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1.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 116-123, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936404

RESUMO

Arguing for the importance of robust public participation and meaningful Tribal consultation to address the cumulative impacts of federal projects, we bridge interdisciplinary perspectives across law, public health, and Indigenous studies. We focus on openings in existing federal law to involve Tribes and publics more meaningfully in resource management planning, while recognizing the limits of this involvement when only the federal government dictates the terms of participation and analysis. We first discuss challenges and opportunities for addressing cumulative impacts and environmental justice through 2 US federal statutes: the National Environmental Policy Act and the National Historic Preservation Act. Focusing on a major federal planning process involving fracking in the Greater Chaco region of northwestern New Mexico, we examine how the Department of the Interior attempted Tribal consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also highlight local efforts to monitor Diné health and well-being. For Diné people, human health is inseparable from the health of the land. But in applying the primary legal tools for analyzing the effects of extraction across the Greater Chaco region, federal agencies fragment categories of impact that Diné people view holistically. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):116-123. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306562).


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Tomada de Decisões , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraturamento Hidráulico/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Federal , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , New Mexico/etnologia , Saúde Pública
2.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 171(3): 509-519, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Socially constructed ethnic identities are frequently rooted in beliefs about common descent that form when people with disparate cultures, languages, and biology come into contact. This study explores connections between beliefs about common descent, as represented by ethnic nomenclatures, and histories of migration and isolation ascertained from genomic data in New Mexicans of Spanish-speaking descent (NMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We interviewed 507 NMS who further identified using one of seven ethnic terms that they associated with beliefs about connections to past ancestors. For groups of individuals who identified using each term, we estimated biogeographic ancestry, fit admixture models to ancestry distributions, and partitioned genetic distance into admixture and drift components. RESULTS: Regardless of which ethnic term they used, all NMS had appreciable Native American (avg. 27%) and European ancestry (avg.71%). However, individuals who identified using terms associated with beliefs connecting them to colonial-period Spanish ancestors had significantly higher European ancestry than individuals who identified using terms associated with ancestral connections to post-colonial-period migrants from Mexico. Model-fitting analyses show that this ancestry difference reflects post-colonial gene flow with non-NMS European Americans, not colonial-period gene flow with Spaniards. Drift, not admixture, accounted for most of the genetic distance between NMS who expressed connections to Mexican versus Spanish ancestors, reflecting relative isolation of New Mexico and Mexico through the 19th century. DISCUSSION: Patterns of genomic diversity in NMS are consistent with beliefs about common descent in showing that New Mexico was isolated for generations following initial colonization. They are inconsistent with these beliefs in showing that all NMS have substantial European and Native American ancestry, and in showing that a proportion of European ancestry derives from post-colonial-period admixture with non-NMS European Americans. Our findings provide insights into the construction of ethnic identity in contexts of migration and isolation in New Mexico and, potentially, throughout human prehistory.


Assuntos
Colonialismo , Fluxo Gênico , Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/etnologia , Terminologia como Assunto
3.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 25 Suppl 5, Tribal Epidemiology Centers: Advancing Public Health in Indian Country for Over 20 Years: S70-S76, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Public health surveillance systems suffer from insufficient inclusion of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. These health surveys have also gravitated to telephone administration because of the rising cost of face-to-face interviewing. Several studies have demonstrated that telephone surveys underrepresent people with low incomes, less educational attainment, and minorities. This study assessed the impact of administration mode upon survey participation in rural AI/AN tribes. DESIGN: Using a modified Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System instrument, the Albuquerque Area Southwest Tribal Epidemiology Center partnered with 3 tribes to administer the survey to a target population of 900 AI/AN adults. Half of the sample was assigned to telephone survey administration and the other half was surveyed in-person by trained community interviewers. Significance testing was performed to assess differences in response rates, demographic characteristics, and costs by survey administration type. RESULTS: Several notable differences between the survey administration modes were observed. In-person administration yielded a higher response rate (68.8%) than the telephone survey (35.7%). Likewise, in-person participants were, on average, younger and had lower household incomes and educational attainment than those who completed the survey via telephone. In-person survey administration was also slightly more cost-effective than telephone administration ($192 vs $211 per completed survey) due to the low response rate of telephone administration. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study have important implications for public health surveillance with rural AI/AN populations, where telephone survey administration is unlikely to yield sufficient coverage of this underserved population. This discovery is particularly disconcerting, given the fact that face-to-face interviewing has largely been replaced by telephone interviewing (and increasingly mobile phones) for public health surveillance in the United States. Without change and innovation, the AI/AN population will continue to lack meaningful health data, further challenging capacity to document and address persistent disparities and inequities witnessed among AI/ANs nationwide.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/etnologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 64(2): 152-170, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570413

RESUMO

This study examines associations between ethnic identity, regional history, and genomic ancestry in New Mexicans of Spanish-speaking descent (NMS). In structured interviews, we asked 507 NMS to select from a list of eight ethnic identity terms identified in previous research. We estimated genomic ancestry for each individual from 291,917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and compared genomic ancestry, age, and birthplace between groups of individuals who identified using each ethnic identity term. Eighty-eight per cent of NMS who identified as "Hispanic," "Nuevomexicano/a," and "Spanish," on average, were born in New Mexico, as were the vast majority of their parents and grandparents. Thirty-three per cent of NMS who identified as "Mexican" and "Mexican American" were born in Mexico, as were 59 per cent of their parents and 67 per cent of their grandparents. Average Native American and African ancestry proportions in "Hispanic" (0.26, 0.02, respectively), "Spanish" (0.25, 0.01), and "Nuevomexicano/a" (0.24, 0.01) NMS were significantly lower than in "Mexican American" (0.37, 0.04) NMS. Significant age differences between older "Spanish" and younger "Nuevomexicano/a" individuals, combined with widespread use of the term "Hispanic," may reflect ongoing nomenclature changes. Patterns of correspondence between ethnic identity, ethnic nomenclatures, and genomic ancestry reflect historical patterns of migration, colonization, and cultural change.


Assuntos
/genética , /psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , New Mexico/etnologia
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 629, 2018 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Native American communities experience greater burden of diabetes than the general population, including high rates of Type 2 diabetes among women of childbearing age. Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to both the mother and offspring, and glycemic control surrounding the pregnancy period is of vital importance. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at a major Navajo Area Indian Health Service (IHS) hospital, tracking women with pre-existing diabetes who became pregnant between 2010 and 2012. Logistic regression was performed to find patient-level predictors of our desired primary outcome-having hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) consistently < 8% within 2 years after pregnancy. Descriptive statistics were generated for other outcomes, including glycemic control and seeking timely IHS care. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-two pregnancies and 114 individuals were identified in the dataset. Baseline HbA1c was the only covariate which predicted our primary outcome (OR = 1.821, 95% CI = 1.184-2.801). Examining glycemic control among pregnancies with complete HbA1c data (n = 59), 59% were controlled before, 85% during, and 34% after pregnancy. While nearly all women received care in the immediate postpartum period, only 49% of women visited a primary care provider and 71% had HbA1c testing in the 2 years after pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first analysis of outcomes among women with diabetes in pregnancy in Navajo Nation, the largest reservation and tribal health system in the United States. Our findings demonstrate the positive impact of specialized prenatal care in achieving glycemic control during pregnancy, while highlighting the challenges in maintaining glycemic control and continuity of healthcare after pregnancy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez em Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Arizona/etnologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/etnologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas/sangue , Gravidez em Diabéticas/etnologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Utah/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Med Anthropol Q ; 32(2): 233-253, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556358

RESUMO

We conducted a study in early 2014 to document how the initial implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) affected health care provision to different categories of immigrants from the perspective of health care providers in New Mexico. Though ACA navigators led enrollment, a range of providers nevertheless became involved by necessity, expressing concern about how immigrants were faring in the newly configured health care environment and taking on advocacy roles. Providers described interpreting shifting eligibility and coverage, attending to vulnerable under/uninsured patients, and negotiating new bureaucratic barriers for insured patients. Findings suggest that, like past efforts, this recent reform to the fragmented health care system has perpetuated a condition in which safety-net clinics and providers are left to buffer a widening gap for immigrant patients. With possible changes to the ACA ahead, safety-net providers' critical buffering roles will likely become more crucial, underscoring the necessity of examining their experiences with past reforms.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/etnologia , Adulto , Antropologia Médica , Criança , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , New Mexico/etnologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832887

RESUMO

This study examined the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM-YRRS) to determine whether cultural connectedness and positive relationships with adults protected against suicide attempts among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth and whether these relationships differed by gender. The sample included 2,794 AI/AN students in grades 9 to 12 who answered the question about past-year suicide attempts. Protective factor variables tested included relationships with adults at home, school, and the community. The language spoken at home was used as a proxy measure for cultural connectedness. Positive relationships with adults were negatively associated with the prevalence of past-year suicide attempts in bivariate analysis. However, language spoken at home was not associated with the prevalence of suicide attempts. Multivariate analysis showed that among girls, relationships with adults at home, at school, and in the community were independently associated with lower suicide-attempt prevalence. Among boys, only relationships with adults at home showed such an association. These results have important implications for the direction of future research about protective factors associated with AI/AN youth suicide risk as well as in the design of suicide intervention and prevention programs.


Assuntos
Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Relações Interpessoais , Resiliência Psicológica , Tentativa de Suicídio/etnologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New Mexico/etnologia
8.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 41(4): 609-629, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717863

RESUMO

While recent developments within the field of global mental health have illuminated the reality of serious mental health difficulties worldwide, particularly in low-income settings, research that focuses on children and adolescents remains underdeveloped. This is especially the case with respect to ethnographic studies of lived experience of adolescents diagnosed with serious mental health conditions. Drawing from an interdisciplinary study of adolescents in New Mexico who were afflicted with a broad range of disorders according to contemporary research diagnostic criteria, this article focuses on anxiety-related conditions with respect to subjective experience and social-ecological contexts of living with such conditions. We offer preliminary observations regarding the value of linking ethnographic and research diagnostic data to address questions of resilience, endurance, capacity and struggle. These observations are intended as the basis for the formulation of more precise hypotheses about adolescent anxiety, kin, and care under conditions of structural violence marked by psychological, residential, and intergenerational adversity.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etnologia , Família/etnologia , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , New Mexico/etnologia
10.
Hum Biol ; 89(3): 177-180, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745246

RESUMO

The field of paleogenomics (the study of ancient genomes) is rapidly advancing, with more robust methods of isolating ancient DNA and increasing access to next-generation DNA sequencing technology. As these studies progress, many important ethical issues have emerged that should be considered when ancient Native American remains, whom we refer to as ancestors, are used in research. We highlight a 2017 article by Kennett et al., "Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty," that brings to light several ethical issues that should be addressed in paleogenomics research. The study helps elucidate the matrilineal relationships in ancient Chacoan society through ancient DNA analysis. However, we, as Indigenous researchers and allies, raise ethical concerns with the study's scientific conclusions that can be problematic for Native American communities: (1) the lack of tribal consultation, (2) the use of culturally insensitive descriptions, and (3) the potential impact on marginalized groups. Further, we explore the limitations of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, which addresses repatriation but not research, because clear ethical guidelines have not been established for research involving Native American ancestors, especially those deemed "culturally unaffiliated." Multiple studies of "culturally unaffiliated" remains have been initiated recently, so it is imperative that researchers consider the ethical ramifications of paleogenomics research. Past research indiscretions have created a history of mistrust and exploitation in many Native American communities. To promote ethical engagement of Native American communities in research, we therefore suggest careful attention to ethical considerations, strong tribal consultation requirements, and greater collaborations among museums, federal agencies, researchers, scientific journals, and granting agencies.


Assuntos
Genômica/ética , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Paleontologia/ética , Comunicação , DNA Antigo , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , New Mexico/etnologia , Relações Pesquisador-Sujeito/ética
11.
Hum Biol ; 89(3): 217-228, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745248

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the extent to which regional history has shaped the social identity nomenclature in New Mexicans of Spanish-speaking descent (NMSD). We asked 507 NMSD to list the social-identity terms they used to describe themselves and their parents, and we examined the correspondence between these choices and family ties to the region, birthplace, and continental ancestry. NMSD frequently identified using the regional terms "Nuevomexicano/a" (15%) and "Spanish" (12%). These individuals reported family ties to the region that predate New Mexican statehood. They and their parents were frequently born in New Mexico, frequently chose the other of the two terms as a secondary descriptor, and frequently ascribed one of the two terms to their parents. About 10% of NMSD identified as "Mexican American" and "Mexican." About 25% of these individuals, and more than half of their parents, were born in Mexico. They also frequently chose the other of the two terms as a secondary descriptor and frequently ascribed one of the two terms to their parents. Compared to NMSD who identified as "Mexican" and "Mexican American," individuals who identified as "Nuevomexicano/a" and "Spanish" had higher European ancestry and lower Native American and African ancestry. Our results also suggest that the term "Hispanic," frequently chosen as both a primary and secondary social identity term by NMSD, may, as it continues to rise in prominence, mask more deeply rooted and potential socially relevant aspects of social identity in New Mexico. More broadly, these results indicate that regional history influences social identity nomenclatures in ways that are potentially incompatible with US Office of Management and Budget standards. This incompatibility may adversely affect the ability of researchers in the social sciences to assess the causes of social inequality and health disparities in individuals of Spanish-speaking descent in different regions of the United States. We argue that future studies would benefit from more fine-grained, region-specific analyses of social identity.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Identificação Social , Terminologia como Assunto , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , /genética , DNA/genética , Escolaridade , Família/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/etnologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , /genética
12.
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg ; 22(6): 460-466, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare perceptions and barriers between Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women in public and private hospitals being treated for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: Eight focus groups, 4 in English and 4 in Spanish, were conducted at 3 institutions with care in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Standardized questions were asked regarding patients' emotions to when they initially noticed the POP, if they sought family support, and their response to the diagnosis and treatment. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory qualitative methods. RESULTS: Thirty-three women were Spanish-speaking and 25 were English-speaking. Spanish speakers were younger (P = 0.0469) and less likely to have a high school diploma (P < 0.0001) than English speakers. Spanish-speaking women had more concerns that the bulge or treatments could lead to cancer, were more resistant to treatment options, and were less likely to be offered surgery. Women in the private hospital desired more information, were less embarrassed, and were more likely to be offered surgery as first-line treatment. The concept emerged that patient care for POP varied based on socioeconomic status and language and suggested the presence of disparities in care for underserved women with POP. CONCLUSIONS: The discrepancies in care for Spanish-speaking women and women being treated at public hospitals suggest that there are disparities in care for POP treatment for underserved women. These differences may be secondary to profit-driven pressures from private hospitals or language barriers, low socioeconomic status, low health literacy, and barriers to health care.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/terapia , Revelação , Terapia por Exercício/estatística & dados numéricos , Medo , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hospitais Privados , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Los Angeles/etnologia , México/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , New Mexico/etnologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Satisfação do Paciente , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/etnologia , Pessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/etnologia
13.
Endocr Pract ; 22(11): 1288-1295, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27482613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reliable identification of individuals at risk for developing diabetes is critical to instituting preventative strategies. Studies suggest that the accuracy of using hemoglobin A1c as a sole diagnostic criterion for diabetes may be variable across different ethnic groups. We postulate that there will be lack of concordance between A1c and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for diagnosing prediabetes across Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) populations. METHODS: A total of 218 asymptomatic adults at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) were assessed with A1c and OGTT for the diagnosis of prediabetes. Glucose homeostasis status was assigned as no diabetes (A1c <5.7% [39 mmol/mol]), prediabetes (A1c 5.7 to 6.4% [46 mmol/mol]), and T2D (A1c >6.4% [46 mmol/mol]). Inclusion criteria were age >18 years and at least one of the following: a family history of diabetes, a history of gestational diabetes, Hispanic ethnicity, non-Caucasian race, or obesity. Subjects received a fasting 75-g OGTT and A1c on the same day. Bowker's test of symmetry was employed to determine agreement between the tests. RESULTS: Data from 99 Hispanic patients and 79 NHW patients were analyzed. There was no concordance between A1c and OGTT for Hispanic (P = .002) or NHW individuals (P = .003) with prediabetes. CONCLUSION: A1c is discordant with OGTT among Hispanic and NHW subjects for the diagnosis of prediabetes. Sole use of A1c to designate glycemic status will result in a greater prevalence of prediabetes among Hispanic and NHW New Mexicans. ABBREVIATIONS: A1c = hemoglobin A1c BMI = body mass index CDC = Centers for Disease Control CI = confidence interval FPG = fasting plasma glucose NHW = non-Hispanic white OGTT = oral glucose tolerance test T2D = type 2 diabetes WHO = World Health Organization.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , /etnologia , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/etnologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
14.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 39(9): 1727-33, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26247487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examines the association between perceived neighborhood violence, perceived neighborhood collective efficacy, and binge drinking among Mexican Americans residing on the U.S.-Mexico border. METHODS: Data were collected from a multistage cluster sample of adult Mexican Americans residing in the U.S.-Mexico border areas of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N = 1,307). The survey weighted response rate was 67%. Face-to-face interviews lasting approximately 1 hour were conducted in respondents' homes in English or Spanish. Path analysis was used to test whether collective efficacy mediated the impact of perceived neighborhood violence on binge drinking. RESULTS: Among 30+-year-old women, perceived neighborhood collective efficacy mediated the effects of perceived neighborhood violence on binge drinking in a theoretically predicted way: Lower perceptions of violence predicted an increased perception of collective efficacy, which in turn, predicted less binge drinking. Direct effects of violence perceptions on binge were nonsignificant. Younger 18- to 29-year-old women showed a similar (but nonsignificant) pattern of effects. Perceived collective efficacy also mediated the effects of perceived violence on binge drinking among men, but in opposite ways for older and younger men. Older men showed the same mediating effect as older women, but the effect reversed among younger men due to a strong, positive relation between collective efficacy and binge drinking. There were also age differences in the direct effect of violence perceptions on binge drinking: Perceptions of violence predicted more binge drinking among young men, but less among older men. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the complexity of people's responses to neighborhood characteristics in regard to their drinking. Young men in particular seem to react very differently to perceptions of collective efficacy than other groups. However, among both men and women, collective efficacy may come to play an increasingly important protective role in health outcomes with age.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/diagnóstico , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos/etnologia , Percepção , Características de Residência , Adulto , Arizona/etnologia , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , California/etnologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , México/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/etnologia , Texas/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Eat Disord ; 48(3): 262-70, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24740890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The factor structure of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) has not been thoroughly tested in Hispanic populations, yet researchers commonly use this instrument in Hispanic samples. Thus, it is important to establish the validity of the EDI in Hispanic populations. This article investigated measurement invariance of the EDI's three eating- and weight-related (eat/wt) scales because they are the most frequently used and are often used in isolation. These scales include Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction. METHOD: Female undergraduates were recruited for a study on body image. The final sample (N = 688) included participants categorized as Hispanic (N = 385) or Caucasian (N = 303). They completed the EDI-3 and a measure of acculturation. RESULTS: Measurement invariance analyses of the EDI-3 in Caucasian and Hispanic samples were conducted. The configural model provided an acceptable fit, providing support for the three-factor structure of the eat/wt scales in both the Caucasian and the Hispanic sample. However, weak invariance of the three-factor structure was not supported. When measurement invariance analyses were conducted on the three eat/wt scales separately, Drive for Thinness was the only scale to demonstrate measurement invariance. DISCUSSION: The theoretical three-factor structure of the EDI eat/wt scales was supported in both ethnic groups. Furthermore, the Drive for Thinness scale can readily be used to make group comparisons across nonclinical samples of Caucasian and Hispanic women, but researchers should be cautious when using the other two eat/wt scales to make comparisons across these two groups.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , /etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagem Corporal , Bulimia/etnologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , New Mexico/etnologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes , Magreza/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 626, 2014 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25169960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease that can be prevented through early detection. Through the use of effective educational tools, individuals can become better informed about CRC and understand the importance of screening and early detection. The walk through Inflatable Colon is an innovative educational resource developed to engage and educate communities on CRC and the importance of receiving screening at the appropriate ages. METHODS: The Inflatable Colon Assessment Survey (ICAS) assessed knowledge and behavioral intentions to obtain screening and promote CRC awareness. New Mexico State University faculty, staff, and students completed a consent form, took the pre-ICAS, toured the Inflatable Colon, and completed the post-ICAS. The majority of participants (92%) were young adults, mostly college students, under the age of 30 yrs. RESULTS: Overall, participants demonstrated increases in CRC knowledge and awareness after touring the inflatable colon (p-values < 0.001). Interestingly, both males and Hispanics had lower CRC awareness at pre-test, but exhibited maximum awareness gains equal to that of females and non Hispanic Whites after touring the IC. Behavioral intentions to obtain CRC screening in the future and to promote CRC awareness also increased (p-value < 0.001). Gender differences in behavioral intentions to act as advocators for CRC education were found (p < 0.05), with females being more likely to educate others about CRC than males. CONCLUSION: Educational efforts conducted in early adulthood may serve to promote healthier lifestyles (e.g., physical activity, healthy nutrition, screening). These educated young adults may also serve to disseminate CRC information to high-risk friends and relatives. The walk through Inflatable Colon can increase CRC knowledge and intentions to get screened among a young and diverse population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Modelos Educacionais , Adulto , Idoso , Coleta de Dados , Exposições como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/etnologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(32): 11584-91, 2014 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25071220

RESUMO

Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/história , Arqueologia , Etnologia/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/história , New Mexico/etnologia , Sistemas Políticos/história , Mudança Social/história , Árvores
18.
Psychiatr Serv ; 64(6): 590-3, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23728602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify community reentry needs, this study examined mental illness, substance dependence, and other correlates of reincarceration in an ethnically diverse, rural population of women prisoners. METHODS: A purposive, cross-sectional sample of 98 women in a New Mexico state prison completed structured interviews. Analyses examined associations of substance dependence, mental illness, lifetime trauma, and sociodemographic variables with previous incarceration. RESULTS: Eighty-five percent screened positive for substance dependence, 50% for current mental disorders, and 46% for both. Exposure to trauma was pervasive (100%), especially physical or sexual trauma (83%). In adjusted analyses, previous incarceration was associated with precarious housing before imprisonment (odds ratio [OR]=2.19, p=.038) and with having co-occurring mental illness and substance dependence (OR=2.68, p=.019). CONCLUSIONS: Findings support those of similar studies in urban areas and with other ethnic groups. Wraparound programs focusing on harm reduction, housing, and treatment and support services are needed for successful reentry of these underserved women.


Assuntos
/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , /etnologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/epidemiologia , New Mexico/etnologia , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Public Health ; 103(4): 747-54, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22994193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We tracked the unintentional injury death disparity between American Indians/Alaska Natives and non-American Indians/Alaska Natives in New Mexico, 1980 to 2009. METHODS: We calculated age-adjusted rates and rate ratios for unintentional injury deaths and their external causes among American Indians/Alaska Natives and non-American Indians/Alaska Natives. We tested trend significance with the Mann-Kendall test. RESULTS: The unintentional injury death rate ratio of American Indians/Alaska Natives to non-American Indians/Alaska Natives declined from 2.9 in 1980-1982 to 1.5 in 2007-2009. The rate among American Indians/Alaska Natives decreased 47.2% from 1980-1982 to 1995-1997. Among non-American Indians/Alaska Natives, the rate declined 25.3% from 1980-1982 to 1992-1994, then increased 31.9% from 1992-1994 to 2007-2009. The motor vehicle traffic and pedestrian death rates decreased 57.8% and 74.6%, respectively, among American Indians/Alaska Natives from 1980-1982 to 2007-2009. CONCLUSIONS: The unintentional injury death rate disparity decreased substantially from 1980-1982 to 2007-2009 largely because of the decrease in motor vehicle crash and pedestrian death rates among American Indians/Alaska Natives and the increase in the poisoning death rate among non-American Indians/Alaska Natives.


Assuntos
Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inuítes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alaska/etnologia , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Mexico/etnologia
20.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 36(7): 1205-11, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22316139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acculturation to life in the United States is a known predictor of Hispanic drinking behavior. We compare the ability of 2 theoretical models of this effect-sociocultural theory and general stress theory-to account for associations between acculturation and drinking in a sample of Mexican Americans. Limitations of previous evaluations of these theoretical models are addressed using a broader range of hypothesized cognitive mediators and a more direct measure of acculturative stress. In addition, we explore nonlinearities as possible underpinnings of attenuated acculturation effects among men. METHODS: Respondents (N = 2,595, current drinker N = 1,351) were interviewed as part of 2 recent multistage probability samples in a study of drinking behavior among Mexican Americans in the United States. The ability of norms, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, and acculturation stress to account for relations between acculturation and drinking outcomes (volume and heavy drinking days) were assessed with a hierarchical linear regression strategy. Nonlinear trends were assessed by modeling quadratic effects of acculturation and acculturation stress on cognitive mediators and drinking outcomes. RESULTS: Consistent with previous findings, acculturation effects on drinking outcomes were stronger for women than men. Among women, only drinking motives explained acculturation associations with volume or heavy drinking days. Among men, acculturation was linked to increases in norms, and norms were positive predictors of drinking outcomes. However, adjusted effects of acculturation were nonexistent or trending in a negative direction, which counteracted this indirect normative influence. Acculturation stress did not explain the positive associations between acculturation and drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Stress and alcohol outcome expectancies play little role in the positive linear association between acculturation and drinking outcomes, but drinking motives appear to at least partially account for this effect. Consistent with recent reports, these results challenge stress models of linear acculturation effects on drinking outcomes and provide (partial) support for sociocultural models. Inconsistent mediation patterns-rather than nonlinearities-represented a more plausible statistical description of why acculturation-drinking associations are weakened among men.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos/etnologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Arizona/etnologia , California/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , New Mexico/etnologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/etnologia , Pennsylvania/etnologia , Texas/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
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