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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692856

RESUMO

Introduction: Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) may be on the increase as a result of changing lifestyles. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DH and relative importance of associated factors in 18-35 year old Nigerians and compare to findings from a similar European study. Methods: Following ethical approval, 1349 subjects from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria participated in this cross sectional study. DH was clinically evaluated by cold air tooth stimulation, patient pain rating (yes/no) and investigator rated pain using the Schiff ordinal scale (0-3). Erosive tooth wear using the BEWE index was assessed. A questionnaire regarding the nature of the DH, erosive dietary intakes, tooth brushing habits and other factors was completed by patients. Bivariate analysis was conducted. Results: 32.8% of patients reported pain on tooth stimulation and 32.9% scored ≥1 on Schiff scale for at least one tooth. Questionnaire reported sensitivity was 41.2%. There were statistically significant associations between Schiff score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001); and BEWE erosive tooth wear score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001). There were significant associations between DH and some oral hygiene practices such as brushing frequency, brush movement and brushing after breakfast. Fresh fruit and fruit/vegetable juice intake also showed significant association. Conclusion: The most important risk factors of DH for this population in Nigeria appear to be the frequency and characteristics of tooth brushing. This should be considered in its prevention and management.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Desgaste dos Dentes/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692869

RESUMO

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the commonest gynaecological malignancy and the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Several epidemiological, clinical and molecular studies have strongly implicated oncogenic high-risk human papillomavirus infection in the aetiopathogenesis of cervical cancer. The objectives of this study were to determine the cervical HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in cervical cancer in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Methods: This was a descriptive and retrospective study. Sixty-three archived paraffin-embedded tissue blocks with confirmed diagnoses of cervical cancer during the study period (2013-2015) were retrieved and examined. The procedure included deparaffinization of tissue samples, DNA extraction, PCR, gel electrophoresis, and HPV genotyping by reverse hybridization line probe assay. Results: Sixty-three cervical cancer cases were subjected to genomic DNA extraction and HPV-DNA detection by PCR. Fifty-eight samples showed PCR positivity while 5 samples were PCR negative. HPV-specific DNA was detected in 44 of the 58 PCR-positive samples and thus the prevalence was 69.8%. Ten different high-risk HPV genotypes were detected. Both single and multiple high-risk HPV infections were observed. The most prevalent type of the human papillomavirus detected was HPV16. Conclusion: HPV-DNA was prevalent in majority of the examined cervical cancer tissues and that HPV16, HPV18, HPV45, HPV51 and HPV52 were the predominant HPVs detected in both single and multiple HPV infections. The results of this study and further studies will provide more detailed information about HPV and may contribute significantly to the prevention of cervical cancer through primary high-risk HPV testing and HPV vaccination against the oncogenic viruses.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , DNA Viral , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692769

RESUMO

Introduction: Pediatric traumatic injury is a major public health concern that is poorly documented in lower and middle-income countries. This study analyzed data on pediatric injuries from a unique hospital trauma registry in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: Data were analyzed on 220 traumatically injured patients aged 21 years/less to describe injury characteristics and to determine the association between mechanism of injury and pediatric head injuries in Abuja, Nigeria, between 2014 and 2015. Bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square and adjusted logistic regression were conducted to characterize the population and identify risk factors for head injury. P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA v.15.1. Results: The majority of patients were male (60.9%) with a mean age (SD) of 12.5±6.9 years. Head injuries were most common (49.6%), followed by chest (14.1%), abdomen (12.3%) and back (7.7%). The mechanism of injury was statistically significantly associated with head injury (p=0.027) with 63% of children in a motor vehicle accident sustaining a head injury. After adjusting for covariates, the odds of head injury were 3.8 times higher for children injured in a motor vehicle accidents (MVA) compared to those with falls (95%CI 1.40-10.40). Conclusion: This analysis reveals that motor vehicle accident is a risk factor for traumatic head injury among children in Nigeria. Therefore, efforts should be made to address motor vehicle accidents involving children. These data will help to inform age-related prevention and treatment strategies. The results of this study highlight the importance of collecting pediatric trauma data in developing countries.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 195-198, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621657

RESUMO

Background: The presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B*57:01 allele predicts hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to abacavir (ABC), a nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor used for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment. However, the prevalence of this allele amongst Nigerians with HIV is yet to be established. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HLA-B*57:01 allele amongst Nigerians with HIV infection. Methods: We conducted a multicentre cross-sectional epidemiologic survey. Between April 2016 and April 2017, patients were enrolled across five HIV treatment facilities in Nigeria. Participants' demographic information and their history of ABC exposure were obtained, and venous blood was obtained for HLA typing. Results: One thousand five hundred and four (1504) adults were enrolled, with a mean age of 44.6 ± 10.7 years, 1078 (71.7%) were female. 1463 (97.3%) were on antiretroviral therapy. ABC use was reported by 12 (0.8%) participants and none reported HSR. Of 1500 blood samples that were processed, 1458 (97.2%) were successfully typed. Of these, 132 (9.1%) were HLA-B*57 positive using non-specific low-resolution HLA-B*5701 primer mix. On further analysis, none of the 132 samples (0%) had the HLA-B*5701 allele. Conclusion: HLA-B*5701allele is rare amongst Nigerians.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Didesoxinucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Didesoxinucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Antígenos HLA-B/sangue , Antígenos HLA-B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos
5.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 199-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621658

RESUMO

Context: Proper use of protective eyewear (PEW) is important in the prevention of occupational eye injury. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the ocular morbidity and utilisation of PEW among carpenters in Mushin Local Government, Lagos, with a view to promoting ocular health and safety in the workplace. Subject and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of one hundred and fourteen (114) carpenters that were enrolled into the study. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on socio-demographics, work-related ocular history, awareness and utilisation of, as well as barriers to utilisation of PEW. Ophthalmic examination was done. In-depth interviews were also carried out to probe the barriers to utilisation of PEW. Quantitative responses were analysed using the IBM SPSS software, and content data analysis was performed for qualitative responses. Results: The prevalence of reported work-related eye injury and complaints were 30.7% and 32.5%, respectively. The prevalence of ocular morbidity among the respondents was 74.6%. Seventy-seven respondents (67.5%) were aware of PEW; only 21.1% owned PEW, whereas the utilisation level was 26.3%. In-depth interviews revealed ignorance, forgetfulness, and unfamiliarity as the key barriers to PEW use. The odds of using PEW were about three-fold with previous eye injury at work and history of eye complaint. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a significant prevalence of ocular morbidity and poor utilisation of PEW among carpenters in Mushin, Lagos. There was a significant relationship between previous eye injury or complaint and PEW use. Thus, there is a need to create awareness among carpenters and develop occupational safety policies to improve the use of PEW.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Oculares/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Traumatismos Oculares/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Governo Local , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 205-210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621659

RESUMO

Background: Knowledge of the ophthalmic manifestations of leukaemia is important not only because of the frequency with which changes are seen but because the eye often reflects the disease state of the illness, and once identified, prompt referral, early treatment can be instigated, blindness can be averted and a life may be saved. These manifestations are often overlooked because of the underestimation of the magnitude of the ocular sequelae which may be blinding. Aim: This study aims to describe the ophthalmic findings in adult leukaemic patients at two teaching hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This was a clinic-based, comparison multicentre study conducted at Lagos University Teaching Hospital and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital over a 9-month period of May 2012-January 2013. The cases were newly diagnosed leukaemic patients (acute and chronic) from the haematology clinics. Controls were escorts of apparently normal patients. Detailed ocular examination was carried out after written informed consent was obtained. Analysis was done using SPSS 17. Results: A total of 160 eyes in 80 individuals examined comprised forty cases and forty controls. The results of the cases were compared with the age- and sex-matched controls. Leukaemic-related ophthalmic manifestations were present in 56 eyes (70.0%) of the cases studied. Findings in cases were periorbital oedema in 8 eyes (10%), subconjunctival haemorrhage in four eyes (5%), intraretinal haemorrhage as found in 25 eyes (31.3%), retinal venous tortuosity in 21 eyes (26.3%), Roth spots in 19 eyes (23.8%) and retinal infiltrates in 17 eyes (21.3%). Conclusion: Ophthalmic disorders occur in adult patients living with leukaemia. Prompt initial and periodic ophthalmic evaluation is recommended in all leukaemic patients.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/etiologia , Olho/patologia , Leucemia/complicações , Hemorragia Retiniana/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Hemorragia Retiniana/epidemiologia
7.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 211-215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621660

RESUMO

Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that rates of drug use and abuse in Nigeria exceed the global average. There is a strong treatment demand for psychoactive drug use disorders in Nigeria; however, it is not known whether available treatment facilities are attending to the array of treatment needs. This audit compares the pattern of presentations at a tertiary facility with a community-based survey. Methods: A review of cases (n = 212) seen at a regional drug treatment facility over a 4-year period, using local data retrieved from the Nigerian Epidemiological Network of Drug Use (NENDU) and comparison with data from the recently published national drug use survey. Results: Nine out of ten clients seen were male (93.4%). About half (49.5%) of the clients used psychoactive substances for the first time between ages 10 and 19 years. Cannabis was the primary drug of use overall and also among males, while females were more likely to present with opiate abuse. Over half had a co-occurring physical or mental disorder, and a minority had received testing for hepatitis C in the past 12 months. Conclusion: Although patterns of drug abuse presentations were consistent with findings from a national community-based survey, there was an under-representation of females in treatment. Implications for policy development and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/reabilitação , Criança , Comorbidade/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 230-234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621663

RESUMO

Context: Alcoholism or alcohol use disorder (AUD) is common among the elderly, though under-recognised and underreported. This under-reporting is especially so in Africa, including Nigeria where there is near absence of study on the subject matter. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of alcoholism amongst geriatric patients at the general practice clinic (GPC) of a teaching hospital and to assess some associated socio-demographic factors. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional and descriptive, conducted at the GPC of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Four hundred and twenty-two geriatric outpatients completed the geriatric version of the Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test and a socio-demographic data collection sheet. Cross-tabulation of categorical variables was performed by means of IBM SPSS statistics for windows version 19.0, with the level of significance set at P <0.05. Results: The prevalence of AUD was 10.2%; the prevalence amongst males and females was 18.1% and 5.3%, respectively. AUD was present in 14.4%, 6.84% and 4.55% of those who had marital conflict, chronic pain and difficulty with walking, respectively. Sex, age group, financial difficulty, chronic pain and difficulty with walking were significantly associated with AUD. Conclusions: The prevalence of AUD amongst geriatric patients is relatively high. The deleterious effects of alcoholism may be worse in the elderly due to changes that occur with aging and their likelihood to be on medications that may interact adversely with alcohol.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Medicina Geral , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 235-238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621664

RESUMO

Context: Ectopic pregnancy is a common life-threatening emergency and a notable cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of ectopic gestation, the associated risk factors, the pattern of presentation and management of ectopic pregnancy in Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital (DASH) Lafia. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all cases of ectopic pregnancy managed at the gynaecological unit of the DASH Lafia, North-central Nigeria from 1st January, 2013 to 31st December, 2017. The data were analysed with simple descriptive statistics and were reported as frequencies and percentages. Results: During the 5-year period, there were a total of 93 ectopic pregnancies, 10,401 deliveries and 3399 gynaecological admissions in the hospital. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy was 0.89% of all deliveries and 2.74% of all the gynaecological admissions. The majority of the patients were in the age group of 26-30 years, and significant number of the affected them were nulliparous, 30 (32.3%). Furthermore, majority of the patients had past history of sexually transmitted diseases 48 (51.6%), multiple sexual partners 40 (43.0%) and induced abortions. Abdominal pains, amenorrhoea and vaginal bleeding were the most common presenting complaints. Unilateral salpingectomy was done for majority of the patients. Conclusions: Ectopic pregnancy is an important gynaecological challenge associated with notable morbidity. Past history of sexually transmitted diseases, multiple sexual partners and induced abortions were the associated risk factors identified, and nulliparous women were mostly affected. This can limit their future reproductive accomplishments. Targeted health education campaigns should be embarked on to enlighten this group of women and the public at large.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Gravidez Ectópica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 239-243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621665

RESUMO

Background: Congenital anomalies (CAs) refer to defects that are present in a newborn but occurred during intrauterine life. They can be due to genetic, modifiable environmental or multifactorial causes. There was no prior report of their burden in our state. Aims: This study aims to describe the incidence, spectrum, predisposing factors and outcome of CAs in our setting. Methods: It was a total population study of all neonates with major birth defects admitted into the unit during the study period. Their clinical-demographic features, diagnoses and outcome were entered into an excel sheet. Clinical detection of birth defects was based on standard diagnostic criteria. The data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Patterns and outcome of birth defects were presented as proportions. Selected characteristics were tested for possible association with birth defect using Fisher's exact test. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The incidence of major CAs was 4.3/1000 live births. Female neonates were more affected (59.0%). Participants' mean gestational age was 37.7 ± 3.3 weeks. Central nervous system anomalies were the most common (38.5%) birth defects. These were followed by musculoskeletal, body wall and digestive system anomalies: 28.2%, 23.1% and 10.3%, respectively. One-third (33.3%) of the infants had multiple anomalies. Nearly three quarters of them (74.0%) were referred, 18.0% died while 5.0% were discharged alive. Conclusion: A wide range of CAs occur in our setting with dire consequences. Provision of relevant specialised multidisciplinary care is desirable. Furthermore, pubic enlightenment on its modifiable possible causes can reduce the burden.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Criança , Anormalidades Congênitas/classificação , Estudos Transversais , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia
11.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 199-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection in pregnant women is a known cause of low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). This study compared the birth weight for gestational age (GA) of HIV exposed and non-exposed babies in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, (NAUTH) Nnewi, Nigeria. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective comparative appraisal of birth weights for GA of babies born to HIV- positive and negative women, over a 7-year period (January 2009-December 2015), was conducted. Data were abstracted from PMTCT database, ANC and Labor ward registers of NAUTH. RESULTS: A total of 3459 babies (1782 males, 1677 females) were enrolled, out of which 1829 were HIV- exposed and 1630 were not. GA spanned from 26-42 weeks (mean 38.7 ± 2.2 weeks) and birth weights (BW) from 400-5300g (mean 3072.5 ± 630g). The mean BW of exposed babies was significantly lower than the unexposed babies (p=0.048). LBW occurred in 12.0% of exposed and 13.5% of non-exposed babies (p<0.001). Using either percentile or Z-score cut-offs, HIV-exposed babies had twice the proportion of SGA compared to their non-exposed counterparts. Using Z-score, maternal antiretroviral use for >5 years was significantly associated with the lowest proportion of SGA compared to shorter duration of use. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV infection is associated with SGA. However, maternal ARV use in excess of 5 years is associated with better BW outcome. Targeted enhancement of maternal nutrition and strict adherence to ARV therapy prior to and during pregnancy will improve birth outcome.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Soronegatividade para HIV , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
12.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 205-210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Halitosis is a common cause of dental consulta-tion. Patients presenting with primary complaint of halitosis consist of dissatisfied people with genuine and pseudo-halitosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the demographic and clinico-pathologic features of patients presenting with primary complaint of halitosis as well as evaluate the treatment outcome. METHODS: Consenting patients presenting with primary complaint of halitosis from 1st of March to 31st August, 2015 were recruited. All had intraoral examination, were screened for psychiatric morbidity and halitosis using the organoleptic method. Data concerning the complaint of halitosis was retrieved from all through an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. All the patients were educated on the aetiology of halitosis, those with oral disease were treated and all had scaling and polishing, oral hygiene instruction/motivation in addition to hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse for two weeks. Patients' opinions were sought concerning the presence/intensity of halitosis at two weeks and six months post treatment. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients with a mean age of 38.48 years and male:female ratio of 1.3 were recruited. Intraoral pathology was observed in 48.4% of patients. None of the patients smoked cigarette or pipe. Twenty patients (64.5%) had been informed of the foulness of their breath by at least one person in the past; the information generated negative feelings in 19 of them. Six patients had psychiatric morbidity which was significantly associated with female gender and presence of body odour. At two weeks post treatment, 54.8% of patients were free of halitosis, while at six months only 25.8% were free. CONCLUSION: The patients who complained of halitosis were non-smokers with a mean age of 38.48±14.0 years. Intraoral pathologies were found in fifteen (15) patients, while six (6) had psychiatry morbidity. About half of the patients and about a quarter were free of halitosis following scaling and polishing and two weeks' hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse at 2 weeks and 6 months' reviews, respectively.


Assuntos
Halitose/epidemiologia , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Halitose/diagnóstico , Halitose/etiologia , Halitose/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 217-221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placenta praevia is the most common cause of antepartum haemorrhage. It is a potentially life threatening condition associated with morbidity and mortality. There is no study on the pattern and management of placenta praevia in Sagamu. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk factors, pattern of presentation and management outcome of pregnancies complicated by placenta praevia. DESIGN: This was a five-year retrospective study Setting: Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant information was retrieved from the case notes of all patients who presented with placenta praevia from 1st January, 2013 to 31st December, 2017. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 21. RESULTS: Out of the 5124 deliveries, there were 47 cases of placenta praevia giving a prevalence of 0.92%. Twenty-one subjects (50%) were within 31-40 years age group. The modal parity was 1. Twenty women (47.6%) had parity of 1-2. Thirty subjects (71.4%) were unbooked. Painless vaginal bleeding was the commonest mode of presentation in 30(73.8%) women while Type III was the commonest grade 15(35.7%). Nineteen subjects (45.2%) had no identifiable risk factors. Postpartum haemorrage was the most common complication (23.8%). There was no maternal death while the perinatal mortality was 13.5%. There was no significant association between booking status, type of placenta praevia, mode of delivery, blood loss at delivery, and the one minute APGAR score. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of placenta praevia in Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital is comparable with other tertiary facilities in Nigeria. Upgrading comprehensive emergency obstetric services, improving neonatal services and a multidisciplinary approach to management of all cases will ensure good outcome for the mother and baby.


Assuntos
Placenta Prévia/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Placenta Prévia/epidemiologia , Placenta Prévia/terapia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 222-231, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and use of HIV Testing Services in Nigeria is still far from optimal. Good HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes are important in prevention. The aim of this study was to assess and compare HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and the uptake of HIV Testing Services between male and female senior secondary school students in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: Using multistage sampling, 543 (50.3% male, 49.7 % female) participants were selected in a comparative cross-sectional study carried out in six senior secondary schools in Alimosho LGA, Lagos. Data was collected using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS- 20, p<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Participants' level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS was good (86.4% male, 86.3% female), the difference was not statistically significant. The main source of HIV/AIDS information was their teachers (male - 53.6%, female - 49.3%). Attitudes were positive (99.3% males, 98.1% females). However, the uptake of HIV testing was low (27.8% male, 24.1% female). Only 41.8% of males and 34.1% of females knew where HIV Testing Services were offered. The uptake of HIV testing showed a significant association, for the males, with family structure (p=0.034), confiding in their fathers (p=0.039) and religion (p=0.044), and for the females, mothers' level of education (p=0.036), number of siblings (p=0.044) and alcohol use (p=0.006). CONCLUSION: In both groups, knowledge and attitude were optimal, however. the uptake of HIV testing was low due to poor access. Teaching about HIV/AIDS in schools should be sustained, but to improve the use of HIV Testing Services, stronger families are encouraged, though providing more HIV testing centers, especially Youth Friendly Centers should be considered.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 246-252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Disclosure of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) sero-status is a difficult process that involves communication of information about a potentially stigmatizing and transmissible illness. Despite this, it is important for preventing HIV infection and mitigating its impacts. This study aimed to assess the rate and determinants of self-disclosure of HIV sero-status among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) attending an Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Clinic in North Central Nigeria with a view to promoting self- disclosure as an intervention for secondary prevention of HIV/AIDS. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study involving 325 consenting adults aged 18 to 65 years PLHIV attending ART clinic who were recruited using systematic random sampling method. Data collected from the participants include socio-demographic data and medical history. The rate and factors affecting self-disclosure of HIV sero-status were obtained by using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 Results: Most of the participants (66.2%) were females. 96% of the participants had disclosed their HIV sero-status. Self-disclosure of HIV sero-status had statistically significant association with age (c2 = 12.614; p = 0.027) and gender (c2 = 4.638; p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Self-disclosure of HIV sero-status was high among the participants. Being female and within 15-44 year age group were statistically significant factors associated with disclosure of HIV sero-status. Multiple counselling sessions are needed to improve disclosure particularly in males and older PLHIV as self-disclosure of HIV sero-status is a process that requires ongoing support and encouragement.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
16.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 262-266, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concern over the impact of playing wind instruments on the stomatognathic system has increased in the last few decades with many health practitioners attending to an increasing number of musical instrument players. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effects of playing wind musical instruments on the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) of male Nigerian adults. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study which was conducted in the Dental clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Fifty male Wind Instrument Players (WIPs) were recruited for the study and compared with fifty non-Wind Instrument Players (non-WIPs) of the same age, gender and environment. The temporomandibular dysfunction was assessed in both groups using Helkimo index. Reliability test demonstrated an excellent intra-rater correlation (Cronbach's Alpha; 0.98). Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 and statistical significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: The majority of participants in the WIP group (32, 64%) had mild to severe anamnestic dysfunction score compared with (20, 40.0%) in the non-WIP group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). The class of instruments played, number of years and frequency of play had a significant negative impact on the anamnestic dysfunction of the TMJ with statistically significant difference (p<0.05). No statistically significant differences in clinical dysfunction scores were observed in the two groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Playing wind instruments including the class of instrument, number of years and frequency of playing affected the TMJ function, especially anamnesis. Clinical dysfunction was not affected by playing wind instruments.


Assuntos
Música , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/etiologia , Articulação Temporomandibular/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/fisiopatologia
17.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 267-273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is known to constitute a huge economic burden to its sufferers and their carers. There is a dearth of studies documenting this burden among asthmatics in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the relationship between economic cost and psychiatric morbidity among stable Nigerian patients with asthma. METHODS: 85 patients with asthma completed a socio-demographic and illness-related questionnaire, the modified Economic Cost Questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ 12). Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, illness related variables, psychiatric morbidity and the direct, indirect and total costs in relation to asthma were assessed. RESULTS: The average annual total, direct and indirect cost were $309, $190.65 and $118.34 respectively per patient for subjects with asthma. Direct cost constituted 62.7% while the indirect cost was 38.3% of the total cost for asthma. Drugs and hospitalisation were leading contributors to direct costs for asthma. Psychiatric morbidity was found to be present in 35% of subjects with asthma, those with psychiatric morbidity had a higher economic burden. CONCLUSION: The economic cost of asthma is high, psychiatric morbidity increases this cost. The cost is largely due to drugs and hospitalisations for exacerbation. There is an urgent need to optimize means of helping to minimize this cost and increase measures for detecting and treating psychiatric morbidity.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/economia , Asma/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos e Análise de Custo , Custos Diretos de Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Morbidade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
18.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 274-279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622491

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite increasing awareness, sexual abuse of children is still prevalent in the society. This is due to lack of unified description of what constitutes child sexual abuse. This study is aimed to highlight the pattern of sexual abuse among secondary school adolescents in Rivers State. METHODS: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey carried out among secondary school adolescents in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State in 2014. Multistage sampling was employed to recruit study participants. A semi structured pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain necessary information on socio-demographic characteristics of participants and the pattern of sexual abuse. Discretion of information obtained was guaranteed. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Bivariate analysis was by Chi square test while test for association between two subgroups was by odd ratio, the level of significance was put at P < 0.05. RESULTS: 1298 adolescents participated in the study, 462 (35.6%) had experienced sexual abuse. The victims consists of 176(38.1%) males and 286 (61.9%) females. (c² =12.02, p = < 0.001). Gender was significantly associated with penetrative (p= 0.006, OR=1.74, CI=1.15 -2.64) and contact with no penetrative ( p=<0.001 , ROR= 2.42, CI= 0.26-0.64) forms of sexual abuse. Adult males were the major perpetrators with adolescents themselves constituting 33.1% of the perpetrators. 33% of the perpetrators were family acquaintances while family members and classmates constituted 20.6% and 22.7% of the perpetrators respectively, with house helps accounting for 18.0% and teachers 3.0 %. About fifty percent of the abuse occurred at the victim's residence. CONCLUSION: Sexual abuse of minors is prevalent in Port Harcourt. The perpetrators are mainly adult males known to the victims. Child perpetrators are not uncommon, with the victims experiencing various forms of sexual abuse. Interventional program designed to create awareness to the public on the enormity of sexual abuse of children is needed so as to arm guardians, parents and even the children on how to prevent such crime.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Menores de Idade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1910-1923, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656474

RESUMO

Background: There is a high prevalence of paediatric emergency cases in less developed countries. However, prolonged hospital stay at emergency units may further overstretch the facilities. Objective: To assess the patterns of presentations, services offered and predictors of a prolonged stay at the Children Emergency Room of a tertiary hospital in Southern Nigeria. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional, study was conducted at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Nigeria from 1st January-31st December 2014. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of consecutively recruited children (n=633) were recorded in a proforma. Binary logistic regression was conducted to determine predictors of prolonged stay (>72 hours). Result: The median age of participants was 2 (1 - 4.6) years. Three-fifths of children were admitted at off-hours and the commonest symptom was fever (73.9%). About 16.4% (95%CI:13.6% - 19.4%, n= 103/633) of the children had prolonged stay while those with sepsis had the longest mean stay (65.5±72.1 hours). Children admitted on account of Sickle cell disease (OR:11.2, 95%CI:1.3-95.1, P-value = 0.03), Malaria (OR:10.7, 95%CI:1.4-82.5, P-value = 0.02) or sepsis (OR:10.5, 95%CI:1.3 - 82.7, P-value = 0.03) had higher odds of prolonged hospital stay. There was no significant difference in hospital stay among children admitted by the consultant as compared to other health personnel (P-value = 0.08). Conclusion: Prevention and proper management of Sickle cell disease and malaria reduces paediatric hospital stay in our environment. Paediatric emergency medicine should be re-organized to cater for high volume of off-hour admissions.


Assuntos
Emergências/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1938-1946, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656477

RESUMO

Background: Co-infection of HBV with HIV is associated with significant morbidity and mortality globally. In spite of increasing reports of HIV/HBV co-morbidities in Nigeria, little or no data exists on this subject in Anyigba. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia among HIV positive patients on anti-retroviral treatment programme in Anyigba, Kogi State, North-Central Nigeria. Methods: Sera samples obtained from 200 consented HIV patients were screened for HBsAg using the commercial rapid test membrane-based qualitative immunoassay. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on patients' demographic variables and probable risk factors for HBV transmission. Results: Overall, 3.5% of HIV patients were seropositive to HBsAg and the difference between seroprevalence rates and patients' age as well as gender was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was significant difference between patients' demographic variables such as marital status (p=0.013) and educational level (p=0.004) and HBsAg seropositivity. Patients with a history of surgical applications (p=0.01) and who indulged in alcoholism (p=0.03) significantly had higher rates of concomitant HIV/HBV infection in the study area. Conclusion: Our findings underscore the importance of routine screening for HBV in the HIV infected populations especially in developing countries where the infection is endemic. We advocate for public enlightenment programmes on routes of virus acquisitions with a view to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated HIV/HBV co-infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
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