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1.
N Engl J Med ; 384(9): 829-841, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of nivolumab plus cabozantinib as compared with those of sunitinib in the treatment of previously untreated advanced renal-cell carcinoma are not known. METHODS: In this phase 3, randomized, open-label trial, we randomly assigned adults with previously untreated clear-cell, advanced renal-cell carcinoma to receive either nivolumab (240 mg every 2 weeks) plus cabozantinib (40 mg once daily) or sunitinib (50 mg once daily for 4 weeks of each 6-week cycle). The primary end point was progression-free survival, as determined by blinded independent central review. Secondary end points included overall survival, objective response as determined by independent review, and safety. Health-related quality of life was an exploratory end point. RESULTS: Overall, 651 patients were assigned to receive nivolumab plus cabozantinib (323 patients) or sunitinib (328 patients). At a median follow-up of 18.1 months for overall survival, the median progression-free survival was 16.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.5 to 24.9) with nivolumab plus cabozantinib and 8.3 months (95% CI, 7.0 to 9.7) with sunitinib (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.64; P<0.001). The probability of overall survival at 12 months was 85.7% (95% CI, 81.3 to 89.1) with nivolumab plus cabozantinib and 75.6% (95% CI, 70.5 to 80.0) with sunitinib (hazard ratio for death, 0.60; 98.89% CI, 0.40 to 0.89; P = 0.001). An objective response occurred in 55.7% of the patients receiving nivolumab plus cabozantinib and in 27.1% of those receiving sunitinib (P<0.001). Efficacy benefits with nivolumab plus cabozantinib were consistent across subgroups. Adverse events of any cause of grade 3 or higher occurred in 75.3% of the 320 patients receiving nivolumab plus cabozantinib and in 70.6% of the 320 patients receiving sunitinib. Overall, 19.7% of the patients in the combination group discontinued at least one of the trial drugs owing to adverse events, and 5.6% discontinued both. Patients reported better health-related quality of life with nivolumab plus cabozantinib than with sunitinib. CONCLUSIONS: Nivolumab plus cabozantinib had significant benefits over sunitinib with respect to progression-free survival, overall survival, and likelihood of response in patients with previously untreated advanced renal-cell carcinoma. (Funded by Bristol Myers Squibb and others; CheckMate 9ER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03141177.).


Assuntos
Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anilidas/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Sunitinibe/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
Ann Hematol ; 100(3): 691-698, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528609

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have demonstrated high therapeutic efficacy in relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (r/r cHL). Nevertheless, despite the accumulated data, the question of the ICI therapy duration and efficacy of nivolumab retreatment remains unresolved. In this retrospective study, in a cohort of 23 adult patients with r/r cHL who discontinued nivolumab in complete response (CR), the possibility of durable remission achievement (2-year PFS was 55.1%) was demonstrated. Retreatment with nivolumab has demonstrated efficacy with high overall response rate (ORR) and CR (67% and 33.3% respectively). At the final analysis, all patients were alive with median PFS of 16.5 months. Grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs) were reported in 36% of patients, and there was no deterioration in terms of nivolumab retreatment-associated complications.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Esquema de Medicação , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Suspensão de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 256-263, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558721

RESUMO

Neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab showed high pathologic response rates (pRRs) in patients with macroscopic stage III melanoma in the phase 1b OpACIN ( NCT02437279 ) and phase 2 OpACIN-neo ( NCT02977052 ) studies1,2. While the results are promising, data on the durability of these pathologic responses and baseline biomarkers for response and survival were lacking. After a median follow-up of 4 years, none of the patients with a pathologic response (n = 7/9 patients) in the OpACIN study had relapsed. In OpACIN-neo (n = 86), the 2-year estimated relapse-free survival was 84% for all patients, 97% for patients achieving a pathologic response and 36% for nonresponders (P < 0.001). High tumor mutational burden (TMB) and high interferon-gamma-related gene expression signature score (IFN-γ score) were associated with pathologic response and low risk of relapse; pRR was 100% in patients with high IFN-γ score/high TMB; patients with high IFN-γ score/low TMB or low IFN-γ score/high TMB had pRRs of 91% and 88%; while patients with low IFN-γ score/low TMB had a pRR of only 39%. These data demonstrate long-term benefit in patients with a pathologic response and show the predictive potential of TMB and IFN-γ score. Our findings provide a strong rationale for a randomized phase 3 study comparing neoadjuvant ipilimumab plus nivolumab versus standard adjuvant therapy with antibodies against the programmed cell death protein-1 (anti-PD-1) in macroscopic stage III melanoma.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Interferon gama/genética , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Recidiva
6.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 301-309, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558722

RESUMO

The association among pathological response, recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) with neoadjuvant therapy in melanoma remains unclear. In this study, we pooled data from six clinical trials of anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy or BRAF/MEK targeted therapy. In total, 192 patients were included; 141 received immunotherapy (104, combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab; 37, anti-PD-1 monotherapy), and 51 received targeted therapy. A pathological complete response (pCR) occurred in 40% of patients: 47% with targeted therapy and 33% with immunotherapy (43% combination and 20% monotherapy). pCR correlated with improved RFS (pCR 2-year 89% versus no pCR 50%, P < 0.001) and OS (pCR 2-year OS 95% versus no pCR 83%, P = 0.027). In patients with pCR, near pCR or partial pathological response with immunotherapy, very few relapses were seen (2-year RFS 96%), and, at this writing, no patient has died from melanoma, whereas, even with pCR from targeted therapy, the 2-year RFS was only 79%, and OS was only 91%. Pathological response should be an early surrogate endpoint for clinical trials and a new benchmark for development and approval in melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526518

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly used to treat certain malignancies due to their higher efficacy compared with conventional chemotherapy. As familiarity with these agents increases, it is becoming apparent that a significant number of patients treated with ICIs experience adverse events. With time, more immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) are being recognised. It is important to be vigilant for IRAEs and recognise that a patient may have multiple IRAEs affecting multiple organ systems. Common cardiovascular adverse events associated with ICIs include myocarditis, arrhythmias and pericarditis. This case report identifies a patient presenting with takotsubo syndrome followed by ketoacidosis (associated with sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor) in the setting of combination ipilimumab and nivolumab therapy for metastatic melanoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Cetoacidose Diabética/induzido quimicamente , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Angiografia Coronária , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Cetoacidose Diabética/complicações , Ecocardiografia , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Melanoma/complicações , Melanoma/secundário , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/complicações , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558380

RESUMO

Cancers can develop the ability to evade immune recognition and destruction. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are drugs targeting these immune evasion mechanisms. ICIs have significantly improved outcomes in several cancers including metastatic melanoma. However, data on toxicities associated with allograft transplant recipients receiving ICI is limited. We describe a case of a 71-year-old woman who was diagnosed with metastatic melanoma 13 years after renal transplantation. She was commenced on the ICI nivolumab. She developed acute renal transplant rejection 15 days after administration of the first dose. She continues on haemodialysis but has demonstrated complete oncological response. This case demonstrates the risk of acute renal transplant rejection versus improved oncological outcomes. Patients and clinicians must consider this balance when initiating ICI therapy in allograft transplant recipients. Patients should be fully consented of the potential consequences of acute renal transplant rejection including lifelong dialysis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Rejeição de Enxerto/induzido quimicamente , Transplante de Rim , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Metástase Linfática , Melanoma/patologia , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo
10.
Anticancer Res ; 41(2): 1021-1026, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Biomarkers for immune-related adverse events (irAEs) induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are required. We encountered a patient whose skin irAE fluctuated in parallel with serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined 15 patients with cancer who received ICIs. Serum sIL-2R levels before and during ICI treatment were measured. The sIL-2R levels of preserved serum samples from another five patients who developed grade 3 irAEs were measured. RESULTS: Twelve patients showed no significant changes in sIL-2R levels during ICI treatment. Baseline serum sIL-2R levels in three patients increased beyond the normal range before the second cycle. These three patients had grade ≥2 irAEs at the second cycle treatment visit, supporting our hypothesis. Furthermore, at diagnosis of irAEs, the sIL-2R levels of all preserved samples from patients with grade 3 irAEs were significantly elevated. CONCLUSION: Serum sIL-2R is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of irAEs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Interleucina-2/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
11.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(1): 154-156, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468752

RESUMO

Case 1: A 51-year-old man with advanced gastric cancer and peritoneal metastasis was referred to our hospital. He received fourth-line chemotherapy with nivolumab, but it became PD. Next, he received S-1 plus docetaxel therapy as fifth- line therapy. After 2 courses of S-1 plus docetaxel, erythema and blisters appeared on his limbs, with erosions of the oral mucosa and penis. We diagnosed Stevens-Johnson syndrome(SJS)based on the clinical and pathological findings. He received steroid treatment, but the cutaneous symptoms persisted; therefore, it was impossible to continue the chemotherapy because of the SJS. Case 2: A 75-year-old woman with recurrence of peritoneally disseminated gastric cancer received third-line chemotherapy with nivolumab. After 1 course of nivolumab, erythema appeared on her body and limbs, with erosion of the lips and oral mucosa. We diagnosed SJS based on the clinical findings. She received steroid treatment, but the cutaneous symptoms persisted; therefore, it was impossible to continue chemotherapy because of the SJS. It should be noted that the onset of serious irAEs, such as SJS, might make continuous chemotherapy difficult.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson , Neoplasias Gástricas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(1): 118-131, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard chemotherapy remains inadequate in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Combining an agonistic CD40 monoclonal antibody with chemotherapy induces T-cell-dependent tumour regression in mice and improves survival. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of combining APX005M (sotigalimab) with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, with and without nivolumab, in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma to establish the recommended phase 2 dose. METHODS: This non-randomised, open-label, multicentre, four-cohort, phase 1b study was done at seven academic hospitals in the USA. Eligible patients were adults aged 18 years and older with untreated metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-1, and measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. All patients were treated with 1000 mg/m2 intravenous gemcitabine and 125 mg/m2 intravenous nab-paclitaxel. Patients received 0·1 mg/kg intravenous APX005M in cohorts B1 and C1 and 0·3 mg/kg in cohorts B2 and C2. In cohorts C1 and C2, patients also received 240 mg intravenous nivolumab. Primary endpoints comprised incidence of adverse events in all patients who received at least one dose of any study drug, incidence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in all patients who had a DLT or received at least two doses of gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel and one dose of APX005M during cycle 1, and establishing the recommended phase 2 dose of intravenous APX005M. Objective response rate in the DLT-evaluable population was a key secondary endpoint. This trial (PRINCE, PICI0002) is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03214250 and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 22, 2017, and July 10, 2018, of 42 patients screened, 30 patients were enrolled and received at least one dose of any study drug; 24 were DLT-evaluable with median follow-up 17·8 months (IQR 16·0-19·4; cohort B1 22·0 months [21·4-22·7], cohort B2 18·2 months [17·0-18·9], cohort C1 17·9 months [14·3-19·7], cohort C2 15·9 months [12·7-16·1]). Two DLTs, both febrile neutropenia, were observed, occurring in one patient each for cohorts B2 (grade 3) and C1 (grade 4). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were lymphocyte count decreased (20 [67%]; five in B1, seven in B2, four in C1, four in C2), anaemia (11 [37%]; two in B1, four in B2, four in C1, one in C2), and neutrophil count decreased (nine [30%]; three in B1, three in B2, one in C1, two in C2). 14 (47%) of 30 patients (four each in B1, B2, C1; two in C2) had a treatment-related serious adverse event. The most common serious adverse event was pyrexia (six [20%] of 30; one in B2, three in C1, two in C2). There were two chemotherapy-related deaths due to adverse events: one sepsis in B1 and one septic shock in C1. The recommended phase 2 dose of APX005M was 0·3 mg/kg. Responses were observed in 14 (58%) of 24 DLT-evaluable patients (four each in B1, C1, C2; two in B2). INTERPRETATION: APX005M and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, with or without nivolumab, is tolerable in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and shows clinical activity. If confirmed in later phase trials, this treatment regimen could replace chemotherapy-only standard of care in this population. FUNDING: Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Cancer Research Institute, and Bristol Myers Squibb.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD40/antagonistas & inibidores , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Idoso , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
13.
Oncology ; 99(3): 192-202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The approved doses of the single agent nivolumab - an anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody - for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are 3 mg/kg and a 240-mg flat dose, despite efficacy shown at lower doses in earlier CheckMate trials. In view of financial constraints, the minimum dose of nivolumab required for efficacy remains a critical area of inquiry. METHODS: A retrospective review of RCC patients receiving single-agent anti-PD-1 treatment was conducted. Using the median cutoff of the maximum dose per body weight received, we investigated the effect of lower dosages on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and immune-related adverse event-free survival (irAE-FS). Survival analysis was made by Kaplan-Meier, by uni- and multivariable Cox models, and by modeling the statistical interaction between dosages and survival. RESULTS: 32 patients were recruited: 8 patients (25%) receiving first-line treatment and 24 (75%) receiving second-line treatment and beyond. A median split at 2.15 mg/kg yielded 16 patients in both the lower-dose (LD) and the higher-dose (HD) cohort. Hazard ratios (HRs) demonstrated no difference in OS after adjustment for gender (HR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.05-1.05, p = 0.054; favoring LD), as well as in PFS after adjustment for gender and concurrent radiation therapy (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.25-1.34, p = 0.210; favoring LD). No differences in ORR were observed (50.0 vs. 43.8%, p = 1.00, in the LD and the HD cohort, respectively). Immune-related phenomena were observed in the LD group, including pseudoprogression and increased all-grade immune-related toxicities (irAE-FS: HR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.48-6.14, p = 0.293; favoring HD). Iterative dichotomization of dosages showed no dose-OS or dose-irAE-FS relationship. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests no apparent reduction in efficacy when using a low-dosage nivolumab regimen.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Muscle Nerve ; 63(3): E21-E24, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314145

Assuntos
/efeitos adversos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Miosite/induzido quimicamente , Miotonia Congênita/complicações , Distrofia Miotônica/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Conectina/genética , Transtornos de Deglutição/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos de Deglutição/complicações , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Eletrodiagnóstico , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Melanoma/secundário , Doenças Musculares/complicações , Doenças Musculares/genética , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Miosite/complicações , Miosite/diagnóstico , Miosite/fisiopatologia , Miotonia Congênita/diagnóstico , Miotonia Congênita/genética , Miotonia Congênita/fisiopatologia , Distrofia Miotônica/diagnóstico , Distrofia Miotônica/fisiopatologia , Condução Nervosa , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Parestesia/induzido quimicamente , Parestesia/complicações , Parestesia/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/secundário
17.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 47(12): 1715-1717, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342990

RESUMO

The patient was a 65-year-old man with advanced gastric cancer, cT4bN3aM1, cStage Ⅳ. The SOX therapy was administered as the primary treatment but discontinued after 9 courses because of disease progression. The PTX plus RAM therapy was then administered for 1 courses as the secondary treatment but discontinued because of the development of peritoneal dissemination, increased number of ascites, and increased number of lymph node metastases. The nivolumab(NIV)therapy was initiated as the tertiary treatment, but the patient complained of fatigue and diplopia after 2 courses. Ptosis was observed, and transaminase and creatine kinase levels were elevated. Electrocardiography showed complete right bundle branch block. The patient showed immune-related adverse events and was diagnosed with myocarditis and myasthenia gravis due to NIV. Consequently, systemic steroids were administered. Although 2 course of CPT-11 was administered as the fourth-line treatment, the treatment was discontinued upon the patient's request. Ten months after the discontinuation of chemotherapy, the disease showed no progression. The patient is being followed-up as an outpatient. Here, we reported a case of gastric cancer with tumor shrinkage after the discontinuation of NIV.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Gastrectomia , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Tiazóis
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013257, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have changed the first-line treatment of people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Single-agent pembrolizumab (a PD-1 inhibitor) is currently the standard of care as monotherapy in patients with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy when PD-L1 expression is less than 50%. Atezolizumab (PD-L1 inhibitor) has also been approved in combination with chemotherapy and bevacizumab (an anti-angiogenic antibody) in first-line NSCLC regardless of PD-L1 expression. The combination of first-line PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors with anti-CTLA-4 antibodies has also been shown to improve survival compared to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC, particularly in people with high tumour mutational burden (TMB). The association of ipilimumab (an anti CTLA4) and nivolumab (PD-1 inhibitor) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in all patients with PD-L1 expression ≥1%. Although these antibodies are currently used in clinical practice, some questions remain unanswered, such as the best-treatment strategy, the role of different biomarkers for treatment selection and the effectiveness of immunotherapy according to specific clinical characteristics. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective: to determine the effectiveness and safety of first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), as monotherapy or in combination, compared to platinum-based chemotherapy, with or without bevacizumab for people with advanced NSCLC, according to the level of PD-L1 expression. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE: to maintain the currency of evidence using a living systematic review approach. SEARCH METHODS: We performed an electronic search of the main databases (Cochrane Lung Cancer Group Trial Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase) from inception until 21 October 2020 and conferences meetings from 2015 onwards. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the efficacy or safety of first-line ICI treatment for adults with advanced NSCLC who had not previously received any anticancer treatment. We included trials comparing single- or double-ICI treatment to standard first-line therapy (platinum-based chemotherapy +/- bevacizumab). All data come from 'international multicentre studies involving adults, age 18 or over, with histologically-confirmed stage IV NSCLC who had not received any previous systemic anti-cancer treatment for advanced disease. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed the search results and a fourth review author resolved any disagreements. Primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS); secondary outcomes were overall objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST v 1.1, grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) (CTCAE v 5.0) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We performed meta-analyses where appropriate using the random-effects model for hazard ratios (HRs) or risk ratios (RRs), with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and used the I² statistic to investigate heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: Main results We identified 15 trials for inclusion, seven completed and eight ongoing trials. We obtained data for 5893 participants from seven trials comparing first-line single- (six trials) or double- (two trials) agent ICI with platinum-based chemotherapy, one trial comparing both first-line single- and double-agent ICsI with platinum-based chemotherapy. All trials were at low risk of selection and detection bias, some were classified at high risk of performance, attrition or other source of bias. The overall certainty of evidence according to GRADE ranged from moderate-to-low because of risk of bias, inconsistency, or imprecision. The majority of the included trials reported their outcomes by PD-L1 expressions, with PD-L1 ≥ 50 being considered the most clinically useful cut-off level for decision makers. Also, iIn order to avoid overlaps between various PDL-1 expressions we prioritised the review outcomes according to PD-L1 ≥ 50. Single-agent ICI In the PD-L1 expression ≥ 50% group single-agent ICI probably improved OS compared to platinum-based chemotherapy (hazard ratio (HR) 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 0.76, 6 RCTs, 2111 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). In this group, single-agent ICI also may improve PFS (HR: 0.68, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.88, 5 RCTs, 1886 participants, low-certainty evidence) and ORR (risk ratio (RR):1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.75, 4 RCTs, 1672 participants, low-certainty evidence). HRQoL data were available for only one study including only people with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%, which suggested that single-agent ICI may improve HRQoL at 15 weeks compared to platinum-based chemotherapy (RR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.10, 1 RCT, 297 participants, low-certainty evidence). In the included studies, treatment-related AEs were not reported according to PD-L1 expression levels. Grade 3-4 AEs may be less frequent with single-agent ICI compared to platinum-based chemotherapy (RR: 0.41, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.50, I² = 62%, 5 RCTs, 3346 participants, low-certainty evidence). More information about efficacy of single-agent ICI compared to platinum-based chemotherapy according to the level of PD-L1 expression and to TMB status or specific clinical characteristics is available in the full text. Double-agent ICI Double-ICI treatment probably prolonged OS compared to platinum-based chemotherapy in people with PD-L1 expression ≥50% (HR: 0.72, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.89 2 RCTs, 612 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). Trials did not report data on HRQoL, PFS and ORR according to PD-L1 groups. Treatment related AEs were not reported according to PD-L1 expression levels. The frequency of grade 3-4 AEs may not differ between double-ICI treatment and platinum-based chemotherapy (RR: 0.78, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.09, I² = 81%, 2 RCTs, 1869 participants, low-certainty evidence). More information about efficacy of double-agent ICI according to the level of PD-L1 expression and to TMB status is available in the full text. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Authors' conclusions The evidence in this review suggests that single-agent ICI in people with NSCLC and PD-L1 ≥50% probably leads to a higher overall survival rate and may lead to a higher progression-free survival and overall response rate when compared to platinum-based chemotherapy and may also lead to a lower rate of adverse events and higher HRQoL. Combined ICI in people with NSCLC and PD-L1 ≥50% also probably leads to a higher overall survival rate when compared to platinum-based chemotherapy, but its effect on progression-free survival, overall response rate and HRQoL is unknown due to a lack of data. The rate of adverse events may not differ between groups.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Viés , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Platina/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
N Z Med J ; 133(1527): 83-94, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332330

RESUMO

AIM: Drug-induced ocular inflammation is rare and may be overlooked as a cause of uveitis. The main objective was to describe the causes of drug-induced ocular inflammation. Secondary objectives included uveitis complications and drug rechallenge reactions. METHODS: A retrospective chart review at Auckland District Health Board's tertiary uveitis clinic (Auckland, New Zealand) was performed. Participants were identified using the uveitis database, which consists of 2,750 subjects. Fifty eyes of 35 subjects had drug-induced inflammation. RESULTS: Drug-induced inflammation occurred in 1.3% of subjects with uveitis. Mean age was 66.8±15.6 years, and 25 subjects (71.4%) were female. Drugs responsible were bisphosphonates (24 subjects, 68.6%), brimonidine (one subject, 2.9%), etanercept (three subjects, 8.6%), immune checkpoint inhibitors (two subjects, 5.7%), BRAF inhibitors (three subjects, 8.6%), EGFR inhibitors (one subject, 2.9%) and allopurinol/perindopril (one subject, 2.9%). In subjects with bisphosphonate inflammation, anterior uveitis occurred in 22 (91.7%) and scleritis in two (8.3%). A positive rechallenge reaction occurred in two subjects with zoledronate and one with alendronate. Uveitis occurred in six subjects (17.1%) treated with cancer drugs including immune checkpoint inhibitors, BRAF inhibitors and EGFR protein kinase inhibitors. Subjects with cancer-drug-induced uveitis were managed with corticosteroids and five subjects were able to continue therapy; in one subject uveitis was uncontrollable and required drug cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular inflammation caused by bisphosphonates is usually mild and resolves on medication withdrawal. Uveitis seen in association with newer cancer medications can be more severe, but in most cases it can be managed without medication cessation.


Assuntos
Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Uveíte Anterior/induzido quimicamente , Ácido Zoledrônico/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alendronato/efeitos adversos , Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Tartarato de Brimonidina/efeitos adversos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/efeitos adversos , Etanercepte/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Oximas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esclerite/induzido quimicamente , Vemurafenib/efeitos adversos
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