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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e002220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428186

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection on the hemato-biochemical parameters, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance in Santa Inês lambs. Eighteen three-month-old Santa Ines castrated male lambs (16.9 ± 1.43 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed in two experimental treatments: infected with T. colubriformis (I, n = 9) and uninfected (U, n = 9). The I group received a total of 45,000 L3 larvae of T. colubriformis (5,000 infective larvae, three times per week, for three weeks). During the experimental period, blood, feed digestibility, and nitrogen balance were evaluated. The I lambs showed a reduction in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and total proteins, as well as an increase in platelets and eosinophils compared to those in the U group (p < 0.05). With the exception of total protein content, these values were within the normal range for the species. Furthermore, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility were observed in the I lambs (p = 0.08). The present findings highlight that T. colubriformis infection has the potential to impair some hemato-biochemical parameters as well as feed digestibility in lambs, which could affect their productivity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Sistema Digestório/parasitologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Trichostrongylus/parasitologia , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Índices de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Masculino , Nitrogênio/urina , Soroalbumina Bovina/análise , Soroglobulinas/análise , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/sangue , Tricostrongilose/urina , Tricostrongilose/veterinária
2.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1330-1336, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple methods of correcting nutrient intake for misreported energy intake have been proposed but have not been extensively compared. The availability of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) data set, which includes several objective recovery biomarkers, offers an opportunity to compare these corrections with respect to protein intake. OBJECTIVE: We compared 5 energy-correction methods for self-reported dietary protein against urinary nitrogen-derived protein intake. METHODS: As part of the WHI Nutritional Biomarkers Study (NBS) 544 participants (50- to 80-y-old women) completed a FFQ and biomarker assessments using doubly labeled water (DLW) for total energy expenditure (TEE) and 24-h urinary nitrogen. Correction methods evaluated were as follows: 1) DLW-TEE; 2) the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) estimated energy requirement (EER) TEE prediction equation based on sex, height, weight, and age; 3) published NBS total energy TEE prediction (WHI-NBS-TEE) using age, BMI, race, and income; 4) reported protein versus reported energy linear regression-based residual method; and 5) a Goldberg cutoff to exclude subjects reporting energy intakes <1.35 times their basal metabolic rate. Efficacy was evaluated using correlations obtained by regressing corrected protein against biomarker protein (6.25 × urinary nitrogen/0.81). RESULTS: Unadjusted self-reported protein intake from the FFQ (mean = 66.7 g) correlated weakly (r = 0.31) with biomarker protein (mean = 74.9 g). DLW-TEE-corrected self-reported protein intake (mean = 90.7 g) had the strongest correlation with biomarker protein (r = 0.47). Other energy corrections yielded lower, but still significant correlations: EER, r = 0.44 (mean = 92.1 g); WHI-NBS-TEE, r = 0.37 (mean = 90.4 g); Goldberg cutoff, r = 0.36 (mean = 88.4 g); and residual method, r = 0.35 (mean = 66.7 g). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that proportional correction of reported protein intake using a measure of energy requirement from DLW-TEE or IOM-EER performed modestly better than other methods in this cohort. These energy adjustments, however, yielded corrected protein exceeding the biomarker protein, indicating that energy adjustment alone does not eliminate all self-reported protein reporting bias.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Nitrogênio/urina , Autorrelato , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Deutério , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Isótopos de Oxigênio , Saúde da Mulher
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1797-1805, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two consecutive trials were carried out to study the effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) metabolism (Trial 1), and consequently the nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from urine in beef cattle (Trial 2). Eight 24-month-old castrated Simmental bulls with liveweights of 494 ± 28 kg, and four levels of dietary supplementation of RPM at 0, 10, 20, and 30 g head-1 d-1 , were allocated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square for Trial 1 and the N2 O emissions from the urine samples collected in Trial 1 were measured using a static incubation technique in Trial 2. RESULTS: Supplementation of RPM at 0, 10, 20, and 30 g head-1 d-1 to a basal ration deficient in methionine (Met) did not affect the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber (P > 0.05), but decreased the urinary excretions of total N (P < 0.05) and urea (P < 0.001), increased the ratio of N retention / digested N (P < 0.05) in beef cattle, and decreased the estimated cattle urine N2 O-N emissions by 19.5%, 23.4%, and 32.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Supplementation of RPM to Met-deficient rations was effective in improving the utilization rate of dietary N and decreasing the N2 O emissions from urine in beef cattle. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/urina , Óxido Nitroso/urina , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ureia/urina , Urina/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/urina , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise
4.
Ups J Med Sci ; 124(4): 254-259, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847792

RESUMO

Background: Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage often have impaired consciousness and cannot regulate nutritional intakes themselves. Previous studies have demonstrated elevated energy expenditure in the acute phase, but it is not known whether the energy demand is constant during the first week after onset of the disease. In this study, we performed daily measurements of energy expenditure with indirect calorimetry during the first 7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in mechanically ventilated patients.Methods: Metabolic measurements were performed daily with indirect calorimetry in 26 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. All patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated. The measured value was compared to the predicted values from the Harris-Benedict equation and the Penn State University 1998 equation. Urinary nitrogen excretion was measured daily.Results: There was a significant increase in energy expenditure during days 2-3 compared to days 5-6. The Harris-Benedict equation underestimated metabolic demand. The Penn State 1998 equation was closer to the measured values, but still underestimated caloric need. Urinary nitrogen excretion increased throughout the first week from initially low values.Conclusions: There is a dynamic course in energy expenditure in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, with increasing metabolic demand during the first week of the disease. Indirect calorimetry could be used more often to help provide an adequate amount of energy.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Calorimetria Indireta , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/urina , Respiração Artificial , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/terapia
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8559-8570, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301843

RESUMO

Because of its high yield and the ability of cows to graze it in situ, fodder beet (FB) has become a popular crop in grazing systems, particularly for nonlactating cows. Due to its high sugar content, however, the transition to FB must be managed carefully to avoid rumen acidosis and associated metabolic dysfunction. The initial consumption of FB reduces ruminal pH; however, it is unclear whether this affects liver metabolism and results in systemic inflammation, as has been reported during subacute ruminal acidosis from high-grain diets. We used a quantitative case study approach to undertake additional measurements on a project demonstrating the effects of FB on urinary nitrogen excretion. The objective of our component, therefore, was to determine whether the inclusion of high rates of FB in the diet of nonlactating cows changed indicators of hepatic metabolism relative to a standard diet for nonlactating grazing cows. During the nonlactating period, multiparous, pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly assigned (n = 15 per treatment) to either pasture (8 kg of DM/cow per day) with corn silage (4 kg of DM/cow per day; PA) or transitioning onto an FB diet (8 kg of DM/cow per day) with pasture silage (4 kg of DM/cow per day; BT) over 14 d. Blood was sampled and the liver was biopsied during the adaptation period and after 7 d of full diet allocation. The hepatic expression of genes involved in peroxisomal oxidation was increased in cows adapting to FB, whereas the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial oxidation was increased when cows were on their full allocation of FB. These results indicate changes to fatty acid metabolism with FB consumption. Expression of 2 genes involved in the unfolded protein response was greater during the adaptation period in cows consuming FB, potentially reflecting negative effects of transitioning onto the FB diet on hepatic metabolism. Interestingly, expression of genes involved in the methionine cycle was increased in the BT cows. We hypothesize that this is a result of FB betaine absorption, although it is unclear to what extent betaine escapes ruminal degradation. While on the full diet allocation, there were lower serum concentrations of markers of hepatic stress in BT cows and no difference in expression of genes involved in oxidative stress compared with pasture-fed cows. However, there was an increase in plasma haptoglobin concentrations, indicative of an acute inflammatory response in BT cows. From this case study, we conclude that the results indicate no negative effects of the FB diet on liver metabolism and, possibly, positive effects on hepatic function. It appears, therefore, that the transition of nonlactating cows onto an FB diet can be managed to minimize the negative effects of the high sugar intake. Further research on the amount of betaine that escapes ruminal degradation in cows consuming FB would be of value to better understand whether betaine reduces liver damage in dairy cows consuming FB.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fígado/metabolismo , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Beta vulgaris/efeitos adversos , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/química , Nitrogênio/urina , Gravidez , Rúmen/química , Zea mays
6.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3472-3486, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251796

RESUMO

The objectives of the study were 1) to quantify dietary N utilized for milk N and N loss in urine and feces, in sows fed increasing dietary CP with a constant amount of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp to meet their standardized ileal digestible (SID) requirement and 2) to determine the optimal dietary CP concentration based on dietary N utilization for milk production. Seventy-two sows were fed 1 of 6 dietary treatments, formulated to increase the SID CP as followed: 11.8, 12.8, 13.4, 14.0, 14.7, and 15.6% and formulated to be isocaloric (9.8 MJ NE/kg). Diets were fed from day 2 after parturition until weaning at day 28 (± 3 d). Litters were equalized to 14 piglets and weighed within 48 h following parturition. Sows were weighed and back fat scanned, at day 18 (± 3 d) and day 28 (weaning; ± 3 d). Litter weight was recorded at day 11, 18 (± 3 d), and 28 (± 3 d). Nitrogen balances were conducted on approximately day 4, 11, and 18 (± 3 d). Daily milk yield was estimated from recorded litter gain and litter size. To calculate sows mobilization of fat and protein, body pools of fat and protein were estimated by D2O (deuterated water) enrichment on day 4 and 18 (± 3 d). No linear, quadratic, or cubic effects of increasing dietary CP was observed for sows total feed intake, sow BW, body pools of protein and fat, protein and fat mobilization, total milk yield, and piglet performance. The protein content in milk increased linearly with increasing dietary CP in week 1 (P < 0.05), week 2 (P < 0.05), and week 3 (P < 0.001). Urine production did not differ among treatments and N output in urine increased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration in week 1 (P = 0.05), week 2 (P < 0.001), and week 3 (P < 0.001). Urine N excretion relative to N intake increased linearly with increasing dietary CP (P < 0.001). Milk N utilization relative to N intake decreased linearly from 77.8% to 63.1% from treatment 1 through 6 (P < 0.001). Corrected milk N utilization decreased from 68.6% to 64.2% from treatment 1 through 6 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, a low dietary CP concentration for lactating sows with supplemented crystalline AA improved the efficiency of dietary N utilization and reduced the N output in urine without affecting lactation performance.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/química , Feminino , Íleo/metabolismo , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Leite/química , Nitrogênio/urina , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Desmame
7.
J Nutr ; 149(7): 1122-1132, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The minimum to which dietary crude protein (CP) level for broiler chickens can be reduced without decreasing growth and the glycine equivalent (Glyequi) concentration required are not known. The plasma metabolome might reflect dietary influences on physiological processes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 low CP levels with 4 Glyequi concentrations on growth and characteristics of nitrogen excretion, and to identify plasma metabolome variations. METHODS: Male Ross308 broiler chickens were provided 1 of 12 dietary treatments in 84 metabolism cages (10/cage) from days 7 to 21. Three diets with 163 (CP163), 147 (CP147), and 132 (CP132) g CP/kg were formulated, each containing 12, 15, 18, and 21 g Glyequi/kg. Essential amino acid concentrations were the same in all diets. Animals and feed were weighed on days 7 and 21 to determine average daily gain (ADG) and gain:feed ratio (G:F). Excreta were collected from days 18 to 21 to analyze nitrogenous components, and blood was obtained on day 21 to conduct a metabolome analysis. RESULTS: Two-factor ANOVA showed significant interaction effects for ADG, G:F, and nitrogen efficiency (P < 0.001). Reduction of CP decreased ADG and G:F, and increased nitrogen efficiency. Glyequi supplementation increased ADG (by 7.9 g/d) and G:F (by 0.07 g/g) at CP132. The ADG (by 2.4 g/d) at CP147 and G:F (by 0.02 g/g) at CP147 and CP163 increased up to 15 g Glyequi/kg. Multivariate statistical analysis showed an influence of Glyequi on plasma acylcarnitine and lysophosphatidylcholine concentrations, and a decrease of plasma phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin concentrations with reduced CP. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a nutrient other than Glyequi limited growth when CP was reduced from CP163 to CP147, and that the response of broiler chickens to Glyequi is dependent on the dietary CP level. Plasma metabolites indicate dietary influences on the physiological state of the animals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Glicina/análise , Metaboloma , Nitrogênio/urina , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Masculino
8.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 370(2): 288-298, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152006

RESUMO

In mouse pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, current standard methods often require large numbers of animals to support collection of blood samples serially over a defined time range. We have developed and validated a noninvasive fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) heart imaging approach for blood PK quantification that uses small numbers of mice and has the advantage of repeated, longitudinal live imaging. This method was validated using a variety of near infrared (NIR) fluorescent-labeled molecules, ranging in size from 1.3 to 150 kDa, that were assessed by microplate blood assays as well as by noninvasive FMT 4000 imaging. Excellent agreement in kinetic profiles and calculated PK metrics was seen for the two methods, establishing the robustness of this noninvasive optical imaging approach. FMT heart imaging was further assessed in the challenging application of inulin-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. After a single bolus injection of an NIR fluorescent-labeled inulin probe in small cohorts of mice (n = 5 per group), 2-minute heart scans (at 2, 6, 15, 30, and 45 minutes) were performed by FMT imaging. GFR was calculated using two-compartment PK modeling, determining an average rate of 240 ± 21 µl/min in normal mice, in agreement with published mouse GFR ranges. Validation of GFR assessment in unilaterally nephrectomized mice and cyclosporin A-treated mice both measured ∼50% decreases in GFR. Imaging results correlated well with ex vivo plasma microplate assays for inulin blood kinetics, and the decreases in GFR were accompanied by increases in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Óptica , Tomografia , Animais , Sangue/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Camundongos , Nitrogênio/urina , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 258, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eggshell membranes, the thin film lining the insides of eggshells, are constituted mostly from protein (eggshell membrane protein, ESM-P). The digestibility and dietary net protein utility of ESM-P are not known. ESM-P functions as a barrier to prevent foreign matter from reaching the egg white and yolk, so it would be expected not to decompose easily by digestion when ingested. We therefore prepared a hydrolysate of the membrane (ESM-H). In this study, we assessed the digestibility and net protein utility of ESM-P and ESM-H in rats. RESULTS: The digestibility of ESM-P and ESM-H were 87.0% and 94.8%, respectively, significantly lower than that of casein (98.5%). The net protein utility values were 84.7% and 84.6%, respectively, significantly higher than that of casein (75.1%). Digestibility was significantly higher for ESM-H than for ESM-P, but there was no significant difference in net protein utility between ESM-P and ESM-H. These results demonstrated that more than 80% of ESM-P or ESM-H is absorbed and utilised in the bodies of rats.


Assuntos
Absorção Fisiológica , Casca de Ovo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Digestão , Fezes/química , Masculino , Nitrogênio/urina , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(3): 714-717, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144979

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: protein restriction is the mainstay of dietary management of chronic kidney disease. Aim: to assess the usefulness of urine urea nitrogen measurement as a marker of protein restriction. Methods: healthy young participants were randomly divided in two groups. During 14 days, one group received a diet containing 30 kcal/kg body weight and 1 g protein/kg body weight and the other group received a diet with the same amount of calories and 0.6 g/kg of proteins. At baseline, seven days and 14 days, 24 h dietary recalls were answered by the participants. They collected 24 hour urine and provided spot urine samples at baseline and at the end of the intervention, to measure creatinine and urea nitrogen. Results: forty-one participants aged 29 ± 5 years completed the follow-up. According to 24h dietary recalls, the group receiving 0.6 g/kg protein reduced significantly the protein intake during the intervention from 0.88 ± 0.06 to 0.59 ± 0.05 g/kg/day. A significant reduction in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion was also observed in this group. In the group receiving 1 g/kg of protein, no significant changes in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion were observed. Among all participants, the odds ratio of observing a reduction in protein intake in the dietary survey was 5.75 (95% confidence intervals 1.29-25.55, p = 0.02), when a reduction in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion corrected by creatinine was observed. No changes were observed in urea nitrogen excretion in spot urine samples. Conclusions: repeated urea nitrogen excretion measured in 24 h urine samples can be a reliable indicator of dietary protein restriction.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Cooperação do Paciente , Ureia/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/urina , Razão de Chances , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5212-5218, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981480

RESUMO

Nitrogen concentrations in feeds, feces, milk, and urine samples were measured using 2 analytical methods following different drying procedures. Ten samples of corn silage, alfalfa silage, and concentrates collected from 2017 to 2018 at Krauss Dairy Research Center, The Ohio State University (Wooster), were used. A 4-d total collection digestion trial provided fecal samples from 10 cows (1 sample/cow), and another 10 cows were used to collect milk samples (1 sample/cow) and spot urine samples (1 sample/cow). Spot urine samples were acidified immediately to pH <3.0 when collected. Feed samples were oven dried (55°C) or lyophilized and analyzed using the Kjeldahl (KJ; copper sulfate as a catalyst) method and a combustion method (elemental analyzer; EA). Feces, urine, and milk samples were analyzed for N using the following methods: (1) fresh samples by KJ (referred to as wet KJ), (2) lyophilization (urine and milk for 8 h; feces for 120 h) followed by EA (LYO-EA), and (3) oven drying (milk and urine for 1 h; feces for 72 h at 55°C) followed by EA (OD-EA). Additionally, changes in N content of acidified urine at -20° over 180 d of storage were examined. Nitrogen concentrations in corn silage, alfalfa silage, and concentrates were greater for EA by 6.1, 4.8, and 8.3%, respectively, compared with KJ. Analysis of dried samples via EA compared with wet KJ resulted in lower fecal N content (27.8 vs. 29.3 g/kg of DM). Nitrogen concentration in fecal samples via KJ after lyophilization was lower by 5% compared with wet KJ but did not differ from LYO-EA, suggesting that N losses occurred during drying. Nitrogen determination with EA after drying of samples resulted in greater milk N (5.70 vs. 5.50 g/kg) and urinary N (9.16 vs. 9.06 g/kg) content compared with wet KJ. However, drying method (i.e., lyophilization vs. oven drying) did not affect N content of milk, urine, or feces. The use of EA resulted in lower percentage deviation of N content from duplicate sample assays for most samples (no difference was found for concentrate and fecal N), suggesting that EA was more precise than KJ. In conclusion, drying of feces caused N losses regardless of drying methods. For urine and milk samples, if drying is necessary (i.e., EA), oven drying at 55°C can be used rather than lyophilization. The N content was greater in feeds, milk, and urine when determined with EA versus KJ. In addition, N content in acidified and undiluted urine at -20° changed and should be analyzed within 90 d of storage. The results in the current study, however, did not account for laboratory-to-laboratory variation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos , Leite/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Animais , Dessecação , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Feminino , Lactação , Medicago sativa/química , Nitrogênio/urina , Silagem/análise , Zea mays/química
12.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717308

RESUMO

Our aim was to assess the validity of the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ15y) to estimate the protein intake in 248 Japanese secondary school students (mean age = 14.2 years), using urinary biomarkers as references. Participants provided three samples of overnight urine for measurement of urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, underwent anthropometric measurements, and answered the questionnaires. Additionally, 58 students provided 24-h urine specimens. A significant correlation was observed between excretion of urea nitrogen in overnight and 24-h urine specimens (ρ = 0.527; p < 0.001), with biases ≤5.8%. The mean daily protein intake estimated from urinary biomarkers was 76.4 ± 20.4 g/d in males and 65.4 ± 16.9 g/d in females, and the mean protein intake estimated from the BDHQ15y (PRTbdhq) was 89.3 ± 33.7 g/d in males and 79.6 ± 24.6 g/d in females. Crude and energy-adjusted coefficients of correlation between PRTbdhq and protein intake estimated from urinary biomarkers were 0.205 (p = 0.001; 0.247 for males and 0.124 for females), and 0.204 (p = 0.001; 0.302 for males and 0.109 for females), respectively. The BDHQ15y is a low-cost tool to assess protein intake of a large population, instead of a weakness of overestimation.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/urina , Ureia/urina , Adolescente , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 34(5): 751-759, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Published guidelines recommend providing at least 2 g/kg/d of protein for critically ill surgical patients. It may be difficult to achieve this level of intake using standard enteral formulas, thus necessitating protein or amino acid supplementation. Herein, we report our approach to enteral protein supplementation and its relationship with urinary nitrogen excretion and serum transthyretin concentrations. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in which we reviewed critically ill trauma and surgical patients treated with supplemental enteral protein according to a protocol aiming to deliver a total of 2 g/kg/d of protein. We collected detailed nutrition data over a 2-week period after admission and obtained additional data through discharge to determine caloric and protein intake as well as complications. We also compared urine nitrogen excretion and transthyretin concentrations between these patients and a control group who did not receive supplemental protein. RESULTS: Fifty-three subjects received early protein supplementation. Formula and protein supplement each provided ≈1.2 g/kg/d of protein by intensive care unit day 4. This resulted in a median total protein intake of 2.2 g/kg/d through day 14. One patient developed acute kidney injury, and 1 patient had 3 episodes of vomiting. By the third week, serum transthyretin concentrations increased to a median of 21 mg/dL compared with 13 mg/dL in subjects not receiving early supplementation. CONCLUSION: It is safe to deliver supplemental protein enterally to critically ill surgical and trauma patients and reach 2 g/kg/d of protein intake during the first week of illness.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/urina , Pré-Albumina/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Nefrologia ; 39(2): 124-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236553

RESUMO

This review discusses the diagnostic value of urinary parameters in the setting of advanced chronic kidney disease and we present the key concepts that summarise the suggestions of the manuscript. URINARY VOLUME: The amount of fluid intake may be a non-established risk factor for CKD. For these patients, a urinary output ≥2-3 l/day is a reasonable proposal. This recommendation is not applicable to patients with cardiorenal syndrome or fluid overload risk. NA: This determination is very useful to monitor salt intake. Reducing urinary Na<120 mEq/day (≅salt intake≤5-6g) is a reasonable objective. URINARY UREA NITROGEN (UUN): This parameter is useful to estimate protein intake (Maroni BJ equation). A protein intake between 48-72g (0.8-0.9g/kg/day according to weight) is equivalent to UUN 7-10g/day approximately. ACID LOAD AND POTASSIUM: Acid load reduction may be an additional strategy in the nutritional management of this population. It may be estimated indirectly from a diet survey or by measuring the elimination of UUN and Kur. The limits of this recommendation have not been established, but we propose a cautious and prudent diet of fruit and vegetables. PHOSPHORUS: There is a significant positive correlation between phosphorus and protein, both in dietary records and urine elimination. Based on this information, we suggest a urinary P excretion<800mg/day or<600mg/day for patients with GFR<25ml/min or<15ml/min, respectively. CONCLUSION: Urinary parameters provide sensitive and useful knowledge for clinical practice, provide information about the dietary habits of patients and the adherence to our recommendations.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Ácidos , Cálcio/urina , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/urina , Creatinina/urina , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/urina , Diurese , Ingestão de Líquidos , Frutas , Humanos , Nitrogênio/urina , Concentração Osmolar , Fósforo/administração & dosagem , Fósforo/urina , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Potássio/urina , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Sódio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ureia/urina , Verduras
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(1): 171-177, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051199

RESUMO

The effect of mineral salts on water ingestion and urine volume in cattle has been extensively studied. However, recently, this effect has been investigated as a potential mitigator of environmental aspects related to the nitrogen (N) cycle, such as nitrate (NO3-) lixiviation, ammonia (NH3) volatilisation, and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The effect of mineral salts, particularly sodium chloride (NaCl), on urine-N concentration, urine volume, the proportion of N compounds in the urine, and faecal-N concentration has not yet been explored in field conditions with respect to environmental aspects of beef cattle production. The present study investigated the effect of dietary mineral salt rates on these parameters. A Latin square (5 × 5) experimental design was utilised with five concentrations of mineral salts in the diet: 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 g based on dry matter (DM) ingestion (g/kg DM). The nitrogen concentration in the urine and urine volume increased linearly. The total N excreted (g/day) via urine did not vary with increasing mineral salt concentrations. When evaluated, the N compounds of urine (urea-N, allantoin-N, and hippuric acid-N) also reacted to the increased mineral salt concentrations, while creatinine-N did not. Urea-N, allantoin-N, and hippuric acid-N linearly increased their proportions in total N-urine. The N concentration in faeces was not affected by mineral salt concentrations. The urine volume, concentration of N, and proportion of N compounds in the urine affected N2O emissions and NH3 volatilisation. Therefore, mineral salt utilisation may be an option for mitigating N pollution from beef cattle, especially for grasslands in tropical countries.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Urina/química , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Pradaria , Minerais/análise , Nitrogênio/urina , Micção
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(2): 1601-1607, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471912

RESUMO

Our objectives were to assess the relationships between milk urea N (MUN), serum urea N (SUN), urine N (UN), and urinary urea N (UUN) in late-lactation cows fed N-limiting diets and compare these relationships with those previously established. Data were from a pen-based study in which 128 Holstein cows had been assigned to 1 of 16 pens in a randomized complete block design to assess the effects of diets containing 16.2, 14.4, 13.1, and 11.8% crude protein (CP, dry matter basis) during a 12-wk period. At least half of the cows in each pen were randomly selected to collect pen-level samples of serum and urine in wk 3, 7, and 11, when wk in lactation averaged 35, 39, and 43, respectively. A mixed model was developed to study the relationship of MUN with SUN, UN, and UUN. Week of lactation did not affect the relation between MUN and SUN across dietary treatments. However, we found a week × MUN interaction, suggesting that between wk 35 and 43 of lactation, UN excretion decreased from 89 to 73 g/d (-17 g/d) when MUN was 6.0 mg/dL (11.8% dietary CP) but increased from 142 to 149 g/d (+7 g/d) when MUN was 13.3 mg/dL (16.2% dietary CP). These effects were essentially due to changes in UUN excretion, which declined from 54 to 37 g/d (-17 g/d) and increased from 112 to 117 g/d (+5 g/d) when MUN was 6.0 and 13.3 mg/dL, respectively. When MUN was 11.2 mg/dL (15% dietary CP), UN and UUN excretions remained constant over time. Based on root mean squared prediction error and the concordance correlation coefficient, these data did not conform to most previously published prediction equations because of both mean and slope biases. The discrepancy could have resulted from difference in study design (cow vs. pen as experimental unit), dietary treatments (energy vs. N-limiting diets), frequency of measurement and duration of adaptation period (single measurement after 1 to 3 wk of adaptation vs. repeated measurements over a 12-wk period), method for determining urine volume (total collection vs. spot sampling), and the assay used to measure MUN. However, our data captured changes in kidney physiology that warrant further studies of long-term renal adaptation to N-limiting diets.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Leite/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Bovinos/urina , Feminino , Lactação , Nitrogênio/urina , Ureia/análise , Ureia/urina
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296571

RESUMO

Marsupial embryos of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea) were collected at different stages of development and assayed for products of nitrogen excretion. Stages were classified as early stage one, late stage one (clear embryo and somite differentiation), early stage two (chorion shed, prior to blastokinesis), late stage two (following blastokinesis), and mancae (vitelline membrane shed; second embryonic molt). Stage one and stage two embryos were primarily ammonotelic. Mancae showed a significant increase in stored uric acid and decrease in ammonia production, in most cases to undetectable levels. The increased metabolic rate of mancae, and the fact that they imbibe marsupial fluid prior to exiting the marsupium, may have favored a switch from ammonotely to uricotely to avoid ammonia toxicity. Protein metabolism, estimated from ammonia production, accounted for 7% of the measured catabolic rate in Stage 2 embryos. Newly emerged juveniles showed a >2-fold increase in metabolism relative to mancae, accompanying the transition from aquatic to aerial respiration. Following 48 h post-emergence, juveniles resumed ammonia excretion, volatilizing the base (NH3) as in later instars. Elevated ammonia excretion in early juveniles may derive from the catabolism of remaining yolk protein. A sharp increase in whole-animal glutamine in juveniles is consistent with its role as an intermediary nitrogen store during periodic ammonia excretion. Total ammonia concentration in the marsupial fluid fluctuated but did not increase significantly over time and ammonia was not volatilized across the oostegites, indicating that embryo ammonia is transported into the maternal hemolymph for excretion.


Assuntos
Marsupiais/embriologia , Nitrogênio/urina , Amônia/urina , Animais , Feminino , Glutamina/metabolismo , Marsupiais/urina , Gravidez , Ureia/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
18.
Turk J Pediatr ; 61(3): 352-358, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916712

RESUMO

Wu R, Li LH, Tian ZF, Xu WY, Hu JH, Liu YY. Nitrogen balance of very preterm infants with extrauterine growth restriction. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 352-358. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of nitrogen balance in preterm infants with extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) during hospitalization. A total of 64 very preterm infants admitted to the Neonatal Medical Center of Huai`an Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital were enrolled from May to October 2014. These infants had gestational ages less than 32 weeks and were within 24 hours after birth. The enrolled infants were classified into EUGR (n=18) and non EUGR (n=46) groups according to the discharge weight being below or above the 10th percentile of the expected intrauterine growth for the postmenstrual age. The urinary urea nitrogen of the infants were assayed by the Kjeldahl method and determined at 1st, 7th, 14th and 28th day after birth. Nitrogen balance at each time point was calculated and compared between the EUGR and non EUGR groups. The incidence rate of small for gestational age (SGA) infants (33.3% vs 0.0%) in the EUGR group was higher than that in non EUGR group. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The birth weight (1.37±0.20 vs 1.63±0.27) and birth weight Z-score (-1.14±0.29 vs-0.37±0.66) in the EUGR group were lower those in non EUGR group. The difference was statistically significant (all p < 0.05). At the 1st, 7th, 14th and 28th day after birth, nitrogen balance values of all infants were negative, showing an upward trend with age. At each observation time point, the nitrogen balance values in the EUGR group were lower than those in non-EUGR group. The differences on the 1st and 28th day between two groups were statistically significant (both p < 0.05), while those on the other time point were not statistically significant (both p > 0.05). All very preterm infants of study were in negative nitrogen balance while the infants of EUGR group had more seriously negative balance.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Nitrogênio/urina , Ureia/urina , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 35(6): 1263-1269, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525838

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: the Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill (NUTRIC) score does not include a variable that objectively estimates protein hypercatabolism (PHC), one of the main metabolic changes experienced by critical patients. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the correlation of the NUTRIC score with PHC in critically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: prospective, observational study. Mixed ICU. It included ventilated patients ≥ 18 years old, without anuria or chronic renal failure. The modified NUTRIC score, which replaces IL-6 for PCR, was obtained at admission and 24-hour urine was collected at the 2nd (T0) and 4th day (T1) to determine the total urinary nitrogen (TUN). RESULTS: a total of 69 patients were included. Average age: 43 years (± 17.01); 73% were males. Admission pathologies: trauma (39%) and sepsis (20%). APACHE II: 17 (± 6.66). Seventeen patients presented acute renal failure (ARF). NUTRIC score mean: 3.13 (± 1.94); 84% presented low nutritional risk. The Pearson correlation between NUTRIC and TUN in T0 and T1 was: -0.150 (p: 0.218) and -0.053 (p: 0.663). The mean length of staying in ICU and mechanical ventilation was: 13.35 (± 12.37) and 9.84 (± 10.82) days, respectively. Mortality in ICU: 36%. In the non-ARF subgroup with low risk according to NUTRIC score, 27% presented severe PHC at T0 and 52% at T1. The correlation was: 0.070 (p: 0.620) and 0.138 (p: 0.329), respectively. CONCLUSION: no correlation was found between the estimators of the stress metabolic response of the NUTRIC score and the PHC in critically ill patients ventilated; therefore, it would not be possible to substitute the measurement of the same in the assessment of the nutritional risk.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Estado Nutricional , Proteínas/metabolismo , Respiração Artificial , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/urina , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 35(6): 1263-1269, nov.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181465

RESUMO

Introducción: la escala de riesgo nutricional NUTRIC no incluye una variable que estime en forma objetiva el hipercatabolismo proteico (HCP), una de las principales alteraciones metabólicas que experimentan los pacientes críticos. Objetivo: evaluar la correlación de la escala NUTRIC con el HCP en pacientes críticos ventilados. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional. UCI polivalente. Incluyó pacientes ≥ 18 años, ventilados, sin anuria ni insuficiencia renal crónica. La variante del NUTRIC, que remplaza la IL-6 por PCR se obtuvo al ingreso y se recolectó orina de 24 horas al segundo (T0) y cuarto día (T1) para determinar el nitrógeno urinario total (NUT). Resultados: se incluyeron 69 pacientes. Edad media: 43 años (± 17,01); el 73% eran varones. Patologías de ingreso: trauma (39%) y sepsis (20%). APACHE II: 17 (± 6,66). Presentaron insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA) 17 pacientes. NUTRIC medio: 3,13 (± 1,94). El 84% presentó bajo riesgo nutricional. La correlación de Pearson entre NUTRIC y NUT en T0 y T1 fue de -0,150 (p: 0,218) y -0,053 (p: 0,663). La media de internación y ventilación mecánica fue de 13,35 (± 12,37) y 9,84 (± 10,82) días, respectivamente. Mortalidad en UCI: 36%. En el subgrupo sin IRA con bajo riesgo por NUTRIC el 27% presentó HCP severo en T0 y el 52% en T1. La correlación fue: 0,070 (p: 0,620) y 0,138 (p: 0,329), respectivamente. Conclusión: no se halló correlación entre los estimadores de la respuesta metabólica de estrés de la escala NUTRIC y el HCP en pacientes críticos ventilados; por lo tanto, no se podría sustituir la medición real del mismo en la valoración del riesgo nutricional


Introduction: the Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill (NUTRIC) score does not include a variable that objectively estimates protein hypercatabolism (PHC), one of the main metabolic changes experienced by critical patients. Objective: to evaluate the correlation of the NUTRIC score with PHC in critically ventilated patients. Material and methods: prospective, observational study. Mixed ICU. It included ventilated patients ≥ 18 years old, without anuria or chronic renal failure. The modified NUTRIC score, which replaces IL-6 for PCR, was obtained at admission and 24-hour urine was collected at the 2nd (T0) and 4th day (T1) to determine the total urinary nitrogen (TUN). Results: a total of 69 patients were included. Average age: 43 years (± 17.01); 73% were males. Admission pathologies: trauma (39%) and sepsis (20%). APACHE II: 17 (± 6.66). Seventeen patients presented acute renal failure (ARF). NUTRIC score mean: 3.13 (± 1.94); 84% presented low nutritional risk. The Pearson correlation between NUTRIC and TUN in T0 and T1 was: -0.150 (p: 0.218) and -0.053 (p: 0.663). The mean length of staying in ICU and mechanical ventilation was: 13.35 (± 12.37) and 9.84 (± 10.82) days, respectively. Mortality in ICU: 36%. In the non-ARF subgroup with low risk according to NUTRIC score, 27% presented severe PHC at T0 and 52% at T1. The correlation was: 0.070 (p: 0.620) and 0.138 (p: 0.329), respectively. Conclusion: no correlation was found between the estimators of the stress metabolic response of the NUTRIC score and the PHC in critically ill patients ventilated; therefore, it would not be possible to substitute the measurement of the same in the assessment of the nutritional risk


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Estado Nutricional , Proteínas/metabolismo , Respiração Artificial , Doença Aguda , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Nitrogênio/urina , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
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