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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692769

RESUMO

Introduction: Pediatric traumatic injury is a major public health concern that is poorly documented in lower and middle-income countries. This study analyzed data on pediatric injuries from a unique hospital trauma registry in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: Data were analyzed on 220 traumatically injured patients aged 21 years/less to describe injury characteristics and to determine the association between mechanism of injury and pediatric head injuries in Abuja, Nigeria, between 2014 and 2015. Bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square and adjusted logistic regression were conducted to characterize the population and identify risk factors for head injury. P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA v.15.1. Results: The majority of patients were male (60.9%) with a mean age (SD) of 12.5±6.9 years. Head injuries were most common (49.6%), followed by chest (14.1%), abdomen (12.3%) and back (7.7%). The mechanism of injury was statistically significantly associated with head injury (p=0.027) with 63% of children in a motor vehicle accident sustaining a head injury. After adjusting for covariates, the odds of head injury were 3.8 times higher for children injured in a motor vehicle accidents (MVA) compared to those with falls (95%CI 1.40-10.40). Conclusion: This analysis reveals that motor vehicle accident is a risk factor for traumatic head injury among children in Nigeria. Therefore, efforts should be made to address motor vehicle accidents involving children. These data will help to inform age-related prevention and treatment strategies. The results of this study highlight the importance of collecting pediatric trauma data in developing countries.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 219, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692780

RESUMO

Introduction: "suya" and smoked fish are cherished food delicacies in Nigeria, but can be a source of dissemination of Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Moreover, there are limited studies on these MDR bacteria from Dutsin-Ma. Therefore, this study examined the bacteriological qualities and antibiogram profiles of bacteria in these foods from this area in Nigeria. Methods: Twenty samples of each of "suya" and smoked fish were collected from the study areas and microbiologically analyzed. Total viable count, coliform count, characterization and identification of bacteria were carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Results: Findings revealed that "suya" samples possessed the highest total viable bacteria count (3.4×105 to 7.7×105 cfu/g) and coliform count (2.1×105 to 6.2×105 cfu/g). A total of 85 and 78 bacteria were isolated from "suya" and smoked fish samples respectively. E. coli (24.7% and 24.4%) was the most frequently isolated from each sample respectively. Highest (66.7%) resistance to each of cefuroxime, gentamicin, amoxillin/clavulanate and ciprofloxacin were observed among E. coli from "suya". MDR phenotypes commonly isolated was resistance to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, augmentin and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: These studies showed the presence of MDR bacteria in samples, hence, raise the need for improved production hygiene and public health awareness.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Peixes/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nigéria , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692766

RESUMO

Introduction: Management of open fractures poses a constant challenge to Orthopaedic surgeons in Nigeria. Our aim is to determine the epidemiological pattern of open fractures in our centre and share our experiences on the initial management and problems encountered. Methods: This was an 18 month prospective study of patients that presented with open fractures at our emergency room. Already prepared data collection sheets were used to collect relevant data directly from patients and patients' files. Results: There were 58 open fractures in 52 patients (31 males and 21 females). Mean age of patients was 36.4 ± 12.2 years. Most patients (82.7%) fell within the age group of 20-49 years. Traders (28.9%) and students (19.6%) were mostly affected. Most open fractures (88.5%) were due to road traffic accidents. The tibia and fibula were the most frequently affected (44.4%). Most injuries were Gustilo et al. types IIIA & IIIB (79.3%) open fractures. Patients had initial resuscitation followed by debridement in 42 cases (72%). Fractures were initially stabilized with external fixators in 23 cases (39.7%) and cast slabs in 19 cases (32.8%). The average time between presentation and debridement was 30 hours and average hospital stay was 36 days. Forty two point five per cent of wounds were infected. Conclusion: Open fractures were mostly due to road traffic accidents and affected the tibia and fibula most frequently with Gustilo et al. types IIIA and IIIB forming the bulk of the injuries. Management was challenging with late presentations, scarcity of resources and consequent high rate of infections, prolonged morbidity and hospital stay. These problems were worsened by delay in antibiotic commencement and initial debridement, sub-optimal treatment at peripherial hospitals and mis-management by traditional bone setters.


Assuntos
Desbridamento/métodos , Fixadores Externos , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Fraturas Expostas/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 294, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692797

RESUMO

The number of children who survive to adolescence is increasing in Nigeria, significantly due to the success of child survival programs, with immunization as a major theme. However, the national immunization schedule in Nigeria is presently restricted to early childhood with no attention paid to immunization in adolescence. Presently, the vaccines that are readily available for adolescents include tetanus toxoid which is normally administered to pregnant women, so necessarily includes adolescent mothers; and a few research programs which offers hepatitis B vaccines. Also, there are few Nigerian adolescents who access immunization as a requirement for travelling outside the country or as a result of parental effort. Knowledge and awareness about adolescent immunization is generally poor. Nigerian adolescents have been shown to be poorly protected from tetanus, rubella and hepatitis B which are vaccine preventable. Neonatal, childhood and adult tetanus, congenital rubella syndrome, cervical cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma are just few of the diseases whose incidence can be reduced with an effective adolescent immunization program. This will also ensure that the gains of childhood immunization is concretized and socio-economic losses as a result of vaccine preventable diseases are eliminated to create a healthy and vibrant workforce. There is an urgent need to build a viable adolescent immunization program in Nigeria as adolescents represent a window of opportunity to prevent diseases which affect both the younger and older age group. This can be extended to other developing countries as well.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692856

RESUMO

Introduction: Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) may be on the increase as a result of changing lifestyles. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DH and relative importance of associated factors in 18-35 year old Nigerians and compare to findings from a similar European study. Methods: Following ethical approval, 1349 subjects from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria participated in this cross sectional study. DH was clinically evaluated by cold air tooth stimulation, patient pain rating (yes/no) and investigator rated pain using the Schiff ordinal scale (0-3). Erosive tooth wear using the BEWE index was assessed. A questionnaire regarding the nature of the DH, erosive dietary intakes, tooth brushing habits and other factors was completed by patients. Bivariate analysis was conducted. Results: 32.8% of patients reported pain on tooth stimulation and 32.9% scored ≥1 on Schiff scale for at least one tooth. Questionnaire reported sensitivity was 41.2%. There were statistically significant associations between Schiff score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001); and BEWE erosive tooth wear score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001). There were significant associations between DH and some oral hygiene practices such as brushing frequency, brush movement and brushing after breakfast. Fresh fruit and fruit/vegetable juice intake also showed significant association. Conclusion: The most important risk factors of DH for this population in Nigeria appear to be the frequency and characteristics of tooth brushing. This should be considered in its prevention and management.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Desgaste dos Dentes/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692869

RESUMO

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the commonest gynaecological malignancy and the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Several epidemiological, clinical and molecular studies have strongly implicated oncogenic high-risk human papillomavirus infection in the aetiopathogenesis of cervical cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the cervical HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in cervical cancer in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Methods: This was a descriptive and retrospective study. Sixty-three archived paraffin-embedded tissue blocks with confirmed diagnoses of cervical cancer during the study period (2013-2015) were retrieved and examined. The procedure included deparaffinization of tissue samples, DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis, and HPV genotyping by reverse hybridization line probe assay. Results: Sixty-three cervical cancer cases were subjected to genomic DNA extraction and HPV-DNA detection by PCR. Fifty-eight samples showed PCR positivity while 5 samples were PCR negative. HPV-specific DNA was detected in 44 of the 58 PCR-positive samples and thus the prevalence was 69.8%. Ten different high-risk HPV genotypes were detected. Both single and multiple high-risk HPV infections were observed. The most prevalent type of the human papillomavirus detected was HPV16. Conclusion: HPV-DNA was prevalent in majority of the examined cervical cancer tissues and that HPV16, HPV18, HPV45, HPV51 and HPV52 were the predominant HPVs detected in both single and multiple HPV infections. The results of this study and further studies will provide more detailed information about HPV and may contribute significantly to the prevention of cervical cancer through primary high-risk HPV testing and HPV vaccination against the oncogenic viruses.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , DNA Viral , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692880

RESUMO

Introduction: Adherence is vital to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) for reducing viral load and HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed at evaluating the adherence of HIV seropositive patients to ART in a tertiary institution in Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional observational study was conducted among 400 HIV seropositive patients. The study was carried out between December 2016 and February 2017 at the HIV clinic of the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Results: The mean age of the HIV patients was 42.2±9.5 years with a predominant female gender (Male:Female = 1:2.8). The median CD4 counts increased from 302.1±15.0cells/mm3 at diagnosis to 430.8±13.3cells/mm3 at the time of the study. Majority of participants were unaware of their spouses' HIV status (59.3%) while 32.5% of participants had a serodiscordant spouse. Poverty was a major challenge as 73.3% earned less than 140 dollars per month. Depressive symptoms, anxiety disorder and insomnia were also reported in 40.7%, 33.2% and 47.2% respectively. Poor adherence to ART was observed in almost 20% of the patients. Logistic regression indicated that predictors of poor adherence were depression, anxiety and low CD4 counts. Conclusion: Adherence to anti-retroviral therapy was good amongst the majority of HIV seropositive patients. Depression, anxiety disorder and low CD4 count were however associated with poor adherence. This emphasizes the role of the psychology units as integral part of the HIV clinic to assist patients' adherence to anti-retroviral regimens.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692835

RESUMO

Introduction: Problem-based learning (PBL) method which was introduced about 50 years ago in Canada is beginning to gain acceptance over conventional teaching method (CTM) worldwide in medical education but still remains unpopular in Nigeria. This study aims to determine the perception of clinical medical students to the use of both learning methods in pathology courses. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted in four Nigerian universities drawn from four regions of the country. Data were collected using pretested semi-structured self-administered questionnaires. Results: The study included 310 respondents, 182(58.7%) males and 128(41.3%) females. Of all the participants, 257(82.9%) had heard of PBL prior to the study and 260(83.9%) thought it suitable for teaching and learning Pathology. Majority of participants, 221(71.3%) preferred a combination of both PBL and CTM while 238(76.8%) thought PBL suitable for all medical students. Some identified factors capable of enhancing adaptation of PBL into medical curriculum include conducive quiet spaces for learning and availability of computers with internet facilities for students' use. Conclusion: Participants demonstrated high level of awareness of PBL and thought it suitable for all medical students. Availability of computers and up-to-date libraries with internet and audio-visual facilities could enhance adaptation of PBL into medical curriculum in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zootaxa ; 4668(3): zootaxa.4668.3.6, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716620

RESUMO

Sarcophaga Meigen, 1826 is proposed as a senior synonym of Cornexcisia Fan Kano, 2000, syn. nov. and Fanzideia Xue, Verves Du, 2011, syn. nov. Cornexcisia Fan Kano, 2000, stat. rev. is given status as a subgenus and is considered a senior synonym of Fanzideia Xue, Verves Du, 2011, syn. nov. at the subgeneric level. Cornexcisia is argued to contain S. (Cornexcisia) longicornuta (Fan Kano, 2000), comb. nov., S. (C.) cygnocerca (Xue, Verves Du, 2011), comb. nov., S. (C.) kurahashii (Shinonaga Tumrasvin, 1979), subgen. comb. nov. (from Phallosphaera Rohdendorf) and S. (C.) suthep Pape Bänziger, 2003, subgen. comb. nov. (from Rosellea Rohdendorf). Sarcophaga (C.) kurahashii is newly recorded from China (Yunnan), the male is redescribed and the female is described for the first time, supported by photographs, illustrations and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. Species of Cornexcisia share an exceptionally long postpedicel in the female and the following apomorphic distiphallic appendages in the male: juxta ventro-proximally with an apically divided arm with cuticular pile, and lateral styli bifurcated from the base with each branch elongate, gently curved and slightly expanded apically. A key to the species of Cornexcisia is provided.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Sarcofagídeos , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino , Nigéria
10.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 237-243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599539

RESUMO

Rabbits are commonly reared by households and farmers in Nigeria as a source of meat, but there is no information available on Cryptosporidium genotypes occurring in rabbits in Nigeria. Fecal samples were collected from 107 rabbits and examined by modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. An infection rate of 3.7% (4/107) was obtained and all microscopy-positive samples were genotyped and subtyped to determine the circulating Cryptosporidium species using sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, respectively. All the four microscopy-positive samples were identified as C. parvum by 18S rRNA gene. However, analysis of the gp60 gene revealed the presence of C. parvum subtype IIc, which is commonly found in humans in two isolates. These findings indicate natural infection of rabbits with C. parvum and underscore the need to investigate the probable role of animal hosts in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection. This is the first report on genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium infecting rabbits in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Coelhos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética
11.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 267-273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599543

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains a serious concern of great economic impact on domestic animals including rabbits. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, species diversity, and associated risk factors of rabbit coccidiosis in Ilorin, Kwara State Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined using the floatation technique (positive samples were sporulated for identification of the different Eimeria species). 169 out of 215 (78.6%,) rabbits were found to be infected with Eimeria species. A total of seven Eimeria species (Eimeria coecicola, Eimeria irresidua, Eimeria perforans, Eimeria magna, Eimeria intestinalis, Eimeria stiedai and Eimeria flavescens) were identified. Of these, Eimeria coecicola was the most prevalent (48/215; 22.3%), while E. flavescens (8/215; 3.7%) was the least prevalent. Weaners (80.0%) were more infected than bunnies (79.1%) and adult (77.5%). Females had a higher infection rate (79.4%) than males (77.4%). Californian breed were more infected (84.9%) compared to Chinchila (83.7%), Dutch breed (80.9%), and New Zealand White (63.6%). Rabbits kept in the deep litter housing system had higher prevalence rate (95.2%) compared to those raised in the battery cage system (71.9%). Coccidiosis was more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season. This study concludes that Eimeria infections of rabbit is endemic in Ilorin, Kwara State with breeds and housing type been significant risk factors associated with the infection. This study provides the baseline information as the first report on the different Eimeria species affecting rabbits in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Coelhos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 293-296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599558

RESUMO

Poultry production as one of the major sources of protein in Nigeria is constrained by parasitic diseases including haemo- and gastrointestinal (GI) parasites. The haemo- and endoparasites of indigenous chickens reared in Gwagwalada market, Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria were studied. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 108 chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) between April­August, 2017. Thin blood smear, and floatation and sedimentation techniques were used for the blood and fecal samples, respectively. Of the 108 local chickens examined, 49 were males, while 59 were females. Overall, female chickens had higher infection rate with haemoparasites (53.1%) that males (46.9%). The blood parasites found mostly were Plasmodium spp., with a prevalence 54.6%, occurring in both male and female chickens examined. It was further revealed that endoparasites infected 60.8% of the female local chicken and 39.2% of the male. The mostly occured Ascaridia spp. with prevalence 35.2%; the least was Strongyloides avium (0.9%). Also, Eimeria spp. occysts were found in 8 (7.4%) of the chickens. This study provides basic information on the haemo- and endoparasites constantly infecting local breed of chickens reared in Gwagwalada Area Council, FCT- Abuja.


Assuntos
Eimeria , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/sangue , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Nigéria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
13.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020414, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662849

RESUMO

Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) programmes for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) depend on voluntary community drug distributors (CDDs) to deliver drugs, and these volunteer schemes need regular training and supervision. NTD policy now includes integration of multiple disease programmes, but we are unsure if there is clarity in what is currently expected of CDDs and how they are managed. We therefore analysed World Health Organization (WHO) policy, strategy and implementation guidance, and select national NTD programme implementation plans. Methods: Included are a) WHO global and WHO-Regional Office for Africa guidelines, strategies, operational manuals and meeting reports published between January 2007 to February 2018 that included policy and plans for CDDs; and b) national NTD programme master plans for Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia and Nigeria. For both review components, we examined the CDD responsibilities through a framework developed iteratively against the documents and prepared a narrative synthesis. Results: Twenty WHO policy documents met the inclusion criteria. In the twelve global and eight regional documents, the CDD role was not explicitly or comprehensively defined. Three documents mentioned CDDs will distribute drugs; some mentioned health promotion, data handling and engagement in clinical care. Four WHO documents noted a need for CDD training or management, eight detailed some aspect of this, and one regional document provided a comprehensive overview. In the national plans, additional responsibilities included case management in two countries and transmission control in two countries. Every plan included training and supervision, but this was not always explicit, and details of the purpose and frequency varied. In all national plans, CDD motivation was identified as a challenge but not comprehensively addressed, although one document mentioned provision of bicycles. Conclusions: WHO and national policies and plans assume CDDs will implement NTD programmes. However, there is almost no clear delineation of responsibilities, nor is there up-to-date practical guidance to guide managers. This ambiguity, in relation to the lack of explicit policies or programmatic guidance, probably impairs the effectiveness of NTD programmes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Camarões , Gana , Humanos , Libéria , Nigéria , Políticas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
14.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(4): 422-428, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body dysmorphic disorder is a relatively common psychiatric disorder in the context of dermatology and cosmetic and plastic surgery but is underdiagnosed and underreported in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and symptoms of anxiety/depression and determine their sociodemographic and clinical correlates. METHODS: A systematic random sampling design was made to recruit 114 patients with skin diseases. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Modification of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered, and data were analyzed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 37.70±17.47 years, and 67/114 (58.8%) were females. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder was 41/114 (36.0%), and prevalence of anxiety/depression symptoms was 35/114 (30.7%). Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in patients with anxiety/depression symptoms was 15/41 (36.6%), and patients with facial disorders expressed the highest burden of anxiety/depression symptoms, in 15/35 (42.9%). Factors associated with significantly higher mean body dysmorphic disorder include age<50years (p=0.039), and anxiety/depression (p<0.001), education below high school was associated with higher mean anxiety/depression score (P= 0.031). In a binary logistic regression model, presence of anxiety/depression symptoms was predictive of body dysmorphic disorder (OR=10.0, CI: 4.1-28.2, p<0.001). STUDY LIMITATIONS: the study is uncontrolled, conducted in a single source of care, thus limiting generalization to nonrelated settings. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder is high among dermatology patients and most prevalent in facial disorders. Facial diseases are associated with the highest burden of anxiety/depression symptoms. This is a clarion call for dermatologists to routinely assess for body dysmorphic disorder and appropriately refer affected patients to mental health care.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Escala de Ansiedade Frente a Teste , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1341-1348, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607722

RESUMO

Background: To reduce the number of new HIV infections among children, retesting of HIV negative pregnant women in labor to identify new infections and instituting appropriate modified obstetrics practices (MOP) has a huge role to play. Aims and Objectives: This study evaluated the HIV sero-positivity in labor among pregnant women who earlier tested negative in antenatal clinic, associated risk factors and the corresponding rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Methods: This was a prospective observational study where pregnant women in labor who had earlier tested HIV negative in the antenatal clinic at Imo State University Teaching Hospital Orlu, Imo state, Nigeria, were retested. The infants of the women who seroconverted were tested for HIV infection at 6 weeks using Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (DNA PCR) by collecting Dried Blood Sample. This study was conducted from October 2015 to March 2016. Result: Out of the 163 patients studied, 6 demonstrated HIV seroconversion giving a seroconversion rate of 3.7%. Deliveries from the seroconverted patients were 5 live births and 1 intrauterine fetal death. All the 5 live babies tested HIV negative at 6 weeks of age. Predictors of seroconversion in late pregnancy include spouse's HIV status and number of other sexual partners. Conclusion: Retesting of HIV negative pregnant women in labor to identify new infections and instituting appropriate modified obstetrics practices has a huge role to play in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Parto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Soroconversão
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17452, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Different studies have shown the prevalence of high level of stress among undergraduate students. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) as a stress management intervention among English Education undergraduates in Universities in Southeastern Nigeria. METHOD: The study adopted a group randomized trial design. One hundred sixteen samples of English education undergraduates (with a high level of perceived stress) took part in the study. These students were randomly assigned to groups - intervention group(n = 58) and no-intervention control group (n = 58). The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) was used for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using 2-way mixed repeated measure ANOVA and independent sample t test at 0.05 probability level. RESULT: Results showed that an REBT program significantly reduced the stress among English education undergraduates in the intervention group compared to the students in the control group as measured by PSS-14. Also, the English education undergraduates who benefited from the REBT program maintained the reduction in stress after 3 months when the researchers conducted a follow-up. CONCLUSION: REBT program can be used to equip undergraduate students with the necessary skills to manage stress. The implications for curriculum innovation were highlighted.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Profissionalizante , Psicoterapia Racional-Emotiva , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Adulto Jovem
17.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 195-198, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621657

RESUMO

Background: The presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B*57:01 allele predicts hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to abacavir (ABC), a nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor used for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment. However, the prevalence of this allele amongst Nigerians with HIV is yet to be established. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HLA-B*57:01 allele amongst Nigerians with HIV infection. Methods: We conducted a multicentre cross-sectional epidemiologic survey. Between April 2016 and April 2017, patients were enrolled across five HIV treatment facilities in Nigeria. Participants' demographic information and their history of ABC exposure were obtained, and venous blood was obtained for HLA typing. Results: One thousand five hundred and four (1504) adults were enrolled, with a mean age of 44.6 ± 10.7 years, 1078 (71.7%) were female. 1463 (97.3%) were on antiretroviral therapy. ABC use was reported by 12 (0.8%) participants and none reported HSR. Of 1500 blood samples that were processed, 1458 (97.2%) were successfully typed. Of these, 132 (9.1%) were HLA-B*57 positive using non-specific low-resolution HLA-B*5701 primer mix. On further analysis, none of the 132 samples (0%) had the HLA-B*5701 allele. Conclusion: HLA-B*5701allele is rare amongst Nigerians.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Didesoxinucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Didesoxinucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/sangue , Antígenos HLA-B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos
18.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 199-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621658

RESUMO

Context: Proper use of protective eyewear (PEW) is important in the prevention of occupational eye injury. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the ocular morbidity and utilisation of PEW among carpenters in Mushin Local Government, Lagos, with a view to promoting ocular health and safety in the workplace. Subject and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of one hundred and fourteen (114) carpenters that were enrolled into the study. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on socio-demographics, work-related ocular history, awareness and utilisation of, as well as barriers to utilisation of PEW. Ophthalmic examination was done. In-depth interviews were also carried out to probe the barriers to utilisation of PEW. Quantitative responses were analysed using the IBM SPSS software, and content data analysis was performed for qualitative responses. Results: The prevalence of reported work-related eye injury and complaints were 30.7% and 32.5%, respectively. The prevalence of ocular morbidity among the respondents was 74.6%. Seventy-seven respondents (67.5%) were aware of PEW; only 21.1% owned PEW, whereas the utilisation level was 26.3%. In-depth interviews revealed ignorance, forgetfulness, and unfamiliarity as the key barriers to PEW use. The odds of using PEW were about three-fold with previous eye injury at work and history of eye complaint. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a significant prevalence of ocular morbidity and poor utilisation of PEW among carpenters in Mushin, Lagos. There was a significant relationship between previous eye injury or complaint and PEW use. Thus, there is a need to create awareness among carpenters and develop occupational safety policies to improve the use of PEW.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Oculares/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Traumatismos Oculares/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Governo Local , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 205-210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621659

RESUMO

Background: Knowledge of the ophthalmic manifestations of leukaemia is important not only because of the frequency with which changes are seen but because the eye often reflects the disease state of the illness, and once identified, prompt referral, early treatment can be instigated, blindness can be averted and a life may be saved. These manifestations are often overlooked because of the underestimation of the magnitude of the ocular sequelae which may be blinding. Aim: This study aims to describe the ophthalmic findings in adult leukaemic patients at two teaching hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This was a clinic-based, comparison multicentre study conducted at Lagos University Teaching Hospital and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital over a 9-month period of May 2012-January 2013. The cases were newly diagnosed leukaemic patients (acute and chronic) from the haematology clinics. Controls were escorts of apparently normal patients. Detailed ocular examination was carried out after written informed consent was obtained. Analysis was done using SPSS 17. Results: A total of 160 eyes in 80 individuals examined comprised forty cases and forty controls. The results of the cases were compared with the age- and sex-matched controls. Leukaemic-related ophthalmic manifestations were present in 56 eyes (70.0%) of the cases studied. Findings in cases were periorbital oedema in 8 eyes (10%), subconjunctival haemorrhage in four eyes (5%), intraretinal haemorrhage as found in 25 eyes (31.3%), retinal venous tortuosity in 21 eyes (26.3%), Roth spots in 19 eyes (23.8%) and retinal infiltrates in 17 eyes (21.3%). Conclusion: Ophthalmic disorders occur in adult patients living with leukaemia. Prompt initial and periodic ophthalmic evaluation is recommended in all leukaemic patients.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Olho/patologia , Leucemia/complicações , Hemorragia Retiniana/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Hemorragia Retiniana/epidemiologia
20.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 211-215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621660

RESUMO

Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that rates of drug use and abuse in Nigeria exceed the global average. There is a strong treatment demand for psychoactive drug use disorders in Nigeria; however, it is not known whether available treatment facilities are attending to the array of treatment needs. This audit compares the pattern of presentations at a tertiary facility with a community-based survey. Methods: A review of cases (n = 212) seen at a regional drug treatment facility over a 4-year period, using local data retrieved from the Nigerian Epidemiological Network of Drug Use (NENDU) and comparison with data from the recently published national drug use survey. Results: Nine out of ten clients seen were male (93.4%). About half (49.5%) of the clients used psychoactive substances for the first time between ages 10 and 19 years. Cannabis was the primary drug of use overall and also among males, while females were more likely to present with opiate abuse. Over half had a co-occurring physical or mental disorder, and a minority had received testing for hepatitis C in the past 12 months. Conclusion: Although patterns of drug abuse presentations were consistent with findings from a national community-based survey, there was an under-representation of females in treatment. Implications for policy development and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/reabilitação , Criança , Comorbidade/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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