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1.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E418-E421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009901

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) hosted a workshop in May of 2020 with a goal of critically evaluating Trauma Team Training courses. The workshop was held virtually because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Twenty-three participants attended from 8 countries: Canada, Guyana, Kenya, Nigeria, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda and the United States. More participants were able to attend the virtual meeting than the traditional in-person meetings. Web-based videoconference software was used, participants presented prerecorded PowerPoint videos, and questions were raised using a written chat. The review proved successful, with discussions and recommendations for improvements surrounding course quality, lecture content, skills sessions, curriculum variations and clinical practical scenarios. The CNIS's successful experience conducting an online curriculum review involving international participants may prove useful to others proceeding with collaborative projects during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Currículo , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Congressos como Assunto/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Guiana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Quênia/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Comunicação por Videoconferência/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874417

RESUMO

Since the first case of COVID-19 and its progression to a pandemic, healthcare systems the world over have experienced severe difficulties coping with patient care for both COVID-19 and other diseases most especially non communicable diseases like cancer. These difficulties in Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially in Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria, are myriad. These LMICs are already bedeviled weak health systems, ill equipped cancer treatment centers, with outdated machines and grossly inadequate numbers of oncologists required to treat patients with cancer. As a result of these challenges coupled with unclear guidelines on how to manage cancer patients in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, 11 key Nigerian opinion leaders had a consensus meeting to identify challenges and possible workable solutions on continuing cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The discussion highlighted ethical issues, barriers to continuing cancer care (such as lockdown, fear of contracting disease, downscaled health services) and resource constraints such unavailable personal protective equipment. Yet, practical solutions were proffered such as necessary protective measures, case by case prioritization or de-prioritization, telemedicine and other achievable means in the Nigerian setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/organização & administração
4.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(4): 153-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908070

RESUMO

The COVID-19 infection has been a matter of urgency to tackle around the world today, there exist 200 countries around the world and 54 countries in Africa that the COVID-19 infection cases have been confirmed. This situation prompted us to look into the challenges African laboratories are facing in the diagnosis of novel COVID-19 infection. A limited supply of essential laboratory equipment and test kits are some of the challenges faced in combatting the novel virus in Africa. Also, there is inadequate skilled personnel, which might pose a significant danger in case there is a surge in COVID-19 infection cases. The choice of diagnostic method in Africa is limited as there are only two available diagnostic methods being used out of the six methods used globally, thereby reducing the opportunity of supplementary diagnosis, which will further lead to inappropriate diagnosis and affect the accuracy of diagnostic reports. Furthermore, challenges like inadequate power supply, the method used in sample collection, storage and transportation of specimens are also significant as they also pose their respective implication. From the observations, there is an urgent need for more investment into the laboratories for proper, timely, and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Virologia/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Orçamentos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral , Virologia/economia , Fluxo de Trabalho
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e208, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912370

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Nigeria with a view of generating evidence to enhance planning and response strategies. A national surveillance dataset between 27 February and 6 June 2020 was retrospectively analysed, with confirmatory testing for COVID-19 done by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The primary outcomes were cumulative incidence (CI) and case fatality (CF). A total of 40 926 persons (67% of total 60 839) had complete records of RT-PCR test across 35 states and the Federal Capital Territory, 12 289 (30.0%) of whom were confirmed COVID-19 cases. Of those confirmed cases, 3467 (28.2%) had complete records of clinical outcome (alive or dead), 342 (9.9%) of which died. The overall CI and CF were 5.6 per 100 000 population and 2.8%, respectively. The highest proportion of COVID-19 cases and deaths were recorded in persons aged 31-40 years (25.5%) and 61-70 years (26.6%), respectively; and males accounted for a higher proportion of confirmed cases (65.8%) and deaths (79.0%). Sixty-six per cent of confirmed COVID-19 cases were asymptomatic at diagnosis. In conclusion, this paper has provided an insight into the early epidemiology of COVID-19 in Nigeria, which could be useful for contextualising public health planning.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 590-602, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970541

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus pandemic has upended the world as we knew it and is a concern for governments globally. With cases still surging in different regions around the globe, the level of knowledge of COVID-19 and compliance with preventive measures still differ across cultural regions. Our study explored knowledge of COVID-19 and compliance with preventive measures among community members in Anambra State, Nigeria, using in-depth interviews (IDI). Data were sourced from 36 persons comprising 30 household heads age 48 years and above and six children age 13-17 years. Data were analyzed thematically. Findings revealed that a majority of the respondents believe that the COVID-19 pandemic is more of a hoax than reality. Other findings showed that this poor knowledge negatively affected their compliance with preventive measures to curb the spread of coronavirus. To improve knowledge on the coronavirus pandemic, we recommended dissemination of accurate information to ensure compliance with preventive measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Distância Social
7.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 511-522, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970546

RESUMO

Covid-19 is a virus that has created tension and devastation around the globe. This study is designed to specifically find out the effect of Covid-19 on the socioeconomic well-being of Nigerians, the health sector preparedness to handle the pandemic, and the role of Nigerian social workers in the fight against Covid-19 in Nigeria. The study employed a phenomenological and exploratory research design in its inquiry. Sixteen respondents made up the sample size for the study. A Focus Group Discussion Guide and an In-Depth Interview Guide were the instruments for data collection. The result of the study shows that the Covid-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on the socioeconomic well-being of Nigerians. Second, the Nigerian health system is ill equipped and underprepared to handle the Covid-19 pandemic. Third, Nigerian social workers, most especially medical social workers, have played a significant role in passing out information on Covid-19 preventive measures to the general public. The study recommends that the Nigerian government should wake up and fix the health sector and make it proactive to handle epidemics/pandemics in the future. Social work practice in Nigeria should be promoted by the government through institutionalization of the profession.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Papel Profissional , Assistentes Sociais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003218, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A decade of Boko Haram insurgency brought conflict, mass displacement, and the destruction of basic infrastructure to Northeast Nigeria. Over 2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) suffering from lack of basic hygienic conditions, malnutrition, and disease live in camps or are hosted by communities in the region, where the conflict has contributed to a massive destruction of health facilities. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are especially difficult to address under such conditions, and IDPs are vulnerable to both. Although international investment supports some health interventions among IDPs, locally sourced solutions are lacking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the impact of an active case finding (ACF) intervention for TB and testing for HIV in IDP communities and provided linkages to treatment in 3 states in Northeast Nigeria: Adamawa, Gombe, and Yobe. The ACF was a component of a multistakeholder collaboration between government, civil society, and IDP community partners, which also included mapping of IDP populations and health services, supporting existing health facilities, developing a sample transport network, and organizing community outreach to support ACF. Between July 1, 2017, and June 30, 2018, ACF was conducted in 26 IDP camps and 963 host communities in 12 local government areas (LGAs) with another 12 LGAs serving as a control population. Outreach efforts resulted in 283,556 screening encounters. We screened 13,316 children and 270,239 adults including 150,303 (55.6%) adult women and 119,936 (44.4%) men. We tested 17,134 people for TB and 58,976 for HIV. We detected 1,423 people with TB and 874 people living with HIV. We linked 1,419 people to anti-TB treatment and 874 people with HIV to antiretroviral treatment sites. We evaluated additional TB cases notified and conducted comparative interrupted time series (ITS) analyses to assess the impact of ACF on TB case notifications. Through our efforts, bacteriologically confirmed TB notifications increased by 847 (45.1%) during the intervention period, with IDPs accounting for 46% of these notifications. The ITS analyses detected significant positive postintervention trend differences in TB notification rates between the intervention and control areas in all forms TB (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.136 [1.072, 1.204]; p ≤ 0.001) and bacteriologically positive TB (IRR = 1.141 [1.058, 1.229]; p = 0.001). The TB prevalence (502 cases per 100,000 screening encounters) was 10 times the national notification rates and 2.3 times the estimated national incidence. Rates of HIV infection (1.8%) were higher than HIV prevalence estimates in the 3 states. Our study was limited by the nonrandom selection of LGAs. Furthermore, we did not use sensitive screening tools like chest X-ray and likely missed people with TB. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed a burden of TB in IDP populations of Northeast Nigeria many times higher than national rates and HIV rates higher than state level estimates. The impact of the intervention showed that ACF can greatly increase TB case notifications. Engaging IDP communities, local governments, and civil society organizations is essential to ensuring the success of interventions targeting TB and HIV, and such approaches can provide sustained solutions to these and other health crises among vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Refugiados , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22409, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991470

RESUMO

Childhood bullying leads to life-long scars and hinders adult development. Schoolchildren involved in bullying are at risk of developing behavioural difficulties, physical health problems and suicidal ideation. This research aimed to evaluate the bullying experience of pupils in Nigerian primary schools.The study is a cross-sectional analytic survey conducted from June to November 2019. A total of 1080 pupils in participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire containing 3 questions was used for collecting data. Analysis of the collected data was done using percentage and Chi-Squared at 0.05 probability level.Results indicate that 51.4% of the male pupils and 50.8% of females reported being victims of bullying. 51.8% of the males and 49.5% of females were found to be perpetrators of bullying. 39.6% of the males and 42.9% of the females were bystanders of bullying. 35.1% of the males and 34.1% of females have experienced any 2 of the categories while 11.2% of the males and 12.4% of the females have experienced all the categories of bullying. Results show a non-significant difference between male and female pupils on bullying victimization (χ = .036, P = .849), bullying perpetration (χ = .589, P = .443), and bullying bystander problem (χ = 1.194, P = .275).In conclusion, school bullying is an increasing problem among Nigerian schoolchildren. Initiatives must, therefore, be taken by the Nigerian government to further prevent and counter bullying problem in Nigerian primary schools. Interventions aimed at helping schools to develop effective policies to reduce bullying behaviour among pupils should be initiated.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 664, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are two major public health problems associated with increasing complications and mortality rates worldwide. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in diabetic patients and to investigate the influence of several epidemiological and clinical factors on HCV infection. METHOD: A total number of one hundred and eighty diabetic patients were recruited for this study. Consented subjects made up of 71(39.4%) males and 109(60.56%) females were recruited for the study. While one-Hundred (100) Non-Diabetics (Controls) were also recruited for the study. Structured questionnaires were administered to the consented participants to obtain relevant data. Sera samples were assayed for antibodies to HCV using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay [Inteco Diagnostic Limited]. ELISA technique. RESULT: Overall prevalence of HCV infection among diabetes patients assayed was 13.3% out of which 8(11.3%) was obtained from the male subjects compared to 16 (14.7%) seropositivity recorded among the females (P = 0.511; P > 0.05). Considering age distribution, Subjects aged 41-50 years recorded, 9 (22.5%) positivity (P = 0.238; P > 0.05).Considering educational status of subjects screened, 22 (14.9%) positivity was rescored among subjects who have attained tertiary status of education.(P = 0.574;P > 0.05).Risk factors considered showed that, 7 (18.9%) seropositive subject were alcoholic consumers(P value = 0.2621;P > 0.05) while 5 (8.9%) recorded history of sharing sharp objects P = 0.2427;P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our study shows a slightly higher prevalence of hepatitis C infection in type 2 diabetics. This call for urgent routine screening exercise among diabetic patients for HCV infection. This study also emphasizes the need for public enlightenment on the association between HCV infection and T2DM, to avert possible complications among diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hepatite C/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(9)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994228

RESUMO

COVID-19 has demonstrated that most countries' public health systems and capacities are insufficiently prepared to prevent a localised infectious disease outbreak from spreading. Strengthening national preparedness requires National Public Health Institutes (NPHIs), or their equivalent, to overcome practical challenges affecting timely access to, and use of, data that is critical to preparedness. Our situational analysis in collaboration with NPHIs in three countries-Ethiopia, Nigeria and Pakistan-characterises these challenges. Our findings indicate that NPHIs' role necessitates collection and analysis of data from multiple sources that do not routinely share data with public health authorities. Since initiating requests for access to new data sources can be a lengthy process, it is essential that NPHIs are routinely monitoring a broad set of priority indicators that are selected to reflect the country-specific context. NPHIs must also have the authority to be able to request rapid sharing of data from public and private sector organisations during health emergencies and to access additional human and financial resources during disease outbreaks. Finally, timely, transparent and informative communication of synthesised data from NPHIs will facilitate sustained data sharing with NPHIs from external organisations. These actions identified by our analysis will support the availability of robust information systems that allow relevant data to be collected, shared and analysed by NPHIs sufficiently rapidly to inform a timely local response to infectious disease outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008486, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976501

RESUMO

In most endemic sub-Saharan African countries, repeated infections with soil-transmitted helminth (STH) occur as early as six weeks after the end of mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole. In this study, we designed a new health educational board game Worms and Ladders and evaluated its potential to complement MDA with albendazole and reduce reinfection rates through the promotion of good hygiene practices among school-aged children. The evaluation employed a randomized control trial (RCT) design. Baseline knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) relating to STH were obtained using a questionnaire from 372 pupils across six schools in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control group, with the former and latter receiving Worms and Ladders and the common Snake and Ladder board game respectively. Fresh stool samples were also collected at baseline for STH diagnosis before administering 400mg single dose albendazole. Follow-up assessments of STH burden and KAP were conducted three and six months' post-intervention. Data generated from the study were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software, with confidence interval set at 95%. Prevalence of STH dropped from 25.0% to 10.4% in the intervention group and 49.4% to 33.3% in the control group at three months' post-intervention. The prevalence further dropped to 5.6% in the intervention group at six months' post-intervention. However, it increased to 37.2% in the control group at six months' post-intervention. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in prevalence after intervention among the groups. KAP on transmission, control and prevention of STH significantly improved (p<0.05) from 5.2% to 97.9% in the intervention group compared to 6.2% to 7.1% in the control group. The Worms and Ladders board game shows the potential to teach and promote good hygiene behavior among SAC. These findings posit the newly developed game as a reliable tool to complement mass drug administration campaigns for STH control.


Assuntos
Jogos Recreativos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870914

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease of public health concern, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these countries have challenges in diagnosis and treatment of TB in people with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPTB), which remains a significant public health challenge because of the global burden of the disease. We evaluated the epidemiology and clinical presentation of SNPTB in a cohort of patients with high HIV burden. The study was a cross-sectional study among patients with SNPTB in four major hospitals that care for TB/HIV patients in north-central Nigeria. All patients 18 years and above who were newly diagnosed as SNPTB, or patients with SNPTB who had not taken TB drugs for up to 2 weeks irrespective of their HIV status were recruited. Demographic data (sex, age), smoking status, and medical history (clinical form of TB, symptoms at admission, diagnostic methods, presence of comorbidities, prior TB treatment) were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical examination was also done on all the study subjects. Baseline results of packed cell volume, HIV test and sputum acid fast bacilli done during TB screening were retrieved from the patients' case notes and recorded. Also, the base line Chest X-ray films taken during TB screening were reviewed and reported by two radiologists blinded to each other's reports. The Xpert MTB/RIF tests and sputum culture (using LJ medium) were done in a TB reference laboratory. A total of 150 patients with SNPTB were studied. Majority of the patients were female 93 (62%). The median age of the patients was 36.5 years with greater percentage of the patients within the ages of 25-44 years 92 (61.3%). Twenty-two (14.7%) of the patients had previous TB treatment. History of cigarette smoking was obtained in only 7(4.7%) of the patients while 82 (64.1%) were HIV positive. All the patients had a history of cough for over a period of at least three weeks, while, 27 (18%) reported having hemoptysis. About 87 (58%) had fever and 110 (73.7%) had anemia, while weight loss and night sweat were reported in 98(65.3%) and 82 (54.7%) of the patients respectively. Chest x rays were reported as typical of TB in only 24 (16%) of the patients. Of the 150 sputa sample analyzed, 21/150 (14.0%) and 22/150 (14.7%) where Gene Xpert and sputum culture positive respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of Gene Xpert assay were 81.8% (18/22; 95% CI 61.5 to 92.7%) and 97.4% (112/115; 95% CI 92.6 to 99.1%), respectively. The study found cough, fever and anemia to be the commonest presentation in patient with SNPTB in a high HIV burden patient's population. There is also relatively high culture positivity among the patients. This underscores the need to expand the facilities for culture and confirmation in TB centers across the country.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Rastreamento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etiologia
15.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 95, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832388

RESUMO

Currently, Nigeria is still at the ascending phase of the COVID-19 curve with no sign of deceleration. Thus, the recent decision by governors of states in northern Nigeria to deport Almajirai (itinerant Islamic school pupils) from their states as part of efforts to contain COVID-19 transmission is likely to have a serious backlash. With hundreds of Almajirai testing positive to COVID-19, and millions of others untested, they constitute ubiquitous nodes of transmission. Their deportation has created multiple emigration channels that constitute prospective feeders to covert community transmission. This viewpoint examines this trend within the context of Nigeria's current [in]capacity to manage the spread of COVID-19 and concludes that greater risks seem to lie ahead unless the government takes stringent containment measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Islamismo , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Política , Pobreza , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas
16.
J World Fed Orthod ; 9(3): 123-128, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had far-reaching effects on orthodontic care delivery worldwide. This study aimed to assess the impacts of the pandemic on orthodontists and orthodontic residents in Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among consenting orthodontists and orthodontic residents. The respondents were contacted through the WhatsApp group of the Nigerian Association of Orthodontists to fill the self-administered online questionnaires (Google forms). The questionnaire had two sections: A, Sociodemographics; B, Perceived impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Descriptive statistics were used to compute mean and standard deviation and chi-square for association. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: This study population comprised 98 people; however, only 73 participants responded, which represented a response rate of 74.5%. Approximately 60% (44) of the respondents thought that the COVID-19 pandemic would lead to a reduction in the number of orthodontic patients in the future, whereas almost all the respondents reported that it would affect their future practice of orthodontics. Most of the respondents (63.0%) reported that the pandemic had recorded a moderate to severe negative economic impact on them. Significant gender differences were recorded, in the social life of respondents, in addition to economic and psychosocial effects. CONCLUSIONS: Almost all respondents reported that they would change their future practice of orthodontics, particularly with respect to placing a greater emphasis on infection control. Most of the respondents reported perceived economic, psychosocial, and social impacts due to the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ortodontistas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787399

RESUMO

The older persons in our society are a special group of people in need of additional measures of care and protection. They have medical, financial, emotional and social needs. The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) only exacerbates those needs. COVID-19 is a new disease, and there is limited information regarding the disease. Based on currently available information, older persons and people of any age who have serious underlying medical conditions may be at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Family physicians provide care for individuals across their lifespan. Because geriatricians are internists or family physicians with post-residency training in geriatric medicine, they are major stakeholders in geriatric care. The authors are concerned about the absence of a COVID-19 response guideline/special advisory targeting the vulnerable population of older adults. The management and response to COVID-19 will be implemented in part based on the local context of available resources. Nigeria has been described as a resource-constrained nation. Infection prevention in older persons in Nigeria will far outweigh the possibilities of treatment given limited resources. The aim was to recommend actionable strategies to prevent COVID-19-related morbidity or mortality among older persons in Nigeria and to promote their overall well-being during and after the pandemic. These recommendations cut across the geriatric medicine domains of physical health, mental health, functioning ability and socio-environmental situation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Médicos de Família/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Idoso , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia
18.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e166, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753078

RESUMO

Following the importation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) into Nigeria on 27 February 2020 and then the outbreak, the question is: How do we anticipate the progression of the ongoing epidemic following all the intervention measures put in place? This kind of question is appropriate for public health responses and it will depend on the early estimates of the key epidemiological parameters of the virus in a defined population.In this study, we combined a likelihood-based method using a Bayesian framework and compartmental model of the epidemic of COVID-19 in Nigeria to estimate the effective reproduction number (R(t)) and basic reproduction number (R0) - this also enables us to estimate the initial daily transmission rate (ß0). We further estimate the reported fraction of symptomatic cases. The models are applied to the NCDC data on COVID-19 symptomatic and death cases from 27 February 2020 and 7 May 2020.In this period, the effective reproduction number is estimated with a minimum value of 0.18 and a maximum value of 2.29. Most importantly, the R(t) is strictly greater than one from 13 April till 7 May 2020. The R0 is estimated to be 2.42 with credible interval: (2.37-2.47). Comparing this with the R(t) shows that control measures are working but not effective enough to keep R(t) below 1. Also, the estimated fraction of reported symptomatic cases is between 10 and 50%.Our analysis has shown evidence that the existing control measures are not enough to end the epidemic and more stringent measures are needed.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Nigéria/epidemiologia
19.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 164-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820727

RESUMO

Background: Quality of life (QOL) is a vital outcome measure in people living with epilepsy. The aim of this study is to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that predict poor QOL in patients with epilepsy. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that was carried out at the outpatient psychiatric clinic of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria, for 6 months. Seventy-four patients with epilepsy who met the inclusion criteria were recruited to participate in the study. The mental health of these patients and their QOL were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the short form of the World Health Organization QOL instrument, respectively. Data were analyzed using epi-info version 6.04d, and logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors that predict poor QOL. Results: Psychiatric disorder was found in 33 (44.6%) of the respondents. The presence of these psychiatric disorders was predictive of poor score on the overall QOL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.382; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.145-0.983; P = 0.0046), physical (OR = 0.269; 95% CI = 0.100-1.722; P = 0.009), and psychological health domain (OR = 0.269; 95% CI = 0.102-0.709; P = 0.008). Longer duration of epilepsy was predictive of a poor score on the health satisfaction item (OR = 0.202; 95% CI = 0.06-0.679; P = 0.010) while being single was predictive of poor score on the social relationship domain (OR = 0.177; 95% CI = 0.065-0.482; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The presence of psychiatric disorder, long duration of epilepsy, and being single were predictive of poor QOL. The importance of social relation, prompt seizure control, and efficient collaboration between psychiatrist and other medical professionals in the care of patients with epilepsy cannot be overemphasized.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Epilepsia/complicações , Epilepsia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Convulsões/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
20.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 176-181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820729

RESUMO

Objectives: The study sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBsAg) positivity among pregnant women in Jos, Nigeria. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study carried out among the pregnant population in five healthcare facilities in Jos, between November 1, 2017 and April 30, 2018. Informed consent was obtained, and data on sociodemographic and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were collected. Hepatitis B viral infection was assessed using the in vitro HBsAg diagnostic rapid kit (Acon Laboratories, USA). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were performed to identify predictors of HBV infection in the study population. All statistical analyses were carried out on STATA version 15. Results: Of the 3,238 women enrolled, 7.4% (241/3238) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.6% to 8.4%) were HBsAg positive. The absence of HBV vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.49-4.09; P < 0.001), co-infection with HIV (AOR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.18-3.08; P = 0.009), and higher parity (AOR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.04-1.79; P = 0.024) were independently associated with HBV infection in pregnancy. Conclusions: The prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women was high, especially among those without prior vaccination for HBV, those with HIV co-infection and higher parity.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adulto , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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