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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(4): 835-846, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016493

RESUMO

2,4-Dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), a principal derivative generated in the synthesis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is widely used as a waterproofer, plasticizer, and gelatinizer in propellants and explosives. This compound has been documented as a priority pollutant because of its toxicity. Therefore, its removal from contaminated systems is a major focus of research and environmental attention. The presence of 2,4-DNT bacterial-degrading strains that could utilize 2,4-DNT as growth substrate in polluted sites in Ibadan, Nigeria, was determined using continual enrichment techniques on nitroaromatic mixtures. Proteus sp. strain OSES2 isolated in this study was characterized by phenotypic typing and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Growth of the strain on 2,4-DNT resulted in an exponential increase in biomass and complete substrate utilization within 72 h, accompanied by NO3 - elimination. Degradation competence was enhanced in the presence of corn steep liquor, molasses, and Tween 80 compared with incubation without amendment. Conversely, amendment with nitrogen sources yielded no significant improvement in degradation. Use of these organic wastes as candidates in a bioremediation strategy should be exploited. This would provide a less-expensive organic source supplement for cleanup purposes, with the ultimate aim of reducing the cost of bioremediation while reducing wastes intended for landfill.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Trinitrotolueno , Dinitrobenzenos , Nigéria
2.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E418-E421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009901

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) hosted a workshop in May of 2020 with a goal of critically evaluating Trauma Team Training courses. The workshop was held virtually because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Twenty-three participants attended from 8 countries: Canada, Guyana, Kenya, Nigeria, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda and the United States. More participants were able to attend the virtual meeting than the traditional in-person meetings. Web-based videoconference software was used, participants presented prerecorded PowerPoint videos, and questions were raised using a written chat. The review proved successful, with discussions and recommendations for improvements surrounding course quality, lecture content, skills sessions, curriculum variations and clinical practical scenarios. The CNIS's successful experience conducting an online curriculum review involving international participants may prove useful to others proceeding with collaborative projects during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Currículo , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Congressos como Assunto/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Guiana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Quênia/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Comunicação por Videoconferência/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1183-1187, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913154

RESUMO

Aims: This study compared the analgesic effect of apical peri-prostatic block with that of intra-rectal xylocaine gel for trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-PBx) in Nigeria. Methods: This is a prospective randomized comparative study carried out over one year in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria. The participants were randomized into two groups; Group A had 10 mls of intra-rectal xylocaine gel instillation while Group B had apical infiltration of 10 mls of 1% xylocaine all before TRUS-PBx. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean pain score during and one hour after TRUS-PBx between Group A and Group B of the study population respectively (p < 0.0001). Those that had intra-rectal xylocaine gel (Group A) had more pain during and after biopsy. There was no difference in the mean pain score during probe insertion between the two groups (p = 0.952). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the superiority of apical peri-prostatic nerve block over intra rectal xylocaine gel instillation during TRUS-PBx with respect to its anesthetic efficacy. Therefore, centers providing TRUS-PBx in Nigeria should consider apical peri-prostatic nerve block as their mode of anesthesia for the procedure due to its efficacy and high safety profile.


Assuntos
Biópsia por Agulha/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Administração Retal , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Biópsia por Agulha/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/inervação , Reto/patologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1215-1220, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913159

RESUMO

Background: Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy [BPH] is associated with voiding dysfunctions. Urodynamic study is the gold standard for diagnosis of voiding dysfunctions but is invasive. Bladder wall thickness (BWT), post-void urine residue (PVR), and bladder emptying efficiency (BEE) are noninvasive predictors of voiding dysfunction. Objective: To study the relationship among BWT, PVR, and BEE in BPH. Subjects and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional prospective study of new BPH patients at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. The participants had abdominal ultrasonography measurement of anterior BWT (at bladder volume ≥200 mls), prostate volume (PV), and PVR using Prosound SSD3500 (Aloka Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) with an abdominal probe frequency of 3.5 MHz. Then the BEE was calculated. The anterior BWT was divided into two groups: <5 mm and ≥5 mm. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Pearson's correlation was used to assess correlation and the differences between the means of the two groups of BWT were compared by Mann-Whitney test. A P- Value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Seventy seven men with a mean age of 66.66 ± 10.74 years were included in the study. Sixty one percent had symptoms lasting >12 months. The average anterior BWT, PBV, PVR, BEE, PV, and PSA were 4.55 ± 1.02 mm, 260.98 ± 57.44 mls, 58.36 ± 52.94 mls, 77.98 ± 17.37%, 66.31 ± 46.38 mls, and 8.04 ± 5.97 ng/ml, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between BWT and duration of symptoms (P = 0.044) and a significant negative correlation between BWT and BEE (P = 0.005). An insignificant positive correlation was found between BWT and PVR (P = 0.255). Fifty four (70.1%) had BWT <5 mm and 29.9% had BWT ≥5 mm. The mean IPSS (P = 0.000), PV (P = 0.032) and PVR (P = 0.020) were significantly higher in the ≥5 mm group. The ≥5 mm group also had a significantly lower BEE (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Voiding dysfunction was more severe in patients with BWT of 5 mm or more. There was a positive, but insignificant, correlation between anterior BWT and PVR and a significant negative correlation between BWT and BEE.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Retenção Urinária , Transtornos Urinários/patologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Liso/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Liso/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Liso/patologia , Nigéria , Estudos Prospectivos , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Bexiga Urinária/anatomia & histologia , Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Urinários/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Urinários/etiologia , Urodinâmica
6.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1229-1236, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913161

RESUMO

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the degree of accuracy of age-based weight estimation methods in assessing the weight of the Nigerian child. Method: The weights of one thousand, four hundred and fifty-six (1,456) children were measured and compared with the updated Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS), Best guess, Nelson and Luscombe & Owen methods. Result: The updated APLS, Nelson and Luscombe & Owen methods underestimated the weights in younger children while overestimating in older ones. Best guess overestimated the weights across all ages. The Nelson formula had the best agreement within 10% and 20% of the measured weights among all methods. A linear regression analysis produced an equation for weight estimation: weight (W) = 2.058 Y + 9.925, where W is weight in kilogram and Y is the age in years. Conclusion: None of the weight estimation formulae assessed was entirely accurate in our study, though the Nelson method showed superior agreement.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Peso Corporal , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nigéria
7.
Respir Care ; 65(9): 1378-1381, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879035

RESUMO

COVID-19 is devastating health systems globally and causing severe ventilator shortages. Since the beginning of the outbreak, the provision and use of ventilators has been a key focus of public discourse. Scientists and engineers from leading universities and companies have rushed to develop low-cost ventilators in hopes of supporting critically ill patients in developing countries. Philanthropists have invested millions in shipping ventilators to low-resource settings, and agencies such as the World Health Organization and the World Bank are prioritizing the purchase of ventilators. While we recognize the humanitarian nature of these efforts, merely shipping ventilators to low-resource environments may not improve outcomes of patients and could potentially cause harm. An ecosystem of considerable technological and human resources is required to support the usage of ventilators within intensive care settings. Medical-grade oxygen supplies, reliable electricity, bioengineering support, and consumables are all needed for ventilators to save lives. However, most ICUs in resource-poor settings do not have access to these resources. Patients on ventilators require continuous monitoring from physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists skilled in critical care. Health care workers in many low-resource settings are already exceedingly overburdened, and pulling these essential human resources away from other critical patient needs could reduce the overall quality of patient care. When deploying medical devices, it is vital to align the technological intervention with the clinical reality. Low-income settings often will not benefit from resource-intensive equipment, but rather from contextually appropriate devices that meet the unique needs of their health systems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventiladores Mecânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Masculino , Nigéria , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Nações Unidas , Ventiladores Mecânicos/economia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874417

RESUMO

Since the first case of COVID-19 and its progression to a pandemic, healthcare systems the world over have experienced severe difficulties coping with patient care for both COVID-19 and other diseases most especially non communicable diseases like cancer. These difficulties in Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially in Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria, are myriad. These LMICs are already bedeviled weak health systems, ill equipped cancer treatment centers, with outdated machines and grossly inadequate numbers of oncologists required to treat patients with cancer. As a result of these challenges coupled with unclear guidelines on how to manage cancer patients in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, 11 key Nigerian opinion leaders had a consensus meeting to identify challenges and possible workable solutions on continuing cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The discussion highlighted ethical issues, barriers to continuing cancer care (such as lockdown, fear of contracting disease, downscaled health services) and resource constraints such unavailable personal protective equipment. Yet, practical solutions were proffered such as necessary protective measures, case by case prioritization or de-prioritization, telemedicine and other achievable means in the Nigerian setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/organização & administração
11.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(4): 153-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908070

RESUMO

The COVID-19 infection has been a matter of urgency to tackle around the world today, there exist 200 countries around the world and 54 countries in Africa that the COVID-19 infection cases have been confirmed. This situation prompted us to look into the challenges African laboratories are facing in the diagnosis of novel COVID-19 infection. A limited supply of essential laboratory equipment and test kits are some of the challenges faced in combatting the novel virus in Africa. Also, there is inadequate skilled personnel, which might pose a significant danger in case there is a surge in COVID-19 infection cases. The choice of diagnostic method in Africa is limited as there are only two available diagnostic methods being used out of the six methods used globally, thereby reducing the opportunity of supplementary diagnosis, which will further lead to inappropriate diagnosis and affect the accuracy of diagnostic reports. Furthermore, challenges like inadequate power supply, the method used in sample collection, storage and transportation of specimens are also significant as they also pose their respective implication. From the observations, there is an urgent need for more investment into the laboratories for proper, timely, and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Virologia/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Orçamentos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral , Virologia/economia , Fluxo de Trabalho
12.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 590-602, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970541

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus pandemic has upended the world as we knew it and is a concern for governments globally. With cases still surging in different regions around the globe, the level of knowledge of COVID-19 and compliance with preventive measures still differ across cultural regions. Our study explored knowledge of COVID-19 and compliance with preventive measures among community members in Anambra State, Nigeria, using in-depth interviews (IDI). Data were sourced from 36 persons comprising 30 household heads age 48 years and above and six children age 13-17 years. Data were analyzed thematically. Findings revealed that a majority of the respondents believe that the COVID-19 pandemic is more of a hoax than reality. Other findings showed that this poor knowledge negatively affected their compliance with preventive measures to curb the spread of coronavirus. To improve knowledge on the coronavirus pandemic, we recommended dissemination of accurate information to ensure compliance with preventive measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distância Social
13.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 511-522, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970546

RESUMO

Covid-19 is a virus that has created tension and devastation around the globe. This study is designed to specifically find out the effect of Covid-19 on the socioeconomic well-being of Nigerians, the health sector preparedness to handle the pandemic, and the role of Nigerian social workers in the fight against Covid-19 in Nigeria. The study employed a phenomenological and exploratory research design in its inquiry. Sixteen respondents made up the sample size for the study. A Focus Group Discussion Guide and an In-Depth Interview Guide were the instruments for data collection. The result of the study shows that the Covid-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on the socioeconomic well-being of Nigerians. Second, the Nigerian health system is ill equipped and underprepared to handle the Covid-19 pandemic. Third, Nigerian social workers, most especially medical social workers, have played a significant role in passing out information on Covid-19 preventive measures to the general public. The study recommends that the Nigerian government should wake up and fix the health sector and make it proactive to handle epidemics/pandemics in the future. Social work practice in Nigeria should be promoted by the government through institutionalization of the profession.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Papel Profissional , Assistentes Sociais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22409, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991470

RESUMO

Childhood bullying leads to life-long scars and hinders adult development. Schoolchildren involved in bullying are at risk of developing behavioural difficulties, physical health problems and suicidal ideation. This research aimed to evaluate the bullying experience of pupils in Nigerian primary schools.The study is a cross-sectional analytic survey conducted from June to November 2019. A total of 1080 pupils in participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire containing 3 questions was used for collecting data. Analysis of the collected data was done using percentage and Chi-Squared at 0.05 probability level.Results indicate that 51.4% of the male pupils and 50.8% of females reported being victims of bullying. 51.8% of the males and 49.5% of females were found to be perpetrators of bullying. 39.6% of the males and 42.9% of the females were bystanders of bullying. 35.1% of the males and 34.1% of females have experienced any 2 of the categories while 11.2% of the males and 12.4% of the females have experienced all the categories of bullying. Results show a non-significant difference between male and female pupils on bullying victimization (χ = .036, P = .849), bullying perpetration (χ = .589, P = .443), and bullying bystander problem (χ = 1.194, P = .275).In conclusion, school bullying is an increasing problem among Nigerian schoolchildren. Initiatives must, therefore, be taken by the Nigerian government to further prevent and counter bullying problem in Nigerian primary schools. Interventions aimed at helping schools to develop effective policies to reduce bullying behaviour among pupils should be initiated.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003218, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A decade of Boko Haram insurgency brought conflict, mass displacement, and the destruction of basic infrastructure to Northeast Nigeria. Over 2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) suffering from lack of basic hygienic conditions, malnutrition, and disease live in camps or are hosted by communities in the region, where the conflict has contributed to a massive destruction of health facilities. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are especially difficult to address under such conditions, and IDPs are vulnerable to both. Although international investment supports some health interventions among IDPs, locally sourced solutions are lacking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the impact of an active case finding (ACF) intervention for TB and testing for HIV in IDP communities and provided linkages to treatment in 3 states in Northeast Nigeria: Adamawa, Gombe, and Yobe. The ACF was a component of a multistakeholder collaboration between government, civil society, and IDP community partners, which also included mapping of IDP populations and health services, supporting existing health facilities, developing a sample transport network, and organizing community outreach to support ACF. Between July 1, 2017, and June 30, 2018, ACF was conducted in 26 IDP camps and 963 host communities in 12 local government areas (LGAs) with another 12 LGAs serving as a control population. Outreach efforts resulted in 283,556 screening encounters. We screened 13,316 children and 270,239 adults including 150,303 (55.6%) adult women and 119,936 (44.4%) men. We tested 17,134 people for TB and 58,976 for HIV. We detected 1,423 people with TB and 874 people living with HIV. We linked 1,419 people to anti-TB treatment and 874 people with HIV to antiretroviral treatment sites. We evaluated additional TB cases notified and conducted comparative interrupted time series (ITS) analyses to assess the impact of ACF on TB case notifications. Through our efforts, bacteriologically confirmed TB notifications increased by 847 (45.1%) during the intervention period, with IDPs accounting for 46% of these notifications. The ITS analyses detected significant positive postintervention trend differences in TB notification rates between the intervention and control areas in all forms TB (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.136 [1.072, 1.204]; p ≤ 0.001) and bacteriologically positive TB (IRR = 1.141 [1.058, 1.229]; p = 0.001). The TB prevalence (502 cases per 100,000 screening encounters) was 10 times the national notification rates and 2.3 times the estimated national incidence. Rates of HIV infection (1.8%) were higher than HIV prevalence estimates in the 3 states. Our study was limited by the nonrandom selection of LGAs. Furthermore, we did not use sensitive screening tools like chest X-ray and likely missed people with TB. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed a burden of TB in IDP populations of Northeast Nigeria many times higher than national rates and HIV rates higher than state level estimates. The impact of the intervention showed that ACF can greatly increase TB case notifications. Engaging IDP communities, local governments, and civil society organizations is essential to ensuring the success of interventions targeting TB and HIV, and such approaches can provide sustained solutions to these and other health crises among vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Refugiados , Adulto Jovem
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e208, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912370

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Nigeria with a view of generating evidence to enhance planning and response strategies. A national surveillance dataset between 27 February and 6 June 2020 was retrospectively analysed, with confirmatory testing for COVID-19 done by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The primary outcomes were cumulative incidence (CI) and case fatality (CF). A total of 40 926 persons (67% of total 60 839) had complete records of RT-PCR test across 35 states and the Federal Capital Territory, 12 289 (30.0%) of whom were confirmed COVID-19 cases. Of those confirmed cases, 3467 (28.2%) had complete records of clinical outcome (alive or dead), 342 (9.9%) of which died. The overall CI and CF were 5.6 per 100 000 population and 2.8%, respectively. The highest proportion of COVID-19 cases and deaths were recorded in persons aged 31-40 years (25.5%) and 61-70 years (26.6%), respectively; and males accounted for a higher proportion of confirmed cases (65.8%) and deaths (79.0%). Sixty-six per cent of confirmed COVID-19 cases were asymptomatic at diagnosis. In conclusion, this paper has provided an insight into the early epidemiology of COVID-19 in Nigeria, which could be useful for contextualising public health planning.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 664, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two major public health problems associated with increasing complications and mortality rates worldwide. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in diabetic patients and to investigate the influence of several epidemiological and clinical factors on HCV infection. METHOD: A total number of one hundred and eighty diabetic patients were recruited for this study. Consented subjects made up of 71(39.4%) males and 109(60.56%) females were recruited for the study. While one-Hundred (100) Non-Diabetics (Controls) were also recruited for the study. Structured questionnaires were administered to the consented participants to obtain relevant data. Sera samples were assayed for antibodies to HCV using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay [Inteco Diagnostic Limited]. ELISA technique. RESULT: Overall prevalence of HCV infection among diabetes patients assayed was 13.3% out of which 8(11.3%) was obtained from the male subjects compared to 16 (14.7%) seropositivity recorded among the females (P = 0.511; P > 0.05). Considering age distribution, Subjects aged 41-50 years recorded, 9 (22.5%) positivity (P = 0.238; P > 0.05).Considering educational status of subjects screened, 22 (14.9%) positivity was rescored among subjects who have attained tertiary status of education.(P = 0.574;P > 0.05).Risk factors considered showed that, 7 (18.9%) seropositive subject were alcoholic consumers(P value = 0.2621;P > 0.05) while 5 (8.9%) recorded history of sharing sharp objects P = 0.2427;P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study shows a slightly higher prevalence of hepatitis C infection in type 2 diabetics. This call for urgent routine screening exercise among diabetic patients for HCV infection. This study also emphasizes the need for public enlightenment on the association between HCV infection and T2DM, to avert possible complications among diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hepatite C/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994228

RESUMO

COVID-19 has demonstrated that most countries' public health systems and capacities are insufficiently prepared to prevent a localised infectious disease outbreak from spreading. Strengthening national preparedness requires National Public Health Institutes (NPHIs), or their equivalent, to overcome practical challenges affecting timely access to, and use of, data that is critical to preparedness. Our situational analysis in collaboration with NPHIs in three countries-Ethiopia, Nigeria and Pakistan-characterises these challenges. Our findings indicate that NPHIs' role necessitates collection and analysis of data from multiple sources that do not routinely share data with public health authorities. Since initiating requests for access to new data sources can be a lengthy process, it is essential that NPHIs are routinely monitoring a broad set of priority indicators that are selected to reflect the country-specific context. NPHIs must also have the authority to be able to request rapid sharing of data from public and private sector organisations during health emergencies and to access additional human and financial resources during disease outbreaks. Finally, timely, transparent and informative communication of synthesised data from NPHIs will facilitate sustained data sharing with NPHIs from external organisations. These actions identified by our analysis will support the availability of robust information systems that allow relevant data to be collected, shared and analysed by NPHIs sufficiently rapidly to inform a timely local response to infectious disease outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e166, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753078

RESUMO

Following the importation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) into Nigeria on 27 February 2020 and then the outbreak, the question is: How do we anticipate the progression of the ongoing epidemic following all the intervention measures put in place? This kind of question is appropriate for public health responses and it will depend on the early estimates of the key epidemiological parameters of the virus in a defined population.In this study, we combined a likelihood-based method using a Bayesian framework and compartmental model of the epidemic of COVID-19 in Nigeria to estimate the effective reproduction number (R(t)) and basic reproduction number (R0) - this also enables us to estimate the initial daily transmission rate (ß0). We further estimate the reported fraction of symptomatic cases. The models are applied to the NCDC data on COVID-19 symptomatic and death cases from 27 February 2020 and 7 May 2020.In this period, the effective reproduction number is estimated with a minimum value of 0.18 and a maximum value of 2.29. Most importantly, the R(t) is strictly greater than one from 13 April till 7 May 2020. The R0 is estimated to be 2.42 with credible interval: (2.37-2.47). Comparing this with the R(t) shows that control measures are working but not effective enough to keep R(t) below 1. Also, the estimated fraction of reported symptomatic cases is between 10 and 50%.Our analysis has shown evidence that the existing control measures are not enough to end the epidemic and more stringent measures are needed.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Nigéria/epidemiologia
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 577, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778965

RESUMO

Reports of environmental problems occasioned from gold mining activities had prompted the groundwater vulnerability prediction/assessment of the study area. This was with a view to identifying factors responsible for the probability of groundwater contamination as well as developing empirical (LR) model and map that predict the probability of occurrence of contaminant(s) with respect to threshold level in the groundwater resources in the study area. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, logistic regression was applied to independent variables obtained from results of the analysis of remote sensing and geophysical data on one hand and dependent variables obtained from analysis of water samples on the other hand. The results of the analysis obtained from water chemistry established that all the physio-chemical parameters and major metallic ions are within the permissible limit. However, zinc concentration (Zn), being the only dependent variable that had two categorical outcomes, was the contaminant utilized for the study. Similarly, only five (5) independent (predictive) variables, which are percent clay in soil, drainage, slope, unsaturated zone thickness, and total longitudinal conductance, were established to have good correlation and statistically significant with the dependent variable, the contaminant, and thus utilized in logistic regression model development. The quantitative assessment of the developed model established that the overall model prediction accuracy was 85.7% suggesting that the model had a very good fit. The probability prediction model was also accurate and reliable with percentage reliability established to be 90%. In conclusion, it is evident from the results obtained from the study that since the model developed was assessed to be accurate and reliable, the model, and hence the technique, can be replicated in another area of similar geologic condition.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ouro , Modelos Logísticos , Mineração , Nigéria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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