated in HIV-infected individuals on ART, among whom drug-drug interactions are expected. Day-42 adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) and incidence of adverse events were assessed in HIV-infected individuals on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART (efavirenz and nevirapine) with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. METHODS: An open label single arm clinical trial was conducted in Malawi (Blantyre and Chikhwawa districts) and Mozambique (Manhiça district) involving patients aged 15-65 years with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria who were on efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based ART. They received a directly-observed 3-day standard treatment of DPQ and were followed up until day 63 for malaria infection and adverse events. Day-42 PCR-corrected-ACPRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. RESULTS: The study enrolled 160 and 61 patients on efavirenz and nevirapine-based ART, with a baseline geometric mean (95% CI) parasite density of 2681 (1964-3661) and 9819 (6606-14,593) parasites/µL, respectively. The day-42 PCR-corrected ACPR (95% CI) was 99.4% (95.6-99.9%) in the efavirenz group and 100% in the nevirapine group. Serious adverse events occurred in 5.0% (8/160) and 3.3% (2/61) of the participants in the efavirenz and nevirapine group, respectively, but none were definitively attributable to DPQ. Cases of prolonged QT interval (> 60 ms from baseline) occurred in 31.2% (48/154) and 13.3% (8/60) of the patients on the efavirenz and nevirapine ART groups, respectively. These were not clinically significant and resolved spontaneously over time. As this study was not designed to compare the efficacy and safety of DPQ in the two ART groups, no formal statistical comparisons were made between the two ART groups. CONCLUSIONS: DPQ was highly efficacious and safe for the treatment of malaria in HIV-infected patients concurrently taking efavirenz- or nevirapine-based ART, despite known pharmacokinetic interactions between dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based ART regimens. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR): PACTR201311000659400. Registered on 4 October 2013, https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/Search.aspx.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 583, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are implicated in drug-induced hypersensitivity, including by nevirapine and abacavir. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between HLA polymorphisms and hypersensitivity to antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies that evaluated the associations of HLA polymorphisms with antiretroviral therapy-induced hypersensitivity published in April 2019. The summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered as estimates of the effect. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 17 studies that assessed a total of 4273 patients. First, carriers of HLA-A *24 were associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity among patients with HIV who received antiretroviral therapy (OR: 12.12; P = 0.018). Second, five SNPs of HLA-B genotypes, including *18 (OR: 1.63; P = 0.028), *35 (OR: 2.31; P = 0.002), *39 (OR: 11.85; P = 0.040), *51 (OR: 1.66; P = 0.028), and *81 (OR: 8.11; P = 0.021), were associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity. Conversely, carriers of HLA-B *15 were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity (OR: 0.43; P < 0.001). Third, HLA-C *04 was associated with an increased risk of hypersensitivity (OR: 3.09; P < 0.001), whereas a lower risk for hypersensitivity was observed in patients who were carriers of HLA-C *02 (OR: 0.22; P = 0.030), *03 (OR: 0.53; P = 0.049), and *07 (OR: 0.61; P = 0.044). Finally, carriers of HLA-DRB1 *05 (OR: 0.18; P = 0.006) and *15 (OR: 0.23; P = 0.013) were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this meta-analysis indicated patients carrying HLA-A *24, HLA-B *18, *35, *39, *51, *81, HLA-C *04 were associated with a higher risk of hypersensitivity. Conversely, subjects carrying HLA-B *15, HLA-C *02, *03, *07, HLA-DRB1 *05, *15 were associated with a reduced risk of hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Didesoxinucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Didesoxinucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Razão de Chances
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 419, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children represent a very vulnerable population for anti-retroviral therapy (ART) drug resistance. As a global target, 90% of patients receiving ART should have HIV-RNA viral suppression. A threshold of > 1000 RNA copies/ml is used to define non-suppressed viral load. If it is confirmed in the laboratory, adherence should be addressed and should be followed by the switch to second-line ART. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the rate of viral load suppression among children tested at the Amhara Public Health Institute (APHI), Bahir Dar. METHODS: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted from July 01, 2017 to June 30, 2018, in children under the age of 15 years. Socio-demographic, clinical and HIV1RNA viral load data were collected from the excel database. The data were analyzed in SPSS 20.0 statistical software. RESULTS: A total of 1567 children, age ranged from one to 14 years, were tested for HIV viral load. Of which, about 54% were males. Children were treated using nevirapine-based (76.7%), efavirenz-based (21.8%) and protease inhibitor-based (1.5%) anti-retroviral drugs. Non-suppressed HIV viral load was found in 28.3% of the participants. High viral load (> 1000 cp/ml) were found in 24% of the children below the age of five years. Children on nevirapine-based treatment had about two times more non-suppressed viral load (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.41-2.56; P < 0.001) compared to those who had efavirenz-based treatment. However, adherence (P: 0.204) was not associated with non-suppressed viral load. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high rate of non-suppressed HIV viral load among children tested at APHI. Specifically, the odds of having a non-suppressed viral load was higher in NVP based treatment users. Hence, comprehensive management and follow up of children on ART, and testing for resistance as well as viral load could help to reduce the problem in advance.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Razão de Chances , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 436, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retention of HIV Exposed Infants (HEIs) in care ensures adequate care. Data on retention of HEIs at large referral hospitals in Uganda is limited. We investigated the retention level of HEIs and associated factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 352 HEIs in care (January 2014 and April 2015) at Arua Regional Referral Hospital, North-western Uganda. Electronic medical data were retrieved and analyzed with Stata. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and Students t-tests were used for bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was performed to determine factors independently associated with retention. RESULTS: 236 (67.0%) HEIs were delivered in a health facility and 306 (86.9%) received Nevirapine prophylaxis from birth until 6-weeks. Of mothers, 270 (76.7%) were 25-46 years, 202 (57.4%) attended antenatal care (ANC) at recent pregnancy, and 328 (93.2%) were on life-long anti-retroviral therapy. At 18-months, 277 (78.7%) HEIs were retained in care. Maternal age (25-46 years) (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 2.32; 95% CI, 1.32-4.06), ANC attendance during recent pregnancy (AOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.19-4.3.41) and Nevirapine prophylaxis initiation from birth until 6-weeks (AOR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.50-6.26) were associated with retention. CONCLUSION: Retention was suboptimal. Older maternal age, ANC visits at last pregnancy, and timely NVP initiation increased retention.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 386, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India lacks data on the incidence of Paediatric HIV. In 2010, the Indian Council of Medical Research commissioned a task force study to estimate the paediatric HIV burden in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India. We estimated the HIV incidence, prevalence and associated risk factors of mother to child transmission of HIV among children exposed to maternal HIV by age 24 months. METHODS: We included Belgaum resident pregnant women who tested HIV positive between January 1st, 2011 and May 31st, 2013 and who provided consent. Their babies were tested for HIV at three time intervals using DNA PCR dry blood spot (DBS) method at 6-10 weeks and 6-9 months, and using Antibody tests at 18-24 months of age. We estimated cumulative incidence using survival analysis that considered censoring of cases and prevalence rates of HIV by age 24 months. Using competing-risk survival regression model, we examined the correlates of transmission of HIV among babies exposed to maternal HIV. RESULTS: Among 487 children of HIV positive mothers recruited in the study, the cumulative incidence rate by 24 months of age was 4.8 per 1000 person months [95% CI: 3.5-6.6]. The HIV prevalence rate among babies exposed to maternal HIV until 24 months was 7.8% [95% CI: 5.7-10.7]. Mother's age above 30 years, and breastfeeding duration of more than six months were factors that significantly increased the HIV transmission; adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 6.98 [95% CI: 1.73-28.16] and 5.28 [95% CI, 1.75-15.90], respectively. The risk of MTCT was significantly reduced if both mother and baby had received Nevirapine at delivery [AHR 0.25; 95%CI: 0.10-0.61] and if either mother or baby had been given Nevirapine at delivery [AHR 0.12; 95%CI: 0.03-0.49]. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest that mother's age above 30 years and breastfeeding beyond 26 weeks is associated with higher rates of HIV transmission from mother to child. It confirms the benefits of providing anti-retrovirals (Nevirapine) in reducing mother to child transmission of HIV. Effective strategies to promote safe infant feeding practices, including avoidance of mixed feeding beyond 26 weeks among HIV infected mothers, is critical to reduce incidence of paediatric HIV in India.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(2): 202-206, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective adherence measures are of increasing interest in antiretroviral treatment (ART) monitoring. Hair ART levels predict virologic suppression, and hair is easy to collect and store. No previous study has examined hair levels in an India-based cohort or laboratory. METHODS: Small hair samples were collected from HIV-positive participants on either efavirenz (EFV)-based or nevirapine (NVP)-based ART in a South India-based study. Hair samples were split and analyzed for EFV or NVP in the University of California, San Francisco -based Hair Analytical Laboratory and the analytic laboratory of the Division of Nutrition at St. John's Research Institute, Bangalore, India, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Agreement (using Bland-Altman methods) and rank correlation between the 2 laboratories' hair levels were calculated. Rank correlation between self-reported adherence (SRA) over the previous month using a visual analog scale and hair ART levels was calculated. RESULTS: Among 75 participants (38 on NVP; 37 on EFV), the correlation between NVP levels generated by the 2 laboratories was 0.66 (P < 0.0001) and between EFV levels was 0.87 (P < 0.0001). Measurements from St. John's Research Institute were usually within 20% of those from the University of California, San Francisco Hair Analytical Laboratory. SRA was essentially uncorrelated with hair antiretroviral levels for either drug (all correlations < 0.04). Hair levels showed variability in adherence although SRA was >85% in all participants. CONCLUSIONS: Hair ART levels measured by both an India-based laboratory and the standard U.S.-based laboratory showed generally high agreement and correlation, demonstrating local capacity. As in many other cohorts, hair ART levels and SRA were not well-correlated, likely indicating limitations in self-report and the need for objective adherence monitoring in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Cabelo/química , Adesão à Medicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , São Francisco , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 194, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-load decrease and suppression over time is associated with consistent adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our study aimed to evaluate the difference in viral load and adherence of patients treated with a combination of either Tenofovir (TDF), Lamivudine (3TC) and Efavirenz (EFV) or TDF / Zidovudine (AZT), 3TC and Nevirapine (NVP) regimens at 24 and 48 weeks. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted from May 2016 to June 2017 among 256 HIV infected adult patients who were enrolled at two approved treatment hospitals in Yaoundé, before the start of first-line ART. Whole blood samples were collected using standard operating procedures. HIV-loads were determined by a quantitative RealTime PCR assay. Adherence was evaluated by pharmacy refill data records. Statistical analyses were performed using the PRISM 5.0 software. RESULTS: Off the 256 HIV infected patients enrolled, 180 (70%) patients completed the study and 76 (30%) patients were lost to follow-up. The success rate in achieving viral load < 40 copies/ml was 1.8 times higher with the EFV regimen at 24 weeks and was 1.2 times higher in the NVP regimen at 48 weeks. At 48 weeks the treatment failure rate was 12.0 and 40.0% in patients on EFV and the NVP regimen, respectively. The rate of adherence varied in both ART based regimens with 84.0 to 74.0% for EFV and 65.5 to 62.5% for NVP, at 24 and 48 weeks respectively. CONCLUSION: In our study and setting, the rate of viral load decrease was higher in the NVP based regimen than with the EFV regimen. The adherence rate to ART was higher in the EFV regimen, compared to the NVP regimen. This adds to evidence that the EFV regimen is the preferred ART combination for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs).


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Camarões , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
11.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 53(4): 515-519, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769200

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence of doravirine (DOR) resistance mutations in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-experienced patients. DOR resistance was assessed in samples from NNRTI-experienced patients who underwent genotypic testing for virological failure from the Antiretroviral Response Cohort Analysis (ARCA) database. Intermediate DOR resistance was defined as detection of any of V106A/M, Y188C/H, V108I, and K103N+P225H. High-level DOR resistance was defined as detection of any of Y188L, M230L, G190E, V106A/M+F227L, and V106A/M+L234I. Overall, 6893 patients were included in the study: 64.2% had experienced efavirenz (EFV), 54.4% nevirapine (NVP), 6.8% etravirine (ETR), 7.7% rilpivirine (RPV) and 0.7% delavirdine. Among NNRTI-experienced patients, 12.7% and 6.1% of subjects had intermediate and high-level DOR resistance, respectively. The most common DOR resistance mutation was Y188L. In multivariable analysis, previous EFV use (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.02) and ETR use (OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.34-2.73) were associated with detection of high-level DOR resistance, whilst RPV use was associated with a lower probability of high-level DOR resistance (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.22-0.71). Moreover, EFV use (OR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.19-2.58) and ETR use (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.10-2.68) were associated with detection of the Y188L mutation, whereas RPV use was not (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.05-0.50). In Italy, DOR resistance is uncommon among NNRTI-experienced patients, confirming a distinguishing resistance pattern within NNRTIs. However, previous EFV and ETR experience poses a higher risk of DOR resistance. These results support the use of DOR in NNRTI-experienced patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Delavirdina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/genética , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Rilpivirina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 64, 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programmes have substantially reduced HIV infections among infants in Yunnan Province, China. We conducted a macro-level economic evaluation of Yunnan's PMTCT programmes over the 10 years from 2006 to 2015 from a policymaker perspective. METHODS: The study methodology was in accordance with the guidelines from the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. We quantified the output from the Yunnan's PMTCT programmes by estimating the number of paediatric HIV infections averted and the relative savings to both the health care system and society. The return-on-investment ratio (ROI) was calculated as the output (numerator) divided by the input (denominator). RESULTS: We have found that the US$ 49 million investment in Yunnan's PMTCT programmes over the period from 2006 to 2015 averted an estimated 2725 new paediatric HIV infections and resulted in an estimated 134,008 QALY acquired. It saved an estimated US$ 0.5 billion in treatment expenditures for Yunnan's healthcare system and nearly US$ 3.9 billion in productivity. The ROI was 88.4, meaning every US$ 1 invested brought about US$ 88.4 in benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the ongoing investment in PMTCT programmes in Yunnan Province. The PMTCT strategy is a cost effective and cost-benefit strategy in the periods from 2006 to 2015. Despite higher investments in the future, the overall investment in the PMTCT programmes in Yunnan province could be offset by averting more paediatric infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/economia , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/tendências , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/economia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/economia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/economia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/tendências , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 32, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nigeria suffers from the highest burden of mother-to-child transmission worldwide. To increase retention in care and prevention programmes, we piloted and evaluated a conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme for preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. METHODS: In a randomised controlled trial, pregnant women testing positive for HIV during antenatal care registration at three public hospitals were randomised to one of two study arms: (1) offered enrolment into the CCT programme or (2) continue in standard care for (PMTCT). In the CCT programme, women could receive a compensation package totaling 33,300 Naira (~US$114) for enroling, delivering at the facility, and obtaining a newborn early infant diagnosis (EID) test. The intent-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) effects of the programme on the primary outcomes of facility delivery and EID testing and on the secondary outcome of nevirapine administration were estimated with logistic regressions. RESULTS: From August 1, 2015 to April 19, 2017, 554 pregnant women tested positive for HIV; 273 were randomised to standard care and 281 were offered enrolment into the CCT intervention. Women offered the CCT programme were more likely to give birth at the facility (n = 109/263; 41.4%) compared to women in standard care (n = 80/254; 31.5%), an absolute difference of 9.9% (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.07-2.21, p = 0.019). For EID testing there was an absolute difference of 12.8% between those offered the CCT intervention (n = 69/263; 26.2%) and those in standard care (n = 34/254; 13.4%; OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.46-3.62, p = 0.000). PP results show larger differences for both facility deliveries (16.7% absolute difference; OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.38-2.98, p = 0.000) and EID testing (18.9% absolute difference; OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.93-4.94, p = 0.000) among intervention enrolees. Over 86% of the facility-delivered newborns received nevirapine, and ITT and PP estimates were similar to those for facility deliveries. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that CCTs improved the likelihood of HIV-positive women giving birth at a facility, of nevirapine being administered to their newborn, and of undergoing EID testing in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. Effects are especially large among those who agreed to participate in the CCT intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02447159 , May 18, 2015.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/economia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/virologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/economia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Modelos Logísticos , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Nigéria , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 504, 2018 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HBV, HCV, HDV and HIV are blood borne and can be transmitted from mother-to-child. Reports of HBV infection rates show up to 11.9% in Cameroon while for HCV, the rate is less than 2%. More so, as pregnant women get enrolled in the HIV PMTCT Programme and stay in the care continuum, selection of HIV-1 drug resistant strains is evident. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HDV and HIV among pregnant women, assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices on transmission and prevention of HBV infection, and determine HIV drug resistance profile of breastfeeding women. METHODS: A serosurvey of HBV, HCV, HDV and HIV was carried out among 1005 pregnant women in Yaounde, Cameroon. In 40 HIV-infected breastfeeding women enrolled in the PMTCT Programme, HIV-1 genotypes and HIV-1 resistance to NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs, were determined by phylogeny and the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance interpretation tool, respectively. RESULTS: Among the pregnant women, the rates of HIV-1, HBV, HCV and HDV infections were 8.5, 6.4, 0.8 and 4.0%, respectively. About 5.9% of the women knew their HBV status before pregnancy unlike 63.7% who knew their HIV status. Although 83.3% reported that vaccination against HBV infection is a method of prevention, and 47.1% knew that HBV could be transmitted from mother-to-child, only 2.5% had received the Hepatitis B vaccine. Of the 40 women on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 9 had at least one major resistance-associated mutation (RAM, 22.5%) to NRTI, NNRTI or PI. Of these M184 V (12.5%), K70R (10.0%), K103 N (12.5%), Y181C (10.0%), M46 L (2.5%) and L90 M (2.5%) were most frequently identified, suggesting resistance to lamivudine, nevirapine, efavirenz and zidovudine. Eighty four percent were infected with HIV-1 recombinant strains with CRF02_AG predominating (50%). CONCLUSIONS: The rates of HBV and HIV-1 infections point to the need for early diagnosis of these viruses during pregnancy and referral to care services in order to minimize the risk of MTCT. Furthermore, our results would be useful for evaluating the HIV PMTCT Programme and Treatment Guidelines for Cameroon.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Soroprevalência de HIV , HIV-1/genética , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Camarões/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite D/imunologia , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
15.
Drug Discov Ther ; 12(5): 295-298, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464161

RESUMO

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are the backbone of effective anti-retroviral therapy in the developing world. Efavirenz is the current NNRTI of choice due to reports of higher incidence of serious adverse events with nevirapine. Majority of patients with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India are still on nevirapine based therapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the need of shifting these patients to efavirenz based therapy. A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult patients, who were on NNRTI based regimen for more than one year with good adherence. The patients were divided into efavirenz or nevirapine groups based on the treatments they were receiving at the time of study. The different arms were compared based on their clinical and laboratory profile, adverse events and immunological response. A total of 244 patients were recruited. A total of 125 patients were receiving nevirapine based regimen while 119 patients were receiving efavirenz based regimen. There was no significant difference in the frequency of hematological and biochemical derangements between the two groups. There was no difference in the median highest CD4 count achieved during therapy between the two groups. Clinically observed side effects were more common in the efavirenz group. These results suggest that there isn't enough evidence to shift patients tolerating long term nevirapine based therapy to efavirenz based therapy.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
APMIS ; 126(11): 842-851, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357957

RESUMO

Hepatic CYP2D6 enzyme metabolizes antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) including nevirapine. Polymorphism in CYP2D6 gene affects drug metabolism and displays distinctive phenotypes in the population. Hence, we investigated the prevalence of CYP2D6*4 1934G/A polymorphism in a total of 165 HIV patients that include 34 with and 131 without hepatotoxicity and 160 unrelated healthy controls by the PCR-RFLP method. The prevalence of CYP2D6*4 1934AA genotype was higher in total HIV patients as compared to healthy controls (1.81% vs 0.6%, OR = 2.86). Similarly, CYP2D6*4 1934AA genotype was much more prevalent in HIV patients without hepatotoxicity as compared to healthy controls (2.3% vs 0.6%, OR = 2.87). Likewise, CYP2D6*4 1934AA genotype was predominant in advanced HIV disease stage as compared to healthy controls (3.8% vs 0.6%, OR = 6.15). CYP2D6*4 1934GA genotype was distributed higher in HIV patients taking tobacco and nevirapine as compared to non-users (23.3% vs 19.3%, OR = 1.21, 21.0% vs 16.7%, OR = 1.2). Likewise, CYP2D6*4 1934GA genotype was overrepresented in patients with hepatotoxicity taking alcohol + nevirapine as compared to alcohol non-users + nevirapine users (20.00% vs 16.67%, OR = 1.25). Thus, there was no significant difference in genotype or allele frequencies of CYP2D6*4 1934G/A polymorphism between the patients with hepatotoxicity and those without or healthy controls.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Infecções por HIV/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/patologia , Alelos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Biotransformação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Índia , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Nevirapina/metabolismo , Nevirapina/farmacocinética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
17.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 17(3): 241-247, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319032

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to establish the mother-baby pair characteristics that contribute to vertical transmission of HIV and elucidate on remediation. We assessed for factors increasing the odds of HIV transmission in children born to HIV-infected mothers in western Kenya. We used a retrospective study which reviewed routinely collected data of 1 028 mother-baby pairs enrolled in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme in western Kenya from January to December 2015. We compared the transmission rates amongst mothers known to have a positive HIV status before conception (known positives/KPs) versus the transmission amongst those who were newly diagnosed during maternal and child health (MCH) clinic attendance (new positives/NPs). We compared the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the mothers using chi square and Kruskal-Wallis tests at 95% confidence interval (CI). We assessed for factors associated with the infants' HIV status using a logistic regression model. The results revealed that 60% (622) of the mothers were KPs, and that KPs and NPs had mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates of 5.5% and 20.7% respectively. Close to 90% of the NP Mothers were at an early HIV clinical stage at enrolment and 40% were enrolled after delivery. The infants of NPs were enrolled at a mean age of 18.3 weeks compared to 6.6 weeks for the infants of the KPs. On adjusted multivariable analysis, child's age at enrolment (AOR = 1.05, 95%CI = 1.036-1.064) and mother's status at conception (AOR = 1.96, 95%CI = 1.042-3.664) were significantly associated with the infant's HIV status. None of the HIV infected infants had received nevirapine prophylaxis. Most of the mothers enrolling into the PMTCT programme have a known HIV-positive status, however, NPs are the largest contributors to continued MTCT.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Modelos Logísticos , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Dermatol Venereol ; 145(12): 773-776, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are antiretroviral drugs often used in the first-line treatment regimen of HIV1 infection worldwide. We report a case of successive gynecomastia and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) respectively induced by efavirenz and nevirapine in a single patient. CASE REPORT: A 16-year-old boy, HIV1-infected since birth, was started on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in August 2015 and was taking a regimen comprising abacavir, lamivudine and efavirenz. In April 2016, when his weight reached 35kg, abacavir was replaced with tenofovir. Bilateral breast enlargement, previously hidden by the patient, was diagnosed two years after the start of ART. History-taking, physical examination and laboratory tests ruled out known causes of gynecomastia, and efavirenz was thus considered the most likely cause. This drug was then withdrawn and replaced with nevirapine in July 2017. Thirty-three days after the patient started nevirapine treatment, a skin rash appeared. Physical examination revealed erythematous macules and flaccid bullae with estimated skin detachment of 10%. There were also conjunctival, buccal and genital lesions. A diagnosis was made of SJS induced by nevirapine. Three months after withdrawal of efavirenz, breast size decreased by 3cm on the left breast and 2cm on the right breast; two months after the SJS, cutaneous sequelae alone persisted, such as diffuse hyperchromic macules. DISCUSSION: Recognition of gynecomastia as a side-effect of efavirenz is important to allow the condition to be treated while it is still potentially reversible. Moreover, when efavirenz is replaced, a protease inhibitor should be preferred to nevirapine.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Ginecomastia/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia , Adolescente , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Didesoxinucleosídeos/administração & dosagem , Didesoxinucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Didesoxinucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Substituição de Medicamentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Mucosite/induzido quimicamente , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico
19.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 34(11): 912-915, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173559

RESUMO

Clinical trials demonstrated intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with mefloquine (MQ) reduced malaria rates among pregnant women, yet an unexpected higher risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among HIV-positive women receiving MQ has also been observed. To determine if interactions between antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and MQ could contribute to the increased MTCT observed in women receiving MQ, we performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of ARV plasma concentrations in peripheral blood (maternal plasma) and cord blood (cord plasma) collected at delivery from 186 mothers participating in a randomized clinical trial of MQ (n = 102) compared with placebo (n = 84) in Kenya. Plasma zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Although only 4% (7/186) reported not using these ARVs, AZT, 3TC, and NVP were all below the limit of detection in 44% of maternal plasma and 42% of cord plasma samples, and proportions were similar between the two study arms. Median concentrations of AZT and 3TC were not significantly lower in the MQ arm compared with the placebo arm for maternal plasma and cord plasma (p > .05). However, median NVP concentrations were significantly lower in the MQ study arm compared with the placebo study arm in both maternal plasma (1,597 ng/mL vs. 2,353 ng/mL, Mann-Whitney Rank Sum, p = .023) and cord plasma (2,038 ng/mL vs. 2,434 ng/mL, p = .048). Reduced NVP concentrations in maternal and cord plasma of women receiving MQ suggest MQ may affect NVP metabolism for both mother and infant. These results highlight the need to evaluate potential drug-drug interactions between candidate antimalarials and ARVs for use in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/sangue , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mefloquina/uso terapêutico , Nevirapina/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Quênia , Lamivudina/sangue , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Mefloquina/efeitos adversos , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zidovudina/sangue , Zidovudina/uso terapêutico
20.
J Gene Med ; 20(10-11): e3047, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertical HIV transmission does not occur in all exposed infants. Many infants remain HIV uninfected even after exposure. This is partly attributed to the host genes involving cytokine production, which is rarely documented in vertical transmission. METHODS: Here, an observational cohort study evaluated whether polymorphisms in cytokine, receptor and antagonist genes are associated with perinatal HIV transmission. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed via the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method. Haplotype block structure was determined and statistical analysis was performed using appropriate software in each case. RESULTS: Twenty-two SNPs were analysed in 30 seropositive and 61 seronegative children. Confounding factors such as mother's viral load, treatment regimen, breast feeding options, etc., were documented. Analysis revealed the association of two SNPs: IL1R1 (rs2234650) and TNFA (rs1800629) with vertical HIV transmission. CT genotype at IL1R1 was observed at a higher frequency in positive children (76.66% versus 42.62%, p = 0.002), whereas the CC genotype was significantly increased in exposed uninfected children (47.54% versus 16.66%, p = 0.004). Similarly, the GG genotype of TNFA was significantly higher in uninfected children compared to infected ones (76.66% versus 46.66%, p = 0.005), whereas the GA genotype frequency was higher among infected children (53.33% versus 21.66%, p = 0.003). The frequency of the 'G' allele of TNFA and 'C' allele of IL1R1 was significant (p = 0.018) in negative children. Haplotypes of SNPs belonging to IL1, TNFA and IL4 were also found to associate with transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms the association of SNPs IL1R1 (rs2234650) and TNFA (rs1800629) with the risk of vertical transmission. These SNPs can be exploited as possible predictive markers of HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Citocinas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Haplótipos , Índia , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Receptores Tipo I de Interleucina-1/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA