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1.
Ber Wiss ; 45(1-2): 245-260, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655321

RESUMO

In this paper, the author, a historian, describes the challenges he encountered as he sought to turn the Farm Hall event and its surviving transcripts into a theatrical play. The play, Farm Hall, was produced in New York in 2014 and published in Cassidy 2017. This paper further discusses what the author learned about the nature and elements of a play, how he applied those lessons to his play, and the advantages and disadvantages of this genre for bringing historical events to the general public.


Assuntos
Drama , Fazendas , Humanos , Masculino , New York , Redação
2.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267738, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the 2010 election, the number of laws in the U.S. that create barriers to voting has increased dramatically. These laws may have spillover effects on population health by creating a disconnect between voter preferences and political representation, thereby limiting protective public health policies and funding. We examine whether voting restrictions are associated with county-level COVID-19 case and mortality rates. METHODS: To obtain information on restricted access to voting, we used the Cost of Voting Index (COVI), a state-level measure of barriers to voting during a U.S. election from 1996 to 2016. COVID-19 case and mortality rates were obtained from the New York Times' GitHub database (a compilation from multiple academic sources). Multilevel modeling was used to determine whether restrictive voting laws were associated with county-level COVID-19 case and mortality rates after controlling for county-level characteristics from the County Health Rankings. We tested whether associations were heterogeneous across racial and socioeconomic groups. RESULTS: A significant association was observed between increasing voting restrictions and COVID-19 case (ß = 580.5, 95% CI = 3.9, 1157.2) and mortality rates (ß = 16.5, 95% CI = 0.33,32.6) when confounders were included. CONCLUSIONS: Restrictive voting laws were associated with higher COVID-19 case and mortality rates.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , New York , Política
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1147, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a growing issue faced across diverse South Asian American communities under the backdrop of a distinct religious and cultural environment that intersects with the ability to prevent and manage this public health crisis. There is also growing attention on sexual violence experienced by younger or second-generation South Asian Americans, although little is known on the prevalence of this violence and its impact on health outcomes. Using data from a community-driven sexual violence survey, this study describes the experience of sexual violence and related help seeking behaviors and mental health outcomes among 18-34-year-old South Asian Americans living near the New York (NY) State region. METHODS: Participants were recruited via social media to participate in an anonymous survey developed in partnership with an advisory board of South Asian young adult representatives. Data was analyzed descriptively and through adjusted logistic regression models. RESULTS: Overall, responses from 335 sexual assault survivors were analyzed. Types of assault experienced included no-contact (97.6%), contact (75.2%), rape attempts (50.2%), rape (44.6%), and multiple rape (19.6%). Many reported perpetrators were South Asian (65.1%) or family members (25.1%). Only 27.6% indicated they had reported assaults to authorities or received services. In adjusted analyses, odds of help seeking were higher among participants who were older (AOR:1.10, 95%CI:1.02-1.20), were a sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) (1.98, 1.05-3.71), had a family member as the perpetrator (1.85, 1.01-3.40), had lower disclosure stigma (1.66, 1.16-2.44), and experienced depression (2.16, 1.10-4.47). Odds of depression were higher among sexual minority participants and lower among those with higher sexual assault disclosure stigma (3.27, 1.61-7.16; 0.68, 0.50-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Findings call for greater targeted policy interventions to address the prevention of sexual violence among young South Asian Americans and greater focus on improving help seeking behaviors and improving mental health outcomes among survivors.


Assuntos
Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564460

RESUMO

U.S. non-citizen residents are burdened by inequitable access to socioeconomic resources, potentially placing them at heightened risk of COVID-19-related disparities. However, COVID-19 impacts on non-citizens are not well understood. Accordingly, the current study investigated COVID-19 mortality disparities within New York (NYC) and Los Angeles (LAC) to test our hypothesis that areas with large proportions of non-citizens will have disproportionately high COVID-19 mortality rates. We examined ecological associations between March 2020-January 2021 COVID-19 mortality rates (per 100,000 residents) and percent non-citizens (using ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTA) for NYC and City/Community units of analysis for LAC) while controlling for sociodemographic factors. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations between the percentage of non-citizen residents and COVID-19 mortality rates in NYC (95% CI 0.309, 5.181) and LAC (95% CI 0.498, 8.720). Despite NYC and LAC policies intended to provide sanctuary and improve healthcare access for non-citizen residents, communities with larger proportions of non-citizens appear to endure higher COVID-19 mortality rates. The challenges that non-citizens endure-e.g., inequitable access to public benefits-may discourage help-seeking behaviors. Thus, improved health surveillance, public health messaging, and sanctuary policies will be essential for reducing COVID-19 mortality disparities in communities with large shares of non-citizens.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , New York/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 837: 155664, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526635

RESUMO

Wastewater surveillance for infectious disease expanded greatly during the COVID-19 pandemic. As a collaboration between sanitation engineers and scientists, the most cost-effective deployment of wastewater surveillance routinely tests wastewater samples from wastewater treatment plants. To evaluate the capacity of treatment plants of different sizes and characteristics to participate in surveillance efforts, we developed and distributed a survey to New York State municipal treatment plant supervisors in the summer and fall of 2021. The goal of the survey was to assess the knowledge, capacity, and attitudes toward wastewater surveillance as a public health tool. Our objectives were to: (1) determine what treatment plant operators know about wastewater surveillance for public health; (2) assess how plant operators feel about the affordability and benefits of wastewater surveillance; and (3) determine how frequently plant personnel can take and ship samples using existing resources. Results show that 62% of respondents report capacity to take grab samples twice weekly. Knowledge about wastewater surveillance was mixed with most supervisors knowing that COVID-19 can be tracked via wastewater but having less knowledge about surveillance for other public health issues such as opioids. We found that attitudes toward wastewater testing for public health were directly associated with differences in self-reported capacity of the plant to take samples. Further, findings suggest a diverse capacity for sampling across sewer systems with larger treatment plants reporting greater capacity for more frequent sampling. Findings provide guidance for outreach activities as well as important insight into treatment plant sampling capacity as it is connected to internal factors such as size and resource availability. These may help public health departments understand the limitations and ability of wastewater surveillance for public health benefit.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Purificação da Água , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Águas Residuárias , Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias
6.
Eval Program Plann ; 92: 102097, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500478

RESUMO

The use of group concept mapping (GCM) for large-scale, multi-site planning has been limited. The Teens Opinions Count (TOC) project utilized the group concept mapping methodology to develop a framework for after school time program development for teens in 16 counties in the Southeast Michigan and Western New York regions. This extensive planning effort demonstrated a large-scale, geographical approach to the implementation of GCM, where multiple sites (in this case counties) simultaneously engaged in independent processes on the same topic, with the purpose of producing separate locale-specific conceptualizations. TOC was the largest GCM project ever conducted in terms of the number of participants and volume of data submitted. This report details GCM recruitment, data collection, data compilation, and analysis of ideas from over 20,000 teens and 2,000 adults. Although implementation was conducted at the county level, many of the separate county-level GCM processes were larger than what is typically encountered in the literature. Operationalizing GCM at such a scale required significant planning, design, communication, and data management solutions. The extensive data collection effort required the need for creative and innovative procedures to engage teens and process the sheer volume of data. The lessons learned are discussed and suggestions for future applications offered.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Processos Grupais , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , New York , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
7.
Science ; 376(6597): 1027, 2022 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617372

RESUMO

America is reeling from yet another devastating spate of mass shootings. Last month, in the span of 10 days, shooters targeted a Taiwanese church in California, a grocery store in a Black neighborhood in New York, and an elementary school in Texas. Although opponents of sensible gun control-the kind that prevails throughout most of the civilized world-continue to put the spotlight on the shooters' motivations or unstable mental states, these are cynical diversions from the one obvious truth: The common thread in all of the country's revolting mass shootings is the absurdly easy access to guns. The science is clear: Restrictions work, and it's likely that even more limitations would save thousands of lives. So why not take the laws much further, as other countries have done? The alternative is painfully obvious-living with more and more senseless carnage, courtesy of the National Rifle Association and their well-funded political lackeys.


Assuntos
Violência com Arma de Fogo , California , Humanos , New York , Texas
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic created barriers to participation in school meals. As a result, many students may have missed out on school meals. The objectives of this study are (1) to compare the number of school meals served by New York State public schools during the first spring and summer of the COVID-19 pandemic to the number served before the COVID-19 pandemic, and (2) to determine relationships between the number of meals served and the levels of school district need and urbanicity. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of administrative data. The percentage change in the number of school breakfasts and lunches served was calculated for each month and by school district need level and urbanicity level. RESULTS: The number of school meals served decreased during the first spring of the pandemic compared to the spring of the previous school year (-43% in April, -51% in May), while the number of school meals served increased during the first summer of the pandemic compared to the summer of the previous school year (+92% in July, +288% in August). CONCLUSIONS: Waivers may provide flexibility to increase participation in school meals, especially during the summer.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Alimentação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Almoço , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias
11.
Trials ; 23(1): 432, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment recidivism substantially increases the likelihood of adverse life outcomes, but there is little evidence that family preservation services are effective at reducing recidivism. Mothers in child welfare have very high rates of trauma exposure; maternal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an intervention target that has the potential to reduce abuse and neglect. The Safe Mothers, Safe Children (SMSC) intervention program involves the delivery of an innovative combination of interventions, including Skills Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR) and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). The combined intervention, Parenting-STAIR (P-STAIR), targets maternal PTSD and comorbid depression symptoms to reduce the adverse effects of PTSD on parenting, improve positive parenting skills, and prevent maltreatment recidivism. METHODS: This study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial: P-STAIR (23 sessions) versus supportive counseling (23 sessions). Participants are mothers receiving child welfare family preservation services (FPS), with a child in the age range of 1-8 years old and meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD (with/without depression). Clinical assessment occurs at pre-treatment (baseline), two in-treatment assessments (mid-assessment #1 after module 9 and mid-assessment #2 after module 15), post-treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. Recidivism will be measured using the New York State Child Welfare Registry (NYSCWR). We will enroll a total of 220 participants over 4 years: half (N = 110) randomly assigned to the P-STAIR condition and half (N = 110) to the supportive counseling condition. DISCUSSION: This is the first RCT to investigate the efficacy of P-STAIR. The findings for the trial have the potential to contribute to the expansion of evidence-based practices for maternal PTSD, maltreatment, and child welfare.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Relações Mãe-Filho , Reincidência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , New York , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2210743, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522282

RESUMO

Importance: Individuals with serious mental illness are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Several psychotropic medications have been identified as potential therapeutic agents to prevent or treat COVID-19 but have not been systematically examined in this population. Objective: To evaluate the associations between the use of psychotropic medications and the risk of COVID-19 infection among adults with serious mental illness receiving long-term inpatient psychiatric treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study assessed adults with serious mental illness hospitalized in a statewide psychiatric hospital system in New York between March 8 and July 1, 2020. The final date of follow-up was December 1, 2020. The study included 1958 consecutive adult inpatients with serious mental illness (affective or nonaffective psychoses) who received testing for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or antinucleocapsid antibodies and were continuously hospitalized from March 8 until medical discharge or July 1, 2020. Exposures: Psychotropic medications prescribed prior to COVID-19 testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19 infection was the primary outcome, defined by a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or antibody test result. The secondary outcome was COVID-19-related death among patients with laboratory-confirmed infection. Results: Of the 2087 adult inpatients with serious mental illness continuously hospitalized during the study period, 1958 (93.8%) underwent testing and were included in the study; 1442 (73.6%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 51.4 (14.3) years. A total of 969 patients (49.5%) had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection that occurred while they were hospitalized; of those, 38 (3.9%) died. The use of second-generation antipsychotic medications, as a class, was associated with decreased odds of infection (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.86), whereas the use of mood stabilizers was associated with increased odds of infection (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47). In a multivariable model of individual medications, the use of paliperidone was associated with decreased odds of infection (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.41-0.84), and the use of valproic acid was associated with increased odds of infection (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.76). Clozapine use was associated with reduced odds of mortality in unadjusted analyses (unadjusted OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.10-0.62; fully adjusted OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.17-1.12). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of adults hospitalized with serious mental illness, the use of second-generation antipsychotic medications was associated with decreased risk of COVID-19 infection, whereas the use of valproic acid was associated with increased risk. Further research is needed to assess the mechanisms that underlie these findings.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ácido Valproico
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 609, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older persons living with HIV (PLWH) need routine healthcare to manage HIV and other comorbidities. This mixed methods study investigated digital equity, constituted as access, use and quality, of HIV and specialty telehealth services for PLWH > 50 years during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic when services transitioned to remote care. METHODS: A survey of closed and open-ended questions was administered to 80 English (N = 63) and Spanish (N = 17) speaking PLWH receiving HIV care at an Academic Medical Center (N = 50) or a Federally Qualified Health Center (N = 30) in New York State. Quantitative analyses examined characteristics predicting telehealth use and visit quality. Qualitative analyses utilized thematic coding to reveal common experiences. Results were integrated to deepen the interpretation. RESULTS: Telehealth access and use were shaped by multiple related and unstable factors including devices and connectivity, technology literacy, and comfort including privacy concerns. Participants demonstrated their substantial effort to achieve the visit. The majority of patients with a telehealth visit perceived it as worse than an in-person visit by describing it as less interpersonal, and resulting in poorer outcomes, particularly participants with less formal education. Technology was not only a barrier to access, but also influenced perceptions of quality. CONCLUSIONS: In the COVID-19 pandemic initial wave, barriers to using telehealth were unequally distributed to those with more significant access and use challenges. Beyond these barriers, examining the components of equity indicate further challenges replicating in-person care using telehealth formats for older PLWH. Work remains to establish telehealth as both equitable and desirable for this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Telemedicina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias
15.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268978, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) are at increased risk for severe illness due to COVID-19. The degree to which this due to HIV infection, comorbidities, or other factors remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective matched cohort study of individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 in New York State between March and June 2020, during the first wave of the pandemic, to compare outcomes among 853 PLWDH and 1,621 persons without diagnosed HIV (controls). We reviewed medical records to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics at admission, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes between PLWDH and controls. HIV-related characteristics were evaluated among PLWDH. RESULTS: PLWDH were significantly more likely to have cardiovascular (matched prevalence-ratio [mPR], 1.22 [95% CI, 1.07-1.40]), chronic liver (mPR, 6.71 [95% CI, 4.75-9.48]), chronic lung (mPR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.40-2.21]), and renal diseases (mPR, 1.77 [95% CI, 1.50-2.09]). PLWDH were less likely to have elevated inflammatory markers upon hospitalization. Relative to controls, PLWDH were 15% less likely to require mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 15% less likely to require admission to the intensive care unit. No significant differences were found in in-hospital mortality. PLWDH on tenofovir-containing regimens were significantly less likely to require mechanical ventilation or ECMO (risk-ratio [RR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.55-0.96]) and to die (RR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.57-0.96]) than PLWDH on non-tenofovir-containing regimens. CONCLUSIONS: While hospitalized PLWDH and controls had similar likelihood of in-hospital death, chronic disease profiles and degree of inflammation upon hospitalization differed. This may signal different mechanisms leading to severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , New York/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267967, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35559953

RESUMO

The prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma is increasing rapidly worldwide, with environmental and lifestyle behaviors implicated as a reason. Epidemiological studies have shown that children who grow up on farms are at lower risk of developing childhood atopic disease, indicating the presence of a protective "farm effect". The Old Order Mennonite (OOM) community in Upstate New York have traditional, agrarian lifestyles, a low rate of atopic disease, and long periods of exclusive breastfeeding. Human milk proteins are heavily glycosylated, although there is a paucity of studies investigating the milk glycoproteome. In this study, we have used quantitative glycoproteomics to compare the N-glycoprotein profiles of 54 milk samples from Rochester urban/suburban and OOM mothers, two populations with different lifestyles, exposures, and risk of atopic disease. We also compared N-glycoprotein profiles according to the presence or absence of atopic disease in the mothers and, separately, the children. We identified 79 N-glycopeptides from 15 different proteins and found that proteins including immunoglobulin A1, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and lactotransferrin displayed significant glycan heterogeneity. We found that the abundances of 38 glycopeptides differed significantly between Rochester and OOM mothers and also identified four glycopeptides with significantly different abundances between all comparisons. These four glycopeptides may be associated with the development of atopic disease. The findings of this study suggest that the differential glycosylation of milk proteins could be linked to atopic disease.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Hipersensibilidade Imediata , Leite Humano , Criança , Feminino , Glicopeptídeos , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Proteínas do Leite , Leite Humano/química , New York , Proteômica
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e228520, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446394

RESUMO

Importance: Characterizing and addressing racial and ethnic disparities in peripartum pain assessment and treatment is a national priority. Objective: To evaluate the association of race and ethnicity with the provision and timing of an epidural blood patch (EBP) for management of postdural puncture headache in obstetric patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used New York State hospital discharge records from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2016, from mothers 15 to 49 years of age with a postdural puncture headache after neuraxial analgesia or anesthesia for childbirth. Statistical analysis was performed from February 2020 to February 2022. Exposures: Patients' race and ethnicity (reported as provided by each participating hospital; the method of determining race and ethnicity [ie, self-reported or not] cannot be determined from the data) were categorized into non-Hispanic White (reference group), non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and other race and ethnicity (including Asian and Pacific Islander, American Indian, Alaskan Native, and other). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the rate of EBP use. The secondary outcome was the interval (days) between hospital admission and provision of EBP. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of EBP use associated with race and ethnicity were estimated using mixed-effect logistic regression models, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Results: During the study period, 8921 patients (mean [SD] age, 30 [6] years; 1028 [11.5%] Black; 1301 [14.6%] Hispanic; 4960 [55.6%] White; and 1359 [15.2%] other race and ethnicity) with postdural puncture headache were identified among 1.9 million deliveries with a neuraxial procedure. Of these 8921 patients, 4196 (47.0%; 95% CI, 46.0%-48.1%) were managed with an EBP. A total of 2650 White patients (53.4%; 95% CI, 52.0%-54.8%) used an EBP; this rate was significantly higher than that among Hispanic patients (41.7% [543]; 95% CI, 39.9%-44.5%), Black patients (35.7% [367]; 95% CI, 32.8%-38.7%), or patients of other race and ethnicity (35.2% [478]; 95% CI, 32.6%-37.8%). Timing of EBP was at a median of 2 days (IQR, 2-3 days) after hospital admission for White patients compared with a median of 3 days (IQR, 2-4 days) for Hispanic patients, Black patients, and patients of other race and ethnicity (P < .001 for the comparison with White patients). After adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics, the EBP rate was not different between White and Hispanic patients (adjusted OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.30). It was significantly lower for Black patients (adjusted OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.94) and patients of other races and ethnicities (adjusted OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, significant racial and ethnic disparities in the management of postdural puncture headache with EBP were observed, with both lower rates and delayed timing, which may be associated with long-term adverse effects.


Assuntos
Cefaleia Pós-Punção Dural , Adulto , Placa de Sangue Epidural , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , New York , Cefaleia Pós-Punção Dural/terapia , Gravidez
18.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(5): 808-821, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482143

RESUMO

Mercury has been studied extensively in lakes due to health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated fish, while stream ecosystems have received less attention. To better understand mercury bioavailability in the lower food web of streams, we collected macroinvertebrates (predators and detritivore) along with autochthonous (epilithic algae) and allochthonous (leaf litter) basal resources in eight streams entering Lake George. Samples were analyzed for methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury, and carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C & δ15N) to determine how mercury concentrations in basal resources, biomagnification rates, and environmental factors (watershed characteristics and water chemistry) effected MeHg concentrations in predatory macroinvertebrates. While biomagnification rates, calculated as trophic magnification slope, explained between 68% and 98% of MeHg variability within a stream food web, the range was small (0.310-0.387) resulting in the biotic components following a consistent pattern of increasing MeHg among streams. The stream order was negatively related to basin slope for all biotic components and explained 70% of MeHg variability in predatory macroinvertebrates. Methylmercury concentrations were significantly and negatively related to δ13C in predators, epilithic algae, and leaf litter. We believe the biofilms on leaf litter utilized bacterial-respired carbon dioxide decreasing δ13C (<-28‰) and increasing MeHg while epilithic algal δ13C increased due to enhanced primary production resulting in biodilution of MeHg. Methylmercury in basal resources responded to δ13C similarly but through different processes. Our findings show shallow slopes elevate MeHg in basal resources and explain most of the predator MeHg variation among streams with little influence of biomagnification rates.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Lagos , Mercúrio/análise , New York , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Environ Int ; 163: 107208, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366557

RESUMO

Several primary aromatic amines (AAs) are known or suspected carcinogens. Despite this, the exposure of pet animals to this class of chemicals is unknown. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of 30 AAs and two tobacco chemical markers (nicotine and cotinine) in 63 pet urine (42 dog and 21 cat) and 77 pet feces (37 dog and 40 cat) samples collected from the Albany area of New York State. Eight of the 30 AAs (∑8AAs) were found in > 38% of dog and cat urine samples, at median concentrations of 7.99 (range: 0.42-52.3 ng/mL) and 31.4 (2.63-75.9) ng/mL, respectively. Nine of the 30 AAs (∑9AAs) were found in > 73% of dog and cat feces samples, at median concentrations of 278 (range: 61.7-613 ng/g) and 240 (55.4-645) ng/g dry wt, respectively. Among the 30 AAs, 2,6-dimethylaniline (2,6-DMA) accounted for the highest median concentrations in both urine and fecal samples. Median concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were below 0.92 ng/mL in urine and below 3.86 ng/g in feces of both dogs and cats. No significant relationship was found between AA concentrations and pet age or gender. The lack of significant Spearman's rank correlation between the concentrations of AA and nicotine in pet urine/feces suggested that sources other than tobacco smoke contributed to AA exposure in pets. Furthermore, the calculated fecal excretion rates of AAs were higher than the intake rates (estimated through reverse dosimetry), which indicates that cats and dogs are exposed to AA precursors such as azo dyes. Concentrations in urine and feces reflected exposure to direct and indirect exposure sources, respectively, of AAs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Aminas , Animais , Gatos , Cotinina , Cães , New York , Nicotina , Estados Unidos
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2053404, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378050

RESUMO

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a major health issue among Asian Americans. The prevalence of chronic Hepatitis B infection in New York City is estimated to be 2.7% compared with .3% in the overall United States. The efficacy and long-term immunity of HBV vaccination in the Korean American pediatric population in Queens, NY, are not well explored. This study aimed to 1) determine the age-specific prevalence of anti-HBs seropositivity in the Korean American pediatric population and 2) assess biologic/demographic factors influencing immunologic response to HBV vaccine. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients registered to a pediatric health clinic located in Queens, NY, from October 2014 to October 2020. Out of 604 medical records of patients aged ≤18 years who received a completed series of HBV vaccines during infancy, we analyzed 91 medical records where HBV serology test (HBsAg and anti-HBs) results were available. Three out of 91 subjects were born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Eight out of 91 subjects were born in South Korea. Overall, 54.9% of subjects were anti-HBs-seropositive. The seropositive rate in the 15 to 18-years-old-age group (14.3%) was significantly lower than that in other age groups: < 1 year (100%) (p = .015), 1-4 years (52.6%) (p = .033), 5-9 years (63.3%) (p = .0034), and 10-14 years (64%) (p = .0063). The mean duration since vaccination in seropositive subjects was 96.5 ± 53.9 months, and that in seronegative subjects was 121.7 ± 64.2 months (p < .047). Gender, BMI, and foreign birth were not significant risk factors affecting the nonseroprotective status. The role of routine screening of anti-HB titers and booster vaccination in this endemic community needs to be further explored.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Fatores Etários , Americanos Asiáticos , Criança , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Humanos , New York , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação/métodos
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