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1.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 14): 408, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Second messengers, c-di-GMP and (p)ppGpp, are vital regulatory molecules in bacteria, influencing cellular processes such as biofilm formation, transcription, virulence, quorum sensing, and proliferation. While c-di-GMP and (p)ppGpp are both synthesized from GTP molecules, they play antagonistic roles in regulating the cell cycle. In C. crescentus, c-di-GMP works as a major regulator of pole morphogenesis and cell development. It inhibits cell motility and promotes S-phase entry by inhibiting the activity of the master regulator, CtrA. Intracellular (p)ppGpp accumulates under starvation, which helps bacteria to survive under stressful conditions through regulating nucleotide levels and halting proliferation. (p)ppGpp responds to nitrogen levels through RelA-SpoT homolog enzymes, detecting glutamine concentration using a nitrogen phosphotransferase system (PTS Ntr). This work relates the guanine nucleotide-based second messenger regulatory network with the bacterial PTS Ntr system and investigates how bacteria respond to nutrient availability. RESULTS: We propose a mathematical model for the dynamics of c-di-GMP and (p)ppGpp in C. crescentus and analyze how the guanine nucleotide-based second messenger system responds to certain environmental changes communicated through the PTS Ntr system. Our mathematical model consists of seven ODEs describing the dynamics of nucleotides and PTS Ntr enzymes. Our simulations are consistent with experimental observations and suggest, among other predictions, that SpoT can effectively decrease c-di-GMP levels in response to nitrogen starvation just as well as it increases (p)ppGpp levels. Thus, the activity of SpoT (or its homologues in other bacterial species) can likely influence the cell cycle by influencing both c-di-GMP and (p)ppGpp. CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we integrate current knowledge and experimental observations from the literature to formulate a novel mathematical model. We analyze the model and demonstrate how the PTS Ntr system influences (p)ppGpp, c-di-GMP, GMP and GTP concentrations. While this model does not consider all aspects of PTS Ntr signaling, such as cross-talk with the carbon PTS system, here we present our first effort to develop a model of nutrient signaling in C. crescentus.


Assuntos
Caulobacter crescentus/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Sistemas do Segundo Mensageiro , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , GMP Cíclico/análogos & derivados , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases/metabolismo , Sistemas do Segundo Mensageiro/fisiologia
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201493, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873201

RESUMO

Legumes can meet their nitrogen requirements through root nodule symbiosis, which could also trigger plant systemic resistance against pests. The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, a legume pest, can harbour different facultative symbionts (FS) influencing various traits of their hosts. It is therefore worth determining if and how the symbionts of the plant and the aphid modulate their interaction. We used different pea aphid lines without FS or with a single one (Hamiltonella defensa, Regiella insecticola, Serratia symbiotica) to infest Medicago truncatula plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti (symbiotic nitrogen fixation, SNF) or supplemented with nitrate (non-inoculated, NI). The growth of SNF and NI plants was reduced by aphid infestation, while aphid weight (but not survival) was lowered on SNF compared to NI plants. Aphids strongly affected the plant nitrogen fixation depending on their symbiotic status, suggesting indirect relationships between aphid- and plant-associated microbes. Finally, all aphid lines triggered expression of Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1 (PR1) and Proteinase Inhibitor (PI), respective markers for salicylic and jasmonic pathways, in SNF plants, compared to only PR1 in NI plants. We demonstrate that the plant symbiotic status influences plant-aphid interactions while that of the aphid can modulate the amplitude of the plant's defence response.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Medicago truncatula/fisiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Animais , Nitratos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico , Serratia , Simbiose
3.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 481-489, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914331

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to enhance the biodegradability of atrazine with FH-1 and NJ-1 alone by selecting the mixing ratio, optimizing the culture medium and conditions. The results showed that FH-1 and NJ-1 have the best biodegradation effect on atrazine being mixed in a volume ratio of 3:2. In a single factor experiment, sucrose and NH4Cl provided carbon and nitrogen sources for the mixed bacteria. Subsequently, composition of fermentation medium was further optimized using Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. Based on the results, growth of mixed bacteria and biodegradation of atrazine performed best effects with a biodegradation rate of 85.6% when sucrose and NH4Cl amounts were 35.30 g/L and 10.28 g/L. The optimal medium condition was 10% inoculum of mixed bacteria, with initial atrazine concentration of 50 mg/L, neutral or weakly alkaline pH value, 30°C. The biodegradation rate reached 97.4%, 11.8% higher than the unoptimized condition.


Assuntos
Atrazina/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Arthrobacter/metabolismo , Atrazina/análise , Carbono/metabolismo , Herbicidas/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105585, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763644

RESUMO

Although excess ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4+-N) results in the disturbance of various important biochemical and physiological processes, a detailed study on the effects of NH4+-N stress on the photosynthesis and global changes in protein levels in submerged macrophytes is still lacking. Here, the changes of excess NH4+-N on physiological parameters in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, a submerged macrophyte were investigated, including the contents of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, net photosynthesis and respiration, glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities, chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and protein levels. Our results showed that the net photosynthetic rate and pigment content reached maximum values when the plants were treated with 1 and 2 mg L-1 NH4+-N, respectively, and decreased at NH4+-N concentrations at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1. This decrease might be caused by ROS accumulation. Compared that in 0.02 mg L-1 NH4+-N as a control, ROS generation in chloroplasts significantly increased in the presence of more than 2 mg L-1 NH4+-N. Consistently, the damages caused by over-accumulated ROS were observed in chloroplast ultrastructure, showing a loose thylakoid membranes and swollen grana/stroma lamellae. Furthermore, through proteomic analysis, we identified 91 differentially expressed protein spots. Among them, six proteins involved in photosynthesis decreased in abundance in response to excess NH4+-N. Surprisingly, the abundance of all the identified proteins that were involved in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid metabolism tended to increase under excess NH4+-N compared with the control, suggestive of the imbalanced carbon and nitrogen (C-N) metabolisms. In support, activated GS and GOGAT cycle was observed, evidenced by higher activities of GS and GOGAT enzymes. To our knowledge, this work is the first description that excess NH4+-N results in chloroplast ultrastructural damages and the first proteomic evidence to support that excess NH4+-N can lead to a decline in photosynthesis and imbalance of C-N metabolism in submerged macrophytes.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Hydrocharitaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Amônia/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hydrocharitaceae/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteômica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
5.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000757, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833957

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, conserved mechanisms ensure that cell growth is coordinated with nutrient availability. Overactive growth during nutrient limitation ("nutrient-growth dysregulation") can lead to rapid cell death. Here, we demonstrate that cells can adapt to nutrient-growth dysregulation by evolving major metabolic defects. Specifically, when yeast lysine-auxotrophic mutant lys- encountered lysine limitation, an evolutionarily novel stress, cells suffered nutrient-growth dysregulation. A subpopulation repeatedly evolved to lose the ability to synthesize organosulfurs (lys-orgS-). Organosulfurs, mainly reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH conjugates, were released by lys- cells during lysine limitation when growth was dysregulated, but not during glucose limitation when growth was regulated. Limiting organosulfurs conferred a frequency-dependent fitness advantage to lys-orgS- by eliciting a proper slow growth program, including autophagy. Thus, nutrient-growth dysregulation is associated with rapid organosulfur release, which enables the selection of organosulfur auxotrophy to better tune cell growth to the metabolic environment. We speculate that evolutionarily novel stresses can trigger atypical release of certain metabolites, setting the stage for the evolution of new ecological interactions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Lisina/farmacologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Evolução Biológica , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Lisina/deficiência , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Ribossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008966, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776922

RESUMO

The vacuole of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an important role in nutrient storage. Arginine, in particular, accumulates in the vacuole of nitrogen-replete cells and is mobilized to the cytosol under nitrogen starvation. The arginine import and export systems involved remain poorly characterized, however. Furthermore, how their activity is coordinated by nitrogen remains unknown. Here we characterize Vsb1 as a novel vacuolar membrane protein of the APC (amino acid-polyamine-organocation) transporter superfamily which, in nitrogen-replete cells, is essential to active uptake and storage of arginine into the vacuole. A shift to nitrogen starvation causes apparent inhibition of Vsb1-dependent activity and mobilization of stored vacuolar arginine to the cytosol. We further show that this arginine export involves Ypq2, a vacuolar protein homologous to the human lysosomal cationic amino acid exporter PQLC2 and whose activity is detected only in nitrogen-starved cells. Our study unravels the main arginine import and export systems of the yeast vacuole and suggests that they are inversely regulated by nitrogen.


Assuntos
Arginina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Aminoácidos/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Humanos , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Lisossomos/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vacúolos/genética , Vacúolos/metabolismo
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761765

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the influence of crude protein (CP) content in a fattening diet on feed intake, body weight gain, nitrogen excretion, and carcass traits in Holstein steers. Steers (initial body weight 241 ± 26 kg) consumed feed with the following CP content: (a) 17.7% during the early period (from 7 to 10 months of age) and 13.9% during the late period (from 11 to 18 months of age) (HIGH, n = 3), and (b) 16.2% during the early period and 12.2% during the late period (LOW, n = 4). The CP intake was lower in the LOW than the HIGH group. Urinary and total nitrogen excretion in the late period tended to be lower (p < .10) in the LOW than the HIGH group. However, growth performance and carcass traits were not affected by dietary CP content. Free histidine and total amino acid contents in the longissimus thoracis muscle tended to be higher (p < .10) in the HIGH than the LOW group, however, the CP contents were not affected by dietary CP content. The results of this experiment suggest that decreasing dietary CP to 16% (early period) or 12% (late period) of dry matter would reduce nitrogen excretion from Holstein fattening farms without affecting productivity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Masculino
8.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127581, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758787

RESUMO

Forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) is an integrated physical-biological treatment process that has received increased awareness in treating municipal wastewater for its potential to produce high effluent quality coupled with its low propensity for fouling formation. However, reverse salt diffusion (RSD) is a major issue and so far limited studies have reported long-term FOMBR operation under the elevated salinity conditions induced by RSD. This study investigated the performance of a FOMBR in treating municipal wastewater under a controlled saline environment (6-8 g L-1 NaCl) using two separate sodium chloride draw solution (NaCl DS) concentrations (35 and 70 g L-1) over 243 days. At 35 g L-1 NaCl DS, the water flux performance dropped from 6.75 L m-2 h-1 (LMH) to 2.07 LMH after 72 days of operation in the first experimental stage, when no cleaning procedure was implemented. In the subsequent stage, the DS concentration was increased to 70 g L-1 and a weekly physical cleaning regime introduced. Under stable operation, the water flux performance recovery was 67% after 21 cycles of physical cleaning. For the first time in FOMBR studies, a shortcut nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway was also achieved under the elevated salinity conditions. At the end of operation (day 243), the ammonia-oxidising bacteria (Nitrosomonas sp.) was the only nitrifier species in the system and no nitrite oxidising bacteria was detected. The above study proves that a FOMBR system is a feasible process for treating municipal wastewater.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Aerobiose , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Desnitrificação , Desenho de Equipamento , Nitrificação , Nitritos/metabolismo , Nitrosomonas/metabolismo , Osmose , Salinidade , Águas Residuárias/química
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238042, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841280

RESUMO

Long-term chemical fertilizer input causes soil organic matter losses, structural compaction, and changes in soil water and nutrient availability, which have been subdued in the most of dry farmland in China. The concept of "more efficiency with less fertilizer input" has been proposed and is urgently needed in current agriculture. Application of chemical fertilizer combined with organic manure (OM) could be a solution for soil protection and sustainable production of dry-land maize (Zea mays. L). Field research over three consecutive years on the Loess Plateau of China was conducted to evaluate the integrated effects of chemical fertilizer strategies and additional OM input on soil nutrients availability and water use in maize. The results showed that, after harvest, soil bulk density decreased significantly with OM application, concomitant with 11.9, 18.7 and 97.8% increases in topsoil total nitrogen, organic matter, and available phosphorus contents, respectively, compared with those under equal chemical NPK input. Water use in the 1.0-1.5 m soil profile was improved, therefore, the soil conditions were better for maize root growth, leaf area and shoot biomass of individual maize plants increased significantly with OM application. Optimized NPK strategies increased grain yield and water use efficiency by 18.5 and 20.6%, respectively, compared to only chemical NP input. Furthermore, additional OM input promoted yield and water use efficiency by 8.9 and 5.8%, respectively. Addition of OM promotes sustainable soil and maize grain productivity as well as friendly soil environmental management of dry land farming.


Assuntos
Esterco/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Solo/química , Água/análise , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Zea mays/metabolismo
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111028, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829206

RESUMO

In this study, biochar-loading copper ions (Cu-BC), a novel composite for removing phenanthrene very efficiently from water, was prepared using the impregnation method. The performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) with these modified and original biochar as substrates was analyzed. CW with Cu-BC removed a large amount of phenanthrene (94.09 ± 3.02%). According to the surface characteristics analysis, Cu-BC can promote the removal of pollutants via complex absorption, hydrophobic adsorption, increasing the Lewis Pair and electrostatic attraction. Furthermore the higher nitrate removal rate in the treated system (91.11 ± 1.17%) was observed to have higher levels of bacterial metabolic diversity and denitrifier types. The phenanthrene accumulated in plants with this treatment system was enhanced by the role of copper in photosynthesis. It is able to boost the plant extraction of organic matter.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Cobre/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Adsorção , Nitratos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenantrenos
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 831-838, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608744

RESUMO

Because of the massive discharge of nitrogenous wastewater, the eutrophication of a water body is becoming increasingly serious, and how to effectively remove nitrogen from this wastewater remains an urgent problem to be solved. In this study, due to disadvantages in the traditional biological nitrogen removal process, such as complex and long procedures, high energy consumption, weak impact resistance, and N2O release, the nitrogen removal theory by heterotrophic nitrification was further analyzed by discussing the physiological-biochemical, heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification, and N2O production characteristics of a high-efficiency heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa YL. Results show that the strain YL had an eminent heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification ability, and NH4+-N, NO2--N, and NO3--N with concentration of 100 mg·L-1 could be completely removed during the 24-hour incubation period. There was almost no intermediate product in the process of heterotrophic nitrification, however when NO3--N was used as nitrogen source, the accumulation of NO2--N reached 25.55 mg·L-1. Meanwhile, the successful expression of denitrification genes napA, nirK, and nosZ further confirmed the aerobic denitrification ability of strain YL. Gaseous nitrogen products accounted for about 30%-40% of removed TN in the heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification process by strain YL, and N2 was the main denitrification product. When NH4+-N, NO2--N, and NO3--N were used as the sole nitrogen source, N2 production amounted to 3.46, 3.49, and 3.36 mg, respectively. In contrast, only small amounts of N2O were produced in the denitrification process by strain YL, and the total amount was 6.63 µg when NH4+-N was the nitrogen source, which was much lower than in the cases of NO2--N and NO3--N as the sole nitrogen source. In addition, high C/N, low pH, high temperature, high NH4+-N, and high NO2--N conditions could result in more N2O generation. Nevertheless, most environmental factors had little effect on N2O production of strain YL, and the maximum N2O production was significantly lower than that of short-cut nitrification system and autotrophic nitrification system. These results demonstrated that strain YL exhibited excellent abilities of nitrogen removal, N2O emission control, and tolerance to environmental conditions, and could be an effective candidate for treating wastewater without secondary air pollution.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Processos Heterotróficos , Nitritos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Aerobiose , Genes Bacterianos , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 839-848, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608745

RESUMO

To solve the problems of a slow start, easy loss, and easily inhibited activity of the Anammox bacteria suspension culture, polyvinyl alcohol-polypropylene (PVA-PP) was used to prepare the Anammox immobilized filler. To improve the activity of Anammox bacteria and ensure stable operation of the reaction system, the effects of COD interference, change in pH value, and rotating speed on the nitrogen removal characteristics of the immobilized filler were determined in batch tests. Changes in the structure and diversity of the bacteria in the filler were analyzed by a high-throughput sequencing technique. The results showed that the activity of Anammox bacteria could recover to 100% on the 30th day, and the total nitrogen removal rate was 87.7% when the total nitrogen volume load (NLR) was 0.69 kg·(m3·d)-1 at the stage of 99 days. After 140 days of long-term operation, the total nitrogen removal rate (NRR) reached 1.83 kg·(m3·d)-1, which was 9.4 times the suspended sludge before immobilization. The diversity of the population was maintained in the inclusion carrier, and the effective enrichment of Candidatus Kuenenia (AF375995.1), which performs anaerobic ammonia-oxidization, increased from 11.06% to 32.55%. The influence of COD interference and changes in the pH value of Anammox bacteria was significantly weakened, and the PVA-PP entrapped carrier could achieve the coupling removal of nitrogen by Anammox and denitrification. Appropriate external hydraulic disturbance would promote the Anammox reaction in immobilized systems.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/classificação , Reatores Biológicos , Células Imobilizadas/microbiologia , Desnitrificação , Oxirredução , Esgotos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0230222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603332

RESUMO

Conservation efforts are increasingly being challenged by a rapidly changing environment, and for some aquatic species the use of captive rearing or selective breeding is an attractive option. However, captivity itself can impose unintended artificial selection known as domestication selection (adaptation to culture conditions) and is relatively understudied for most marine species. To test for domestication selection in marine bivalves, we focused on a fitness-related trait (larval starvation resistance) that could be altered under artificial selection. Using larvae produced from a wild population of Crassostrea virginica and a selectively bred, disease-resistant line we measured growth and survival during starvation versus standard algal diet conditions. Larvae from both lineages showed a remarkable resilience to food limitation, possibly mediated by an ability to utilize dissolved organic matter for somatic maintenance. Water chemistry analysis showed dissolved organic carbon in filtered tank water to be at concentrations similar to natural river water. We observed that survival in larvae produced from the aquaculture line was significantly lower compared to larvae produced from wild broodstock (8 ± 3% and 21 ± 2%, respectively) near the end of a 10-day period with no food (phytoplankton). All larval cohorts had arrested growth and depressed respiration during the starvation period and took at least two days to recover once food was reintroduced before resuming growth. Respiration rate recovered rapidly and final shell length was similar between the two treatments Phenotypic differences between the wild and aquaculture lines suggest potential differences in the capacity to sustain extended food limitation, but this work requires replication with multiple selection lines and wild populations to make more general inferences about domestication selection. With this contribution we explore the potential for domestication selection in bivalves, discuss the physiological and fitness implications of reduced starvation tolerance, and aim to inspire further research on the topic.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/fisiologia , Domesticação , Larva/fisiologia , Inanição/fisiopatologia , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Crassostrea/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Respiração , Inanição/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656654

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) being a signaling molecule inside the plant cells, play significant role in signaling cascades and protection against environmental stresses. However, the protective role of NO in alleviating As toxicity in rice plants is currently not available. In the present study, the level of NO, nitrogen (N), inorganic N (nitrate, ammonium), thiols {TT (Total thiols), NPT (Nonprotein thiol)} and AAs contents along with N assimilating enzymes (NR, GDH, GOGAT) were analyzed after exposure of AsIII/NO treatment alone, and in combination. NO supplementation enhanced the content of N, inorganic N & thiol contents, NR, GOGAT activities, when compared with AsIII exposure alone. In AsIII exposed rice seedlings, content of AAs (except His, Arg, Met) reduced over the control, while supplementation of SNP improved AAs contents, compared to AsIII treatment alone. In conclusion, rice seedlings supplemented with NO tolerate the AsIII toxicity by reducing the N related parameters, thiol contents, altering the AA profile and enhanced the nutritional quality by increasing EAAs (essential amino acids) and NEAAs (non-essential amino acids).


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 337-344, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676683

RESUMO

This study explored nitrogen (N)-dependent interaction between Microcystis and chloramphenicol (CAP) along 20 day-test. Results showed that 5 mg/L N largely alleviated inhibitory effects of CAP on Microcystis growth, while 50 and 0.5 mg/L N exacerbated growth-inhibition by CAP especially in early (before day 8) and mid-late stage, respectively. At each N level, CAP-induced antioxidant defense and cell damage extents were negatively correlated to growth state in each stage, and CAP-biodegradation coincided with Microcystis growth and glutathione synthesis dynamics, implying that antioxidant defense, cell damage and CAP-removal closely linked to N-dependent Microcystis growth under CAP-stress. Microcystin (MC)-production and -release under CAP-stress were also N-dependent. Although Microcystis growth was greatly-inhibited by prolonged CAP-stress at 0.5 mg/L N, delayed CAP-loss and high MC-release at 0.5 mg/L N should be emphasized during Microcystis-dominated cyanobacterial blooms (MCBs) and CAP co-occurrence. This study had great implication in risk assessment for MCBs-CAP co-occurrence in different waters.


Assuntos
Cloranfenicol/toxicidade , Microcistinas/toxicidade , Microcystis , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706781

RESUMO

The impacts of urbanization, such as urban heat island (UHI) and nutrient loads, can influence tree function through altered physiology and metabolism and stress response, which has implications for urban forest health in cities across the world. Our goal was to compare growth-stimulating and stress-mitigating acclimation patterns of red maple (Acer rubrum) trees in deciduous forests embedded in a small (Newark, DE, US) and a large (Philadelphia, PA, US) city. The study was conducted in a long-term urban forest network on seventy-nine mature red maple trees spanning ten forests across Newark and Philadelphia. We hypothesized that red maples in Philadelphia forests compared to Newark forests will be healthier and more acclimated to warmer temperatures, elevated CO2 concentrations and reactive nitrogen (Nr) deposition, and higher nutrient/heavy metal loads. Therefore, these red maples will have higher foliar pigments, nutrients, and stress-indicating elements, enriched δ15N isotopes and increased free polyamines and amino acids to support a growth-stimulating and stress-induced response to urbanization. Our results indicate red maples are potentially growth-stimulated and stress-acclimated in Philadelphia forests experiencing a greater magnitude of urban intensity. Red maples in Philadelphia forests contained higher concentrations of foliar chlorophyll, %N, δ15N, and nutrients than those in Newark forests. Similarly, lower foliar magnesium and manganese, and higher foliar zinc, cadmium, lead, and aluminum reflected the difference in soil biogeochemistry in Philadelphia forests. Accumulation patterns of foliar free amino acids, polyamines, phosphorous, and potassium ions in red maples in Philadelphia forests shows a reallocation in cellular metabolism and nutrient uptake pathways responsible for physiological acclimation. Our results suggest the approach used here can serve as a model for investigating 'plant physiology' and the use of urban trees as a biomonitor of the impacts of 'urban pollution' on urban forests. The results suggest that cellular oxidative stress in trees caused by pollutant uptake is mitigated by the accumulation of free amino acids, polyamines, and nutrients in a larger city. Our study provides a framework for determining whether trees respond to complex urban environments through stress memory and/or acclimation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Acer/fisiologia , Parques Recreativos , Árvores/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Delaware , Florestas , Temperatura Alta , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Philadelphia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Urbanização
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236739, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730333

RESUMO

Rhodopseudomonas palustris PS3 is one of the purple phototrophic non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB), which have plant growth-promoting effects on various plants. To expand the scale of PS3 fermentation in a time- and cost-effective fashion, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of low-cost materials as culture media and to optimize the culture conditions via response surface methodology. Corn steep liquor (CSL) and molasses were identified as potential materials to replace the nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, in the conventional growth medium. The optimum culture conditions identified through central composite design were CSL, 39.41 mL/L; molasses, 32.35 g/L; temperature, 37.9°C; pH, 7.0; and DO 30%. Under the optimized conditions, the biomass yield reached 2.18 ± 0.01 g/L at 24 hours, which was 7.8-fold higher than that under the original medium (0.28 ± 0.01 g/L). The correlation between the predicted and experimental values of the model was over 98%, which verified the validity of the response models. Furthermore, we verified the effectiveness of the R. palustris PS3 inoculant grown under the newly developed culture conditions for plant growth promotion. This study provides a potential strategy for improving the fermentation of R. palustris PS3 in low-cost media for large-scale industrial production.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/economia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Rodopseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial , Rodopseudomonas/metabolismo
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2461-2470, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607724

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to study the effect of bacteria inhabiting in buffalo dung on nutritional properties of soil and plant. Three beneficial bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter xiangfangensis were isolated from buffalo dung to evaluate for their effects individually as well as in consortium. The combined effect of P. mirabilis and P. aeruginosa showed a significant enhancement in different biological parameters of Foeniculum vulgare such as primary branch (99.32%), secondary branch (98.32%), number of umbels (87.62%), number of umbellets (99.85%), number of seeds (104.94%), grain yield (62.38%), biological yield (35.99%), and harvest index (19.48%). Consortium of these potent bacteria also enhanced proximate constituents such as total ash (49.79%), ether extract (63.06%), crude fibre (48.91%), moisture content (33.40%), dry matter (31.45%), acid insoluble ash (33.20%), and crude protein (40.73%). A highly significant correlation (p ≤ 0.01) was found between nitrogen (r = 0.97), phosphorous (r = 0.95), and potassium (r = 0.97) contents of soil. This research enhances the knowledge of the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on nutrient properties of soil and fennel which deliver a new index for healthier use in organic agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Fezes/microbiologia , Foeniculum/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Búfalos , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Potássio/análise , Potássio/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Solo/química
19.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127578, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683024

RESUMO

Micro- and nano-plastics have widely been recognized as major global environmental problem due to its widespread use and inadequate waste management. The emergence of these plastic pollutants in agroecosystem is a legitimate ecotoxicological concerns for food web exchanges. In agriculture, micro/nano plastics are originated from a variety of different agricultural management practices, such as the use of compost, sewage sludge and mulching. A range of soil properties and plant traits are affected by their presence. With the increase of plastic debris, these pollutant materials have now begun to demonstrate serious implications for key soil ecosystem functions, such as soil microbial activity and nutrient cycling. Nitrogen (N) cycle is key predictor of ecological stability and management in terrestrial ecosystem. In this review, we evaluate ecological risks associated with micro-nano plastic for soil-plant system. We also discuss the consequence of plastic pollutants, either positive or negative, on soil microbial activities. In addition, we systematically summarize both direct and hypothesized implications for N cycling in agroecosystem. We conclude that soil N transformation had showed varied effects resulting from different types and sizes of plastic polymers present in soil. While mixed effects of microplastic pollution on plant growth and yield have been observed, biodegradable plastics have appeared to pose greater risk for plant growth compared to chemical plastic polymers.


Assuntos
Microplásticos/toxicidade , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Poluição Ambiental , Nanoestruturas , Esgotos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
20.
Toxicon ; 185: 147-155, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687889

RESUMO

The production of ß-Ν-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in cyanobacteria is triggered by nitrogen-starvation conditions and its biological role, albeit unknown, is associated with nitrogen assimilation. In the present study, the effect of BMAA (773 µg L-1) on nitrogen metabolism and physiology of the non-diazotrophic cyanobacterium and non-BMAA producer, Synechococcus sp. TAU-MAC 0499, was investigated. In order to study the combined effect of nitrogen availability and BMAA, nitrogen-starvation conditions were induced by transferring cells in nitrogen-free medium and subsequently exposing the cultures to BMAA. After short-term treatment (180 min) and in the presence of nitrogen, BMAA inhibited glutamine synthetase, which resulted in low concentration of glutamine. In the absence of nitrogen, although there was no effect on glutamine synthetase, a possible perturbation in nitrogen assimilation is reflected on the significant decrease in glutamate levels. During the long-term exposure (24-96 h), growth, photosynthetic pigments and total protein were not affected by BMAA exposure, except for an increase in protein and phycocyanin levels at 48 h in nitrogen replete conditions. Results suggest that BMAA interferes with nitrogen assimilation, in a different way, depending on the presence or absence of combined nitrogen, providing novel data on the potential biological role of BMAA.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/toxicidade , Agonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/toxicidade , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Synechococcus/fisiologia
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