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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(9): 1268-1276, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531336

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies have reported increasing prevalence of childhood asthma in Nigeria and other developing countries where there are parallel increases in school enrolments. Children with asthma face lots of challenges in school which can affect their academic performance and quality of life. This narrative review highlights the challenges and the risks of schooling encountered by Nigerian children with asthma and the prospects of utilizing the School Health Programme (SHP) to overcome these challenges. An electronic search of relevant published articles from 2000 to 2020 was carried out using appropriate search engines for the following words: "schooling", "childhood asthma", "school health programme", "school environment," "health instructions", "school health services" and "asthma care in schools". The challenges and risks the school age asthmatics encounter in school include discrimination and victimization, exposure to triggers on the road and in the school environment, poor and non-existence asthma care services in schools, suboptimal knowledge of teachers and caregivers about childhood asthma hence poor asthma-related instructions and increased school absenteeism. The prospects of SHP as a tool to overcome these challenges are highlighted. These include the roles expected to be played by all stakeholders - the government and education authorities need to revise and more effectively implement the school health policy. The roles of asthma care professionals include the need to "adopt" schools to ensure optimal asthma care for the school population and the all-important enlightenment of teachers, school health workers, parents/caregivers and school children for overall improved asthma care delivery in Nigerian schools.


Assuntos
Asma , Qualidade de Vida , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(9): 1300-1306, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531341

RESUMO

Objectives: The study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries in primary school children. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 657 primary school children from South East, Nigeria. Data on age, sex, birth rank, dental visits, oral hygiene status, and enamel defects were collected. The presence of dental caries was recorded by using the World Health Organization criteria. Mean DMFT/dmft scores were determined and SPSS version 21 was used for analysis. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were conducted and P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study participants were 316 (48.1%) males and 341 (51.9%) females, and their mean age was 8.41 ± 2.18 years. The prevalence of caries was 22.7% while the mean DMFT and dmft scores were 0.10 and 0.45, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed a significant association between birth rank (P = 0.04), oral hygiene status (P = 0.05), enamel defects (P < 0.001), and dental caries. Multivariate regression analysis showed that good oral hygiene (OR = 0.180, CI: 0.036-1.003, P = 0.04), fair oral hygiene (OR = 0.576, CI: 0.345-0.993, P = 0.04) and enamel defects (OR = 4.939, CI = 2.406-10.137, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of caries in this study. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries in this study was high. Oral hygiene and enamel defects were predictors of dental caries in the study population.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(9): 1321-1325, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531344

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and presentation of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in Nigerians. Methods: A cross-sectional, multicenter, hospital-based, descriptive study. Data were collected prospectively between January and December 2018, from consecutive patients diagnosed to have a retina disease at the general outpatient and retinal clinics of four eye departments in Nigeria. All participants had visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure, anterior segment examination, and dilated fundus examination. Some patients had fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT angiography (OCTA). Systemic comorbidity was determined by medical history and systemic evaluation. Diagnosis of PCV was based on clinical findings, and in some patients using OCT. Results: A total of 8,614 patients were seen and 15 patients (18 eyes) were diagnosed to have PCV giving a yearly hospital-based prevalence of 0.17%. The mean age at presentation was 63.27 ± 11.5 years (range 44-84 years). There were nine females (60%). The male: female ratio was 1.5:1. Twelve (66.7%) of the 18 eyes were blind, 16.7% had severe visual impairment while 11.1% had mild visual impairment. Seven eyes (38.9%) had vitreous hemorrhage. Of the 12 blind eyes, 50% had vitreous hemorrhage (P = 0.463). Nine patients (60%) had systemic hypertensive as comorbidity (P = 0.016). Conclusion: PCV is a cause of vision loss among Nigerians. Majority of the eyes were blind and 50% of blind eyes had vitreous hemorrhage. Since Indocyanine Green Angiography is the most appropriate imaging technology and is mostly unavailable in Nigeria, efforts should be made to address this need and improve the diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Corioide , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 94, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466196

RESUMO

Introduction: different studies have shown a relationship between depression and nutrition, but there seems to be no consistent consensus on this. This study therefore investigated the relationship of nutrition status and depression among workers in tertiary educational institutions in Southwestern Nigeria. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted among 399 members of staff of three tertiary educational institutions in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), while nutritional status was assessed using the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist hip ratio (WHR). The respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique, and data were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Analysis was done using IBM SPSS. Results: the mean age of the respondents was 45.8 ± 10.4 years. The prevalence of depression was 23.8%. Concerning the nutritional status of respondents, 2.3% were underweight and 69.7% were overweight/obese. There were statistically significant associations between depression and the nutritional status of the respondents using BMI (p = 0.001), WHR (p = 0.015) and waist circumference (p = 0.036). After controlling for other factors, only the BMI was still significantly associated with depression, such that those underweight were more likely to be depressed (Odds ratio: 7.9; p-value: 0.009). Conclusion: the prevalence of depression among the respondents was relatively high, and this was significantly associated with the BMI, even after controlling for co-founders.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Magreza/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril
5.
Acta Biomed ; 92(4): e2021316, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a substantial psychological burden among students. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 on the mental health of university students and determining the prevalence of anxiety and depression. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study utilized an online questionnaire sent to students in the Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Delta State University after ethical approval. The Generalized Anxiety and Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Sciences and expressed using descriptive statistics and percentages. An independent t-test was used to determine the gender differences in the GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores while Pearson's correlation was used to establish a relationship between these scores with age. RESULTS: The 259 respondents comprised 118, 45.6% males and 141, 54.4% females with an average age of 21.50±2.04 years. The majority (149, 57.5%) were aged 21-25 years. The scores did not show significant differences in age and gender. Moderate to severe anxiety and depression was established in 22.4% and 28.2% of the respondents respectively. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that the prevalence of anxiety and depression due to the pandemic bears no relationship with age and gender. This is however different from previous reports due to the differences in the sample size, resource setting, timing of the study, and the courses the students studied.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 28(2): 117-125, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494598

RESUMO

Background: Waterpipe smoking (WPS) has been reported to have a wide range of damaging health effects on pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Studies suggest that waterpipe tobacco smoking is associated with reduced harm perceptions, mental health problems and the use of psychoactive substances. We investigate the patterns of use and the association of WPS with anxiety, poly-tobacco and alcohol use in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the data from 818 adolescents and adults in Lagos State, Nigeria. An online questionnaire obtained demographic information, waterpipe, e-cigarette, alcohol and other tobacco product use from respondents. Anxiety was assessed using the validated Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-point scale. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with waterpipe ever-use. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of respondents was 23.43 (±3.96), over half were female (55.2%) and a majority had a college diploma or more (88.59%). Among study participants, 18.58% reported waterpipe ever-use. Among ever waterpipe users, 17.33% reported current use (past 30-days), with a majority having smoked waterpipe in a bar or pub. Alcohol use (P < 0.001), e-cigarette ever-use (P: 0.010) and poly-tobacco ever-use (P: 0.030) were significantly associated with higher odds of waterpipe use in the multivariate regression model. Further, there was a lower likelihood of waterpipe ever-use in the bivariate regression model among respondents with mild and moderate to severe anxiety levels than those with normal anxiety levels (P: 0.030); however, this association was no longer significant in the adjusted model. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a relatively high prevalence of WPS in Lagos, Nigeria. Concurrent alcohol consumption, e-cigarette and poly-tobacco use are associated with WPS, and most waterpipe smokers have normal anxiety levels. The Nigerian Government should consider surveillance measures for WPS and a more comprehensive smoke-free policy.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
7.
Hematology ; 26(1): 684-690, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anaemia affects about 4 million people across the globe, making it an inherited disorder of public health importance. Red cell lysis consequent upon haemoglobin crystallization and repeated sickling leads to anaemia and a baseline strain on haemopoiesis. Vaso-occlusion and haemolysis underlies majority of the chronic complications of sickle cell. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory features observed across the various clinical phenotypes in adult sickle cell disease patients. METHODS: Steady state data collected prospectively in a cohort of adult sickle cell disease patients as out-patients between July 2010 and July 2020. The information included epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data. RESULTS: About 270 patients were captured in this study (165 males and 105 females). Their ages ranged from 16 to 55 years, with a median age of 25 years. Sixty-eight had leg ulcers, 43 of the males had priapism (erectile dysfunction in 8), 42 had AVN, 31 had nephropathy, 23 had osteomyelitis, 15 had osteoarthritis, 12 had cholelithiasis, 10 had stroke or other neurological impairment, 5 had pulmonary hypertension, while 23 had other complications. Frequency of crisis ranged from 0 to >10/year median of 2. Of the 219 recorded, 148 of the patients had been transfused in the past, while 71 had not. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SLU, AVN, priapism, nephropathy and the other complications of SCD show some variations from other studies. This variation in the clinical parameters across different clinical phenotypes indicates an interplay between age, genetic and environmental factors.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/metabolismo , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Colelitíase/etiologia , Colelitíase/metabolismo , Colelitíase/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Úlcera da Perna/epidemiologia , Úlcera da Perna/etiologia , Úlcera da Perna/metabolismo , Úlcera da Perna/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteomielite/epidemiologia , Osteomielite/etiologia , Osteomielite/metabolismo , Osteomielite/patologia , Priapismo/epidemiologia , Priapismo/etiologia , Priapismo/metabolismo , Priapismo/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
8.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 719-725, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499829

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glutathione is a powerful naturally occurring anti-oxidant in the human body and is important in immunological response to infection. Glutathione depletion may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of HIV disease. This study was done to compare plasma glutathione levels between HIV infected and uninfected children, correlate their glutathione levels with their WHO immunologic and clinical stages and determine prevalence of glutathione deficiency in HIV infected and uninfected children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 258 HIV infected children and their age and sex-matched controls in the two major hospitals providing paediatric HIV care in Benin City, Nigeria. Information was obtained using questionnaire. Plasma glutathione levels were determined in both groups using the spectrophotometric method involving the Dithio-bis -2-nitrobenzoic acid/Glutathione reductase enzyme (DTNB/GR) technique. Data was analyzed using paired t-test and spearman rank correlation. RESULTS: The mean plasma glutathione level was 8.82 ± 2.39 µmol/l, and 13.11 ± 3.20 µmol/l in HIV infected and uninfected children respectively, p < 0.0001. There was no significant correlation between plasma glutathione and both WHO immunologic staging (r= 0.011, p= 0.869) and clinical staging of HIV (r=0.053, p=0.379). Glutathione deficiency was present in 10.10% of HIV infected children and 0.70% of HIV uninfected children, p = 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Glutathione depletion occurs in children with HIV/AIDS and it has no relationship with clinical and immunologic staging of HIV in this study. Further studies are needed to ascertain the benefit of glutathione supplementation in HIV infected children.


Assuntos
Glutationa , Infecções por HIV , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
9.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 732-737, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first reported case of the novel coronavirus (COVID 19) in Nigeria was on the 27th of February 2020. Since then, the country has witnessed a steady increase in the number of patients confirmed with the disease. As of April 27th 2021, a total of 164,756 confirmed COVID-19 cases were notified making it the fifth-highest number of cases in the African region. This study aims to determine the spatial distribution of COVID-19 in Nigeria, identify clusters and determine factors associated with COVID-19. METHODS: The study used secondary data of COVID-19 cases notified in each of the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory between 27th February and 9th June, 2020. The Global and Local Moran'sItest were used to identify significant spatial clusters. The negative binomial regression model was used to identify factors associated with COVID-19 and p d" 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS: The Local Moran I identified Lagos State as the significant cluster for COVID-19 in Nigeria at p<0.05. Higher GDP per capita and lower literacy rates were significantly associated with COVID-19 cases reported by the states while population density, BCG coverage and average temperature were not significantly associated. CONCLUSION: The study identified Lagos State as the hotspot for the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The states with lower literacy rate and higher GDP per capita reported a higher number of COVID-19 cases. Proactive measures are needed to control of the infection in Lagos state while improving the literacy about the disease transmission and control measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 762-769, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem globally. The public service workers, who are facilitators of national development, are particularly vulnerable because the nature of their job predisposes them to unhealthy lifestyles. However, there is paucity of reference data on the profile of cardiovascular risks among public servants in Nigeria. Therefore, this study determined the pattern and predictors of cardiovascular risk among public servants in Southwest, Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 1,778 public servants were recruited from 47 Ministries, Departments and Agencies in Ondo State through multi-stage random sampling technique. The World Health Organization Stepwise instrument and Framingham Heart Study non-laboratory cardiovascular risk assessment tool were used to collect data. STATA version 14.2 was used for analysis and p-value of< 0.05 was taken as significant. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 44.2±9.1 years. They were predominantly females (64.8%). The proportions of participants with moderate and high 10-year absolute cardiovascular risks were 18.3% and 5.6%, respectively. Significant factors associated with increased cardiovascular risk were age (p=<0.001), sex (p =<0.001), education (p =<0.001), income (p =<0.001), staff category (p =<0.001) and employment grade level (p=<0.001). The significant predictors of increased cardiovascular risk on multivariate analysis were age > 50years (AOR:1.25;CI:1.19-1.32;p=<0.001) and male sex (AOR:6.62; CI:3.76-11.65;p=<0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of increased 10-year absolute cardiovascular risk among public servants in Ondo State was high. The significant predictors were age >50 years and male sex. Cardiovascular risk reduction strategies should be encouraged among public servants especially the older males.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
11.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 775-784, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is common in developing countries like Nigeria with significant morbidity and risk of mortality. With rising antimicrobial resistance, risk factors of infection should be explored to develop prevention strategies and improve the health of developing communities. OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants and clinical correlates of H. pylori among study participants. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study between May and July 2017 of 280 dyspeptic adults in Garki Hospital Abuja. They were tested using serum H. pylori Immunoglobulin G antibody test kits. Data on patient characteristics were collected using pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaires. The data were analysed using SPSS version 25. Logistic regression and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed to identify risk factors and clinical features associated with H. pylori infection. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 53.6%. H. pylori was positively associated with age and monthly income. Family history of dyspepsia (OR = 0.32: 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.78), regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR = 0.11: 95% CI = 0.046 - 0.281) and regular handwashing with soap and water (OR = 0.02: 95% CI = 0.006 -0.040) were found to be protective against H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: There is a high H. pylori prevalence amongst patients with dyspepsia in Garki Hospital Abuja. Interventions to reduce the incidence of H. pylori infection should emphasise regular handwashing with soap and water and regular fruit and vegetable consumption.


Assuntos
Dispepsia , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dispepsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
West Afr J Med ; 38(8): 785-790, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies of adult female acne vulgaris are few despite its increasing presentation in dermatology clinics. Adult female acne is classified as either late onset, persistent acne or return acne with a mixed pattern of inflammation in most females. The aim of this study was to document the socio-demographic characteristics (late onset, persistent acne, age, pre-menstrual flare) and clinical profile (severity, pattern, type of lesions, scarring and type of scars) of adult female acne patients. METHODOLOGY: Cross sectional descriptive study of 56 adult female acne patients aged 25 years and above. Patients were clinically examined and severity of acne graded with the Comprehensive Acne Severity Scale. Socio-demographic data and clinical profile was documented using a questionnaire designed for the study. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS version 22. Level of significance of all tests was set at 5%. RESULTS: Age range was 25-67 years with a mean age of 33.4 years. Prevalence of adult female acne was 19.3% amongst female patients seen in the clinic. Acne was persistent in 55.4%, late onset in 44.6%, only inflammatory in 5.4%, only non-inflammatory in 42.9%, and a mixed pattern of inflammation in 51.8%. Location of acne was facial only in 80.4% with extra facial involvement in 19.6%. Acne was severe, moderate and mild in 35.7%, 44.6%, and 19.6% respectively. Acne scar was present in 87.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in 65.3%. CONCLUSION: Adult female acne is increasing in prevalence. Acne in adult females is mostly persistent in nature with mixed inflammatory pattern. It affects the whole face and it is associated with scarring.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Acne Vulgar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cicatriz/epidemiologia , Cicatriz/etiologia , Cicatriz/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381558

RESUMO

Introduction: trauma is the leading cause of mortality in individuals less than 45 years. The principles of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) which is used around the world in resuscitation of trauma patients have been considered to be safe. However, the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the processes and characteristics of acute trauma patients seen around the world. This study is intended to determine the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the acute trauma patients seen in a Nigerian trauma centre. Methods: this is a cross-sectional observational study of trauma patients seen in the resuscitation room of the National Hospital trauma centre in Abuja, Nigeria, from 24th February,2020 to 3rd May, 2020. The participants were consecutive acute trauma patients who were grouped into two: five weeks preceding total lockdown and five weeks of total lockdown. Statistical analysis was done using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 while results were presented in tables and a figure. Results: a total of 229 patients were recruited into the study with age range 1 to 62 years, mean age of 28 ± 13 and male to female ratio of 3.87. The patient volume reduced by 41.31% during the lockdown. Though motor vehicular crash (MVC) was the predominant mechanism of injury in both groups making up 37.65% and 23.88% respectively, penetrating assault was more during the lockdown period (17.91% versus 6.17%). The lockdown was further associated with more delayed presentation (52.24% versus 48.15%), more referrals (53.73% versus 32.72%), less severe injury score (29.6% versus 56.7%) and no death in the resuscitation room (0% versus 1.85%). Conclusion: despite the reduction in the volume of trauma presentations by 41.31%, patients got the required care with less mortality. Efforts should be directed at sustaining access to acute trauma care in all circumstances to reduce preventable trauma deaths.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Centros de Traumatologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 166, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nigeria, like many other countries, has been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. While efforts have been devoted to curtailing the disease, a major concern has been its potential effects on the delivery and utilization of reproductive health care services in the country. The objective of the study was to investigate the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic and related lockdowns had affected the provision of essential reproductive, maternal, child, and adolescent health (RMCAH) services in primary health care facilities across the Nigerian States. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 307 primary health centres (PHCs) in 30 Local Government Areas in 10 States, representing the six geopolitical regions of the country. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on issues relating to access and provision of RMCAH services before, during and after COVID-19 lockdowns from the head nurses/midwives in the facilities. The questionnaire was entered into Open Data Kit mounted on smartphones. Data were analysed using frequency and percentage, summary statistics, and Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Between 76 and 97% of the PHCS offered RMCAH services before the lockdown. Except in antenatal, delivery and adolescent care, there was a decline of between 2 and 6% in all the services during the lockdown and up to 10% decline after the lockdown with variation across and within States. During the lockdown. Full-service delivery was reported by 75.2% whereas 24.8% delivered partial services. There was a significant reduction in clients' utilization of the services during the lockdown, and the difference between States before the pandemic, during, and after the lockdown. Reported difficulties during the lockdown included stock-out of drugs (25.7%), stock-out of contraceptives (25.1%), harassment by the law enforcement agents (76.9%), and transportation difficulties (55.8%). Only 2% of the PHCs reported the availability of gowns, 18% had gloves, 90.1% had hand sanitizers, and a temperature checker was available in 94.1%. Slightly above 10% identified clients with symptoms of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The large proportion of PHCs who provided RMCAH services despite the lockdown demonstrates resilience. Considering the several difficulties reported, and the limited provision of primary protective equipment more effort by the government and non-governmental agencies is recommended to strengthen delivery of sexual and reproductive health in primary health centres in Nigeria during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With Nigeria being one of the countries with the highest neonatal mortality rate globally, identifying the risk factors associated with neonatal mortality is essential as we strive to proffer sustainable solutions. AIM: This retrospective hospital-based survey aimed to bridge this gap by evaluating the trends and risk factors associated with neonatal mortality in a teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. METHODS: Records of newborns admitted at the special care baby unit from January 2018 to December 2019 (n = 1098) were accessed, and available data were extracted. Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were performed at 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: The mortality rate was determined to be 16.9% (inborn babies- 12.9% and out-born babies- 22.3%), with 83.3% of the newborns dying within the first week. Some of the factors associated with neonatal mortality were proximity of newborns' mothers home to the hospital [p = 0.041; Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.670; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.455-0.985], maturity of the baby at delivery (p < 0.001; OR = 0.514; CI = 0.358-0.738), place of delivery-inborn or out-born (p < 0.001; OR = 0.515; CI = 0.375-0.709), place of delivery-in a hospital or a non-hospital setting (p = 0.048; OR = 0.633; CI = 0.401-0.999), and baby's weight (p < 0.001; CI = -0.684 to -0.411). CONCLUSION: Findings from the study indicate that newborns delivered at home, traditional birth attendant centres or hospitals without essential healthcare facilities have a higher mortality risk. This suggests that measures to improve the accessibility of pregnant women to essential healthcare services are a prerequisite to reducing the neonatal mortality rate in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Mortalidade Infantil , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 21-27, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422230

RESUMO

Background: Superficial fungal infections (SFIs) are prevalent among schoolchildren and result in significant morbidities that may lead to school absenteeism or school drop-out and hence setback in the education of the child. Differences exist in the epidemiology and pattern of SFIs among children in various geographical locations. Community-based studies on diseases are a true reflection of their pattern in that locality. There are no recent studies on this regard in south-east Nigeria despite the high prevalence reported in the country. Aim: This study aimed to determine the epidemiology and pattern of SFIs among children in rural and urban communities in Enugu, south-east Nigeria, for evidence-based effective interventions in this region. Methods: A comparative and descriptive cross-sectional study of primary school children from three randomly selected urban communities and three randomly selected rural communities was conducted. The sample size was determined with use of the formula for comparison of two proportions. A total of 1662 pupils were recruited through a multistage sampling method, with 831 from urban primary school populations and 831 from rural primary school populations. Data were analysed with IBM SPSS Statistics version 24. Results: Of the 1662 children recruited, 748 had SFIs, with 502 (60.4%) seen in urban communities and 246 (29.6%) seen in rural communities. Tinea capitis was the most prevalent SFI (73.7%), and there was a statistically significant difference between urban (40.3%) and rural (26.1%) communities (P<0.001). The prevalence of SFIs was higher among urban female and rural male pupils. Children aged 9-12 years and 5-8 years were most commonly affected in the urban and rural communities, respectively. The personal hygiene of the children was poor in both communities. Conclusion: Emphasis on health education for SFIs and good personal hygiene will reduce the incidence of SFIs in the communities, especially among urban dwellers, which will encourage school attendance, concentration in class and child education.


Assuntos
Micoses/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , População Urbana
17.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 28-36, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422231

RESUMO

Background: Preventing prolongation of the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) for emergency caesarean delivery (CD) remains central to improving perinatal health. This study evaluated the effects of the DDI on perinatal outcome following emergency CD. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 205 consenting women who had emergency CD at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria was conducted. The time-motion documentation of events from decision to delivery was documented; the outcome measures were perinatal morbidity (neonatal resuscitation, 5-minute Apgar score, neonatal intensive admission) and mortality. Data analysis was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.0, and P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The overall mean DDI was 233.99±132.61 minutes (range 44-725 minutes); the mean DDI was shortest for cord prolapse (86.25±86.25 minutes) and was shorter for booked participants compared with unbooked participants (207.19±13.88 minutes vs 249.25±12.05 minutes; P=0.030) and for general anaesthesia compared with spinal anaesthesia (219.48±128.60 minutes vs 236.19±133.42 minutes; P=0.543). All neonatal parameters were significantly worse for unbooked women compared with booked women, including perinatal mortality (10.8% vs 1.3%; P=0.012). Neonatal morbidity increased with DDI for clinical indications, UK National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and Robson classification for CDs; perinatal mortality was 73.2 per 1000 live births, all were category 1 CDs and all except one occurred with DDI greater than 90 minutes. Severe preeclampsia/eclampsia, obstructed labour and placenta praevia tolerated DDI greater than 90 minutes compared with abruptio placentae and umbilical cord prolapse. However, logistic regression showed no statistical correlation between the DDI and neonatal outcomes. Conclusion: Perinatal morbidity and mortality increased with DDI relative to the clinical urgency but perinatal deaths were increased with DDI greater than 90 minutes. For no category of emergency CD should the DDI exceed 90 minutes, while patient and institutional factors should be addressed to reduce the DDI.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Estudos Transversais , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Perinatal , Médicos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Malawi Med J ; 33(1): 37-47, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422232

RESUMO

Background: Disability is a major determinant of impaired health and nutritional status. This study aims to assess the health and nutritional status of adults with disability and their relationship with socio-demographic factors. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 323 adults with disability in support-centers/schools of disability in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria was conducted. The participants' socio-demographic factors, behavioural characteristics and 24-hour dietary recall were recorded. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements of height, weight, waist and hip circumference were obtained. The height and weight measurements of non-ambulatory participants were estimated from knee height and mid-arm circumference. Biochemical analyses of blood samples were also performed. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of socio-demographic factors on health and nutritional status. Results: The participants consisted of females (59.3%) within the age of 20 to 30 years (59.1%). The major area of difficulty was in physical mobility (51.1%) and this occurred mostly in females (26.9%). The participants' mean daily intakes of calorie, protein and fat were below the recommended dietary allowances. The participants were overweight (49.2%), obese (4.6%), hypertensive (29.7%) and diabetic (12.1%). Dyslipidemia (81.8%), anemia (63.6%) and zinc deficiency (51.1%) were highly prevalent among the study group. Gender difference was observed in alcohol consumption (p=0.000), smoking habit (p=0.001), waist circumference (WC)(p=0.000), waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (p=0.000), triglyceride (p=0.026) and haemoglobin concentration (p=0.007). Being boarder was a positive predictor of overweight/obesity (OR= 2.974, 95% CI=1.449-6.104), abnormal WHR (OR=2.893, 95% CI = 1.073-7.801) and hypertension (OR=8.381, 95% CI=1.598-13.959). Female gender was associated with abnormal WC (OR=7.219, 95% CI=3.116-14.228) and WHR (OR=3.590, 95% CI=2.095-6.150) whereas older age-group was associated with overweight/obesity (OR=1.908, 95% CI=1.137- 3.202). Being employed was a negative predictor of hypertension. Conclusion: Overweight/obesity, anemia, zinc deficiency and dyslipidemia were highly prevalent among persons living with disability in Enugu Metropolis.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Nível de Saúde , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/deficiência
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422172

RESUMO

Introduction: bullying affects up to 85% of in-school adolescents in Nigeria. It presents a potentially serious threat to healthy adolescent development. Bullying has not been extensively studied in Nigeria and more so in northern Nigeria. Therefore, we investigated the types and predictors of bullying perpetration among adolescents in secondary schools. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study between January and March 2019. Using a multistage sampling technique, we recruited 390 adolescents. We estimated the prevalence and types of bullying perpetration, and we examined the predictors of bullying among the participants using chi-square and binary logistic regression at a 5% level of significance. Results: the mean age of adolescents was 15.2 ± 1.9 years. Majority of the participants 234 (60.0%) were in late adolescence (15-19 years), and 205 (52.6%) were males. The most prevalent type of bullying perpetrated was verbal [69.7%; 95% CI = 64.9-74.3%]. Overall, 307 [78.7%; 95% CI = 74.3-82.6%] had perpetrated at least one type of bullying. Male gender (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 2.70; 95%CI = 1.43 - 5.10), attending a boarding school (aOR: 7.93, 95% CI = 2.91 - 21.58) and frequent parental conflicts (aOR: 5.23, 95% CI = 2.15 - 12.71) were independent predictors of bullying perpetration. Conclusion: there is a high prevalence of bullying perpetration among adolescents in Sokoto metropolis, especially among males, those in boarding schools and those who experience frequent parental conflicts. We recommend that school principals should pay close attention to this behaviour and parents should be sensitized on the consequences of their domestic actions on their children.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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