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1.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109685, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654928

RESUMO

The efficacy of a baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration (OMBR-MF) hybrid system equipped with thin film forward osmosis membrane for wastewater treatment was evaluated at laboratory scale. The novel OMBR-MF hybrid system involved baffles, that separate oxic and anoxic zones in the aerobic reactor for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND), and a bioreactor comprised of thin film composite-forward osmosis (TFC-FO) and polyether sulfone-microfiltration (PES-MF) membranes. The evaluation was conducted under four different oxic-anoxic cycle patterns. Changes in flux, salinity build-up, and microbial activity (e.g., extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were assessed. Over the course of a 34 d test, the OMBR-MF hybrid system achieved high removal of total organic carbon (TOC) (86-92%), total nitrogen (TN) (63-76%), and PO4-P (57-63%). The oxic-anoxic cycle time of 0.5-1.5 h was identified to be the best operating condition. Incorporation of MF membrane effectively alleviated salinity build-up in the reactor, allowing stable system operation.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Membranas Artificiais , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Osmose
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122250, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629281

RESUMO

Increasing nitrogenous contaminants have caused immense challenges to the environment and human health. As compared to physical and chemical methods, biological denitrification is considered to be an effective solution due to its environmental friendliness, high efficiency, and low cost. In the present work, a novel fungal strain identified as Fusarium solani (RADF-77) was isolated from cellulose material-supported denitrification reactor; this strain is capable of removing nitrogen under aerobic conditions. The average NO3--N removal rate for RADF-77 were 4.43 mg/(L·h) and 4.50 mg/(L·d), when using glucose and tea residue as carbon source, respectively. The nitrogen balance revealed that 53.66% of N vanished via gaseous products. Transcriptional results revealed that respiratory and assimilative nitrate reductases may work together for nitrate removal. Our results indicate that RADF-77 could be used as a potential means of enhancing nitrate-removal performance, as well as recycling tea residue, which is the main byproduct of the manufacture of tea extracts.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Fusarium , Aerobiose , Nitratos , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 122284, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669869

RESUMO

The application of MBR in high saline wastewater treatment is mainly constrained by poor nitrogen removal and severe membrane fouling caused by high salinity stress. A novel carriers-enhanced MBR system was successfully developed for treating saline mariculture wastewater, which showed efficient TN removal (93.2%) and fouling control. High-throughput sequencing revealed the enhancement mechanism of bio-carriers under high saline condition. Bio-carriers substantially improved the community structure, representatively, nitrifiers abundance (Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira) increased from 2.18% to 9.57%, abundance of denitrifiers (Sulfurimonas, Thermogutta, etc.) also rose from 3.81% to 14.82%. Thereby, the nitrogen removal process was enhanced. Noteworthy, ammonia oxidizer (Nitrosomonas, 8.26%) was the absolute dominant nitrifiers compared with nitrite oxidizer (Nitrospira, 1.13%). This supported the finding of shortcut nitrification-denitrification process in hybrid system. Moreover, a series of biomacromolecule degraders (Lutibacterium, Cycloclasticus, etc.) were detected in bio-carriers, which could account for the mitigation of membrane fouling as result of EPS and SMP degradation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Membranas Artificiais , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
4.
Water Res ; 168: 115142, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605831

RESUMO

Microbial nitrogen removal mediated by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are cost-effective, yet it is time-consuming to accumulate the slow-growing anammox bacteria in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Inoculation of anammox enriched pellets is an effective way to establish anammox and achieve shortcut nitrogen removal in full-scale WWTPs. However, little is known about the complex microbial nitrogen-cycling networks in these anammox-inoculated WWTPs. Here, we applied metagenomic and metatranscriptomic tools to study the microbial nitrogen removal in three conventional WWTPs, which have been inoculated exogenous anammox pellets, representing partial-nitrification anammox (PNA) and nitrification-denitrification nitrogen removal processes. In the PNA system of Bali (BL), ammonia was partially oxidized by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas and the oxidized nitrite and the remaining ammonium were directly converted to N2 by anammox bacteria Ca. Brocadia and Ca. Kuenenia. In the nitrification-denitrification system of Wenshan (WS), ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) Thaumarchaeota unexpectedly dominated the nitrifying community in the presence of AOB Nitrosomonas. Meanwhile, the biomass yield of Ca. Brocadia was likely inhibited by the high biodegradable organic compound input and limited by substrate competitions from AOA, AOB, complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox) Nitrospira, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) Nitrospira, and heterotrophic denitrifiers. Unexpectedly, comammox Nitrospira was the predominant nitrifier in the presence of AOB Nitrosomonas in the organic carbon-rich nitrification-denitrification system of Linkou (LK). These results clearly showed that distinct active groups were working in concert for an effective nitrogen removal in different WWTPs. This study confirmed the feasibility of anammox application in ammonium-rich systems by direct inoculation of the exogenous anammox pellets and improved our understanding of microbial nitrogen cycling in anammox-driven conventional WWTPs from both physiochemical and omics perspectives.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Águas Residuárias , Amônia , Reatores Biológicos , Consórcios Microbianos , Nitritos , Nitrogênio , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Oxirredução
5.
Water Res ; 168: 115151, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630019

RESUMO

This study investigated nutrient removal characteristics and the related pathways in aerobic granular reactors using three pilot-scale granular sequencing batch reactors (GSBRs) treating wastewaters of diverse carbon and nutrient strength. The GSBRs were operated with alternating (AN/O/AX/O_SBR and AN/O_SBR) and purely-aerobic (O_SBR) operation modes. Mineral-rich aerobic granules with hydroxyapatite (HAp) core were cultivated in all the three GSBRs. The highest nitrogen removal efficiency (75%) was achieved in AN/O/AX/O_SBR and O_SBR and the lowest (22%) in AN/O_SBR, establishing a quasi-linear relationship with organic loading rate (OLR). Phosphorus removal efficiencies of 55-63% were achieved in the GSBRs despite different influent PO4-P concentrations. Heterotrophic nitrification and biologically-induced phosphate precipitation (BIPP) became the dominant nutrient depletion pathways, contributing 61-84% and 39-96% to overall ammonium nitrogen and phosphorus removal, respectively. A direct relation was noted between heterotrophic nitrification efficiency (ηHeterotrophic nitrification) and nutrient availability, as nitrification efficiencies of 18 and 64% were observed for COD:Ninf of 5 and 20, respectively. Whereas, BIPP efficiency (ηBIPP) established inverse relation with (COD:P)inf and (Ca:P)inf and direct relation with phosphorus concentration beyond microbial growth requirement. Core heterotrophic nitrifiers and bio-calcifying species were identified as {Thauera and Flavobacterium} and {Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Corynebacterium}, respectively. Ca-P crystallization was proposed to be via phosphate precipitation on calcite surfaces. Granulation mechanism was proposed as crystallization on bio-aggregates' periphery and then crystal growth toward the core.


Assuntos
Nutrientes , Esgotos , Aerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Minerais , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
6.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 42(6): 126021, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623889

RESUMO

During long-term extra-terrestrial missions, food is limited and waste is generated. By recycling valuable nutrients from this waste via regenerative life support systems, food can be produced in space. Astronauts' urine can, for instance, be nitrified by micro-organisms into a liquid nitrate fertilizer for plant growth in space. Due to stringent conditions in space, microbial communities need to be be defined (gnotobiotic); therefore, synthetic rather than mixed microbial communities are preferred. For urine nitrification, synthetic communities face challenges, such as from salinity, ureolysis, and organics. In this study, a synthetic microbial community containing an AOB (Nitrosomonas europaea), NOB (Nitrobacter winogradskyi), and three ureolytic heterotrophs (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acidovorax delafieldii, and Delftia acidovorans) was compiled and evaluated for these challenges. In reactor 1, salt adaptation of the ammonium-fed AOB and NOB co-culture was possible up to 45mScm-1, which resembled undiluted nitrified urine, while maintaining a 44±10mgNH4+-NL-1d-1 removal rate. In reactor 2, the nitrifiers and ureolytic heterotrophs were fed with urine and achieved a 15±6mg NO3--NL-1d-1 production rate for 1% and 10% synthetic and fresh real urine, respectively. Batch activity tests with this community using fresh real urine even reached 29±3mgNL-1d-1. Organics removal in the reactor (69±15%) should be optimized to generate a nitrate fertilizer for future space applications.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Nitrificação , Urina/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Amônia/metabolismo , Comamonadaceae/metabolismo , Delftia acidovorans/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Nitrobacter/metabolismo , Nitrosomonas europaea/metabolismo , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo
7.
Water Res ; 167: 115128, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585383

RESUMO

In this study, a modeling framework was developed to simulate biologically active filtration (BAF) headloss buildup in response to organic removal and nitrification. This model considered not only the biofilm growth on the BAF media but also the particle deposition in the BAF bed. In addition, the model also took temperature effect into consideration. It was calibrated and validated with data collected from a pilot-scale study used for potable water reuse and a full-scale facility used for potable water treatment. The model prediction provided insights that biofilm growth rather than particle deposition primarily contributes to the headloss buildup. Therefore, biofilm control is essential for managing headloss buildup and reducing the backwash frequency. Model simulation indicated that the BAF performance in terms of pollutant removal per unit headloss is insensitive to the BAF bed depth but can be effectively improved by increasing the media size. The partial biofilm coverage of the media is confirmed in this study and was mathematically verified to be a prerequisite for the model fitness.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Filtração , Nitrificação
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122196, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574364

RESUMO

The partial nitrification process can reduce the aeration energy consumption in bioreactors by 25%. Low-intensity ultrasound (0.25 W·mL-1) was applied during the partial nitrification process to evaluate its effects on start-up and temperature resilience. Ultrasound application led to rapid start-up of the partial nitrification process (within 18 d) with a nitrite accumulation ratio of above 80% at 18 °C. Moreover, when the temperature was increased to 28 °C, the partial nitrification process was effectively maintained with a nitrite accumulation ratio of above 80%. Ultrasonic treatment for a long duration had a positive effect on ammonia oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrososphaera, whereas the population of nitrite oxidizing bacteria, Nitrospira, decreased. The temperature resilience of Nitrososphaera was also enhanced. These findings indicate that ultrasound induces rapid start-up of the partial nitrification process and enhances the temperature resilience of Nitrososphaera.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Esgotos , Amônia , Reatores Biológicos , Nitritos , Temperatura Ambiente , Águas Residuárias
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122161, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581041

RESUMO

A two-sludge system with separated phosphorus removal unit and nitrification unit was used to treat the actual municipal sewage deficient in organic carbon sources, with the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 4.39. The system was first operated as anaerobic/oxic-nitrification (A/O-N) mode for 60 days (phase I), and then transformed into anaerobic/anoxic/oxic-nitrification (A/A/O-N) mode for the next following 80 days (phase II). Noteworthy, oxygen and nitrate acted as electronic acceptors for phosphorus removal in chronological order. Results indicated that deep phosphorus removal and complete nitrification were achieved at both phase I and phase II, and the system exhibited a higher microbial diversity. Microbial community abundance on genus level analysis indicated that Dechloromonas and Accumulibacter were respectively accumulated with 11.6 and 2.42% abundance (A/A/O sludge); and 9.31 and 1.29% Nitrospira and Nitrosomonas occupied the biofilm, and they performed denitrifying phosphorus removal (DNPR) and nitrification, respectively.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono , Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122228, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610496

RESUMO

Two aeration modes, namely point aeration and step aeration, were proposed and implemented in a full scale Orbal oxidation ditch, and nitrogen removal performance was studied. The results showed that nitrogen removal performance under point aeration mode depended on oxygen supply control. Highest total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 73.2% was achieved when oxygen input in the outer, middle and inner channel accounted for 50, 25 and 25% of total oxygen supply, respectively. With the same oxygen supply, both aeration modes demonstrated complete nitrification with over 97% ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies. However, TN removal efficiency was 78.8% under step aeration mode, which was higher than that under point aeration. The pyrosequencing results indicated that microbial community composition was affected by aeration modes and step aeration mode was beneficial to the enrichment of denitrifiers. The greater diversity and relative abundance of denitrifiers enhanced TN removal under step aeration mode.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Amônia , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrificação , Oxigênio
11.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109661, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634728

RESUMO

There are two problems in biological treatment of coking wastewater (CWW): incapability of pre-anaerobic treatment to eliminate the toxicity in wastewater, and the lack of carbon source for subsequent denitrification in pre-aerobic treatment. To achieve simultaneous decarburization, nitrification and denitrification (SDCND) in CWW treatment, biological carrier materials was used to build an integrated fluidized-bed reactor (Reactor B, RB). A conventional fluidized-bed reactor (Reactor A, RA) was used as a control reactor under the same condition. The results showed that RB was more advantageous since its removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 90% and 87%, respectively, which were significantly higher than these in RA (82% and 45%), at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 60 h. Microelectrode measurement indicated that oxygen transfer was limited inside the carrier where the formation of a dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration gradient was observed. Microbial community analysis showed that the aerobic and anoxic microenvironments in RB promoted the co-existence of a wider variety of bacteria, thus achieving SDCND. These results indicated the integrated fluidized-bed reactor exhibited promising feasibility for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in CWW treatment under the same aeration driven conditions. The SDCND process realized by fluidized-bed reactor provided a reference for the treatment of toxic industrial wastewater with high carbon to nitrogen ratio.


Assuntos
Coque , Desnitrificação , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12433-12441, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593453

RESUMO

Copper is a cofactor of the ammonia monooxygenase, an essential enzyme for the activity of ammonia oxidizing prokaryotes (AOP). Copper dosing at less than 1 µg/L stimulated ammonium removal in the poorly nitrifying biological filters of three full-scale drinking water treatment plants. Upon copper dosing, the ammonium concentration in the effluent decreased from up to 0.18 to less than 0.01 mg NH4+-N/L. To investigate how copper dosing affected the filter microbial community, we applied amplicon sequencing and qPCR targeting key nitrifying groups, including complete ammonia oxidizing (comammox) Nitrospira. Copper dosing increased the abundance of different nitrifiers. Multiple Nitrosomonas variants (betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers), which initially collectively represented 1% or less of the total community, increased almost 10-fold. Comammox Nitrospira were abundant and increased too, but their relative abundance within the AOP decreased because of Nitrosomonas proliferation. No other consistent change in the filter communities was detected, as well as no adverse effect of copper on the filters functionality. Our results show that copper dosing in three independent treatment plants was associated with consistent growth of AOP and that efficient nitrification was achieved through the joint contribution of comammox Nitrospira and an increasing fraction of betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Nitrificação , Amônia , Proliferação de Células , Cobre , Nitritos , Nitrosomonas , Oxirredução
13.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1414-1426, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589701

RESUMO

Controlling nitrogen (N) losses from pig slurry (PS) is a challenge under no-till because amendments are left on the soil surface. We investigated the potential of shallow injection of PS, with and without addition of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD), to abate gaseous ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions in winter crops in subtropical soils. Injection was compared with surface broadcasting of PS, with and without DCD. The significance of winter season on annual NO emissions was assessed. Injecting PS reduced NH volatilization compared with surface application. However, this reduction was partly offset because NO emissions increased by 77% (+1.53 kg NO-N ha) when PS was injected. Adding DCD to injected PS reduced NO emission below levels of surface-broadcast PS without the inhibitor, indicating that DCD may be a management option when injecting PS. Compared with a reference urea treatment, PS without DCD increased cumulative NO emissions 5.7-fold (from 613 to 3515 g NO-N ha) when injected, and 3.2-fold (from 613 to 1980 g NO-N ha) when surface applied. Adding DCD significantly reduced emissions with injected PS, whereas reduction was not always significant with surface-applied PS. Nitrous oxide emissions during the winter cropping season contributed 30 to 44% of annual emissions, indicating that controlling gaseous N losses in that season is required to reduce the environmental footprint of the whole cropping system. Overall, combining PS injection with DCD was an efficient practice for reducing winter-season gaseous N losses from no-till soils under subtropical climate.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Animais , Fertilizantes , Gases , Óxido Nitroso , Estações do Ano , Solo , Suínos
14.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109541, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542623

RESUMO

Oxygen-limiting and/or free ammonia (FA)-accumulating conditions are two common operating strategies for partial nitrification in wastewater. Controlling either bulk dissolved oxygen (DO) or free ammonia (FA) concentration to maintain partial nitrification can be challenging due to the strong interdependency between these two parameters as substrates for ammonia oxidation. In this study, DO/FA ratio is proposed as a controlling parameter for partial nitrification by entrapped-cell-based reactors. At DO/FA >1.5, both ammonia and nitrite oxidation proceeded without inhibition leading to complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate. An effluent containing nitrate as the main nitrogen species can be produced at these ratios. At a DO/FA ratio range of 0.2-1.5, ammonia oxidation proceeded without efficiency deterioration, while nitrite oxidation decreased with decreasing DO/FA ratio. At the ratios of 0.2-0.6, an effluent containing mainly nitrite can be generated. At DO/FA <0.2, both ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation were inhibited and the effluent with nearly equal molar of ammonia and nitrite was obtained. By controlling DO/FA ratio, effluents with different proportions of nitrogen species can be produced allowing the entrapped-cell-based system to be adaptable as an initial reactor for various nitrogen removal approaches.


Assuntos
Amônia , Nitrogênio , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrificação , Nitritos , Oxirredução , Oxigênio
15.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109594, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557668

RESUMO

Activated sludge (AS) and return activated sludge (RAS) microbial communities from three full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (denoted plant A, B and C) were compared to assess the impact of sludge settling (i.e. gravity thickening in the clarifier) and profile microorganisms responsible for nutrient removal and reactor foaming. The results show that all three plants were dominated with microbes in the phyla of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Spirochaetae, Acidobacteria and Saccharibacteria. AS and RAS shared above 80% similarity in the microbial community composition, indicating that sludge thickening does not significantly alter the microbial composition. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrifiers were present in the AS. However, the abundance of autotrophic nitrifiers was significantly lower than that of the heterotrophic nitrifiers. Thus, ammonium removal at these plants was achieved mostly by heterotrophic nitrification. Microbes that can cause foaming were at 3.2% abundance, and this result is well corroborated with occasional aerobic biological reactor foaming. By contrast, these microbes were not abundant (<2.1%) at plant A and C, where aerobic biological reactor foaming has not been reported.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
16.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109518, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518800

RESUMO

In this study, long-term simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) and phosphorous removal were investigated in a continuous-flow microaerobic MBBR (mMBBR) operated at a dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of 1.0 (±0.2) mg L-1. The mMBBR performance was evaluated at different feed carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratios (2.7, 4.2 and 5.6) and HRTs (2 days and 1 day). Stable long-term mMBBR operation and chemical oxygen demand (COD), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and phosphorous (P-PO43-) removal efficiencies up to 100%, 68% and 72%, respectively, were observed at a feed C/N ratio of 4.2. Lower TIN removal efficiency and unstable performance were observed at feed C/N ratios of 2.7 and 5.6, respectively. HRT decrease from 2 days to 1 day resulted in transient NH4+ accumulation and higher NO2-/NO3- ratio in the effluent. Batch activity tests showed that biofilm cultivation at a feed C/N ratio of 4.2 resulted in the highest denitrifying activity (189 mg N gVSS-1 d-1), whereas the highest nitrifying activity (316 mg N gVSS-1 d-1) was observed after cultivation at a feed C/N ratio of 2.7. Thermodynamic modeling with Visual MINTEQ and stoichiometric evaluations revealed that P removal was mainly biological and can be attributed to the P-accumulating capacity of denitrifying bacteria.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Biofilmes , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122114, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520854

RESUMO

A novel strain DQ01 capable of simultaneous removal of nitrate and ammonium under the aerobic condition was isolated from the landfill leachate and identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The result showed that S. maltophilia had carbon selection for the nitrogen removal pathway, and preferred to utilize carboxylate rather than carbohydrate, as carboxylate could directly participate in TCA cycle without Embden Meyerhof Parmas (EMP). Nitrogen and carbon balances confirmed that the ammonium assimilation was the main or even sole removal pathway for S. maltophilia, and carboxylate was more conducive to heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification (HN-AD) process due to the serious self-alkalization and higher reduction potential of carboxylate, which followed: NH4+ → NO2- → NO3- → NO2- → NO due to the lack of nor and nos. Meanwhile, the higher C/N and nitrate could generate a more powerful ion transport driving force to accelerate the electron transfer in the denitrifying respiratory chain.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Aerobiose , Carbono , Desnitrificação , Elétrons , Processos Heterotróficos , Nitrificação , Nitritos
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122106, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520857

RESUMO

This work aimed to compare the dynamics, biokinetics, and microbial diversity between activated sludge flocs (ASF) and aerobic granular sludge (AGS) whose systems were operated under similar experimental conditions in terms of inoculum, feeding, substrate source, etc. Therefore, the kinetic parameters involved in the organic matter removal, nitrification, denitrification, and dephosphatation were determined, as well as the microbial changes were assessed by metagenomics analysis. Regarding the kinetic parameter yield coefficient (Y), values of 0.55 and 0.36 g VSS/g COD were found for ASF and AGS, respectively, showing a higher sludge production in ASF and the importance of feast/famine periods for lowering sludge production in AGS systems. AGS presented a lower sludge production and a higher endogenous consumption rate than ASF. The activity of phosphorus-accumulating bacteria was remarkably higher in AGS. Although both biomasses were aerobic, their kinetic parameters had significant differences.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Aerobiose , Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122166, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557655

RESUMO

In this study, a simultaneous partial nitrification, Anammox and denitrification (SNAD) bioreactor was constructed for mature landfill leachate treatment, which exhibited favorable NH4+-N (98.9-99.9%), TN (90.7-94.9%) and bio-refractory organic compounds (46.2-67.7%) removal efficiencies. Stoichiometric analysis demonstrated that the synergy of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and Anammox bacteria dominated TN removal (96.1-97.2%). NO3--N produced in Anammox could be further reduced through (partial) denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). The results highlighted that humic-like and their intermediates might serve as the electron donor for these (partial) denitrifiers and DNRA bacteria to remove NO3--N, and could be effectively removed from mature landfill leachate in SNAD bioreactor. Metagenomic characterization further demonstrated that phyla Chloroflexi, Chlorobi and genera Nitrosomonas, Ignavibacterium and Aminiphilus might be responsible for such humic-like degradation. Overall, this work offers new insights into the metagenome-based bioinformatic roles for the previously understudied microorganisms in SNAD bioreactor for mature landfill leachate treatment.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Metagenoma , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122154, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563738

RESUMO

In this study, a continuous flow reactor with simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR) granular sludge was operated in the continuous aeration (CA) and intermittent aeration (IA) modes to examine the effect of aeration on the performance of continuous-flow system. Then the experimental results showed that the IA1 mode (4 h aeration and 1 h non-aeration) could improve the simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the settleability of granules in continuous flow system. Results of high-throughput pyrosequencing illustrated that the methanogens, AOA, ANAMMOX, DNB, denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) were the important participant of simultaneous biological nutrients removal (SBNR), meanwhile, the IA1 mode could effectively inhibit the growth of filamentous microorganisms (Thiothrix and Acinetobacter). Finally, a conceptual model of the SNDPR granular microbial ecosystem under IA1 mode was proposed as a base for analyzing the mechanism of simultaneous nutrient removal in continuous flow system.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Fósforo , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Humanos , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
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