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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 214: 103251, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485153

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that speakers recruit inhibitory control in situations of high within-language interference, e.g., when selecting from among competing lexical entries or when tailoring utterances to the communicative needs of the addressee. However, little is known about the types of cognitive control mechanisms that are involved in the speech production process. This study examines the relative contribution of various forms of interference arising at different stages of information processing as well as their control to object naming under conditions of prepotent and underdetermined competition. Eighty-nine unimpaired native English speakers completed three inhibitory control tasks (arrow flanker, Simon arrow and anti-saccade) and two object naming tasks (picture-word interference, PWI, and name agreement, NA). Analyses of mean RT and RT distribution (delta plots) showed that only the flanker effect was a significant predictor of the PWI but not NA effect, while the remaining inhibitory measures made no significant contribution to either the PWI or NA effect. Participants with smaller flanker effects, indicative of better resolution of representational conflict, were faster to name objects in the face of competing stimuli. The pattern of results suggests that delays in production can be an outcome of inefficient resolution of interference traced to intermediate rather than late stages of processing, at least as far as the PWI task is concerned.


Assuntos
Nomes , Semântica , Atenção , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Fala
2.
Soins ; 65(850): 35-38, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357737

RESUMO

The arrival of a child is accompanied by a psychological crisis for the future parents. In a context of migration, the parents are exposed to additional factors of vulnerability which further accentuate the intrapsychological and intersubjective change of "becoming a parent". The clinical situation of a family referred for a transcultural consultation shows how the choice of the baby's name can illustrate this issue.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Nomes , Pais , Família , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23658, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to clarify the neural correlates and underlying mechanisms of the subject's own name (SON) and the unique name derived from the SON (SDN). METHODS: A name that was most familiar to the subject (SFN) was added as a self-related reference. We used 4 auditory stimuli-pure tone (1000 Hz), SON, SDN, and SFN-to evaluate the corresponding activated brain areas in 19 healthy subjects by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that pure tone activated the fewest brain regions. Although SFN was a very strong self-related stimulus, it failed to activate many midline structures. The brain regions activated by SON and SDN were very similar. SFN as a self-related stimulus was less self-related compared with SDN. What's more, the additionally activated fusiform gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus of SDN might revealed its processing path. CONCLUSIONS: SDN, which has created by us, is a new and self-related stimulus similar to SON. They might provide a useful reference for consciousness assessment with SON and SDN.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Nomes , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inconsciência , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zootaxa ; 4852(1): zootaxa.4852.1.9, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056714

RESUMO

Markevich (1940) established Pseudolepeophtheirus Markevich, 1940 for Pseudolepeophtheirus longicauda Markevich, 1940 based on copepods collected from the pleuronectid fish Platichthys stellatus (Pallas, 1787). Dojiri Ho (2013) synonymized the genus and the species with Lepeophtheirus Nordmann, 1832 and Lepeophtheirus parvicruris Fraser, 1920, respectively. Later, Homma et al. (2020) resurrected Markevich's species as a member of Lepeophtheirus, i.e., as L. longicauda (Markevich, 1940). The last component of the names of both genera is 'phtheirus' (transliterated from the Greek φθειρ; Nordmann 1832: 30), a masculine noun, and thus under Article 30.1.2 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (hereinafter, Code; International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999), both generic names are also masculine. The species-group name longicauda might be regarded as either a noun in apposition or as an adjective in the feminine gender, and Markevich (1940) did not specify his intention in this regard. Bearing in mind that 'cauda', meaning 'tail', actually is a feminine Latin noun and that Markevich did not change the final '-a' to '-us' to match the masculine gender of the genus, we deem that longicauda Markevich, 1940 is a noun in apposition, a position supported by Article 31.2.2 of the Code.


Assuntos
Linguado , Nomes , Animais , Idioma
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925930

RESUMO

The use of pictures as experimental stimuli is a frequent practice in psychological and educational research. In addition, picture-naming task allows the study of different cognitive processes such as perception, attention, memory and language. Line drawings have been widely used in research to date but it has begun to be highlighted the need for more ecological stimuli such as photographs. However, normative data of a photographic set has not been published yet for use with children. We present PicPsy, a new standardized bank of photographs and matched line drawing. We collected written picture-naming norms for name agreement, unknown responses, alternative names, familiarity and visual complexity. A total of 118 native Spanish-speaking children in grades 3-4 participated in the study. For comparison purposes, 89 adults were also included in the study. Child and adult performance was highly correlated, but we found significant age group differences in all variables examined except for visual complexity. Researchers and teachers could benefit from using the new standardized bank reported here which is published under public domain license. The data and materials for this research are available at the Open Science Framework, https://osf.io/nyf3t/.


Assuntos
Nomes , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/classificação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Traduções , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Redação
7.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 773-779, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744857

RESUMO

Hyper-binding refers to the spontaneous formation of target-distractor associations in older adults, with consequences for subsequent memory. While hyper-binding reflects a loss of attentional and mnemonic selectivity in aging, a growing literature suggests that motivational states modulate cognitive performance in both younger and older adults. In the current study, healthy younger and older adults (N = 48 in both age groups) completed a face-name hyper-binding task with or without motivational incentives during incidental encoding. Results revealed a motivation-related decrease in hyper-binding in older adults, leading to a paradoxical motivation-related memory decrement in this age group. These findings suggest that reward motivation can counteract age-related deficits in inhibition and attentional selectivity, without necessarily boosting memory performance. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nomes
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21230-21234, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817508

RESUMO

A foundation of human cognition is the flexibility with which we can represent any object as either a unique individual (my dog Fred) or a member of an object category (dog, animal). This conceptual flexibility is supported by language; the way we name an object is instrumental to our construal of that object as an individual or a category member. Evidence from a new recognition memory task reveals that infants are sensitive to this principled link between naming and object representation by age 12 mo. During training, all infants (n = 77) viewed four distinct objects from the same object category, each introduced in conjunction with either the same novel noun (Consistent Name condition), a distinct novel noun for each object (Distinct Names condition), or the same sine-wave tone sequence (Consistent Tone condition). At test, infants saw each training object again, presented in silence along with a new object from the same category. Infants in the Consistent Name condition showed poor recognition memory at test, suggesting that consistently applied names focused them primarily on commonalities among the named objects at the expense of distinctions among them. Infants in the Distinct Names condition recognized three of the four objects, suggesting that applying distinct names enhanced infants' encoding of the distinctions among the objects. Infants in the control Consistent Tone condition recognized only the object they had most recently seen. Thus, even for infants just beginning to speak their first words, the way in which an object is named guides infants' encoding, representation, and memory for that object.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Masculino , Nomes , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Tempo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751675

RESUMO

The risk management systems used in occupational safety and health typically assess the risk of identified hazards using a tabular format commonly called a risk assessment matrix. Typically, columns are named with words indicating severity, and rows are named with words indicating likelihood or probability. Some risk assessment matrices use words reflecting the extent of exposure to a hazard. This project was undertaken with the aim of helping the designers of risk assessment matrices select appropriate names for the rows and columns. A survey of undergraduate students studying engineering or occupational safety and health obtained ratings of 16 English language words and phrases for each of the three factors. Analyses of 84 completed surveys included comparing average ratings on a 100-point scale. Using the averages, appropriately spaced sets of words and phrases were identified for naming the row and column categories. Based on results, the authors recommend word sets of three, four, and five for severity; three, four, five, and six for likelihood; and two and three for extent of exposure. The study methodology may be useful for future research, and the resulting word sets and numerical ratings may be helpful when creating a new, or reassessing an established, risk assessment matrix.


Assuntos
Nomes , Medição de Risco , Humanos , Idioma , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Agora (Rio J.) ; 23(2): 81-89, maio-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1130817

RESUMO

Resumo: O artigo trata das possíveis consequências da passagem de bebês por uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN), tomando o conceito de nome próprio como ponto norteador. Consiste em escrita de relato de experiência profissional orientado a partir da Psicanálise, com recortes de trabalho realizado em UTIN com os bebês e suas famílias. A prática suscitou a consideração de que a aposta, advinda do desejo dos que cercam o bebê de que nele há um sujeito, é a via de possibilitar-lhe uma vida, o que comparece na convocação que lhe é feita a partir do nome que lhe é atribuído.


Abstract: The article deals with the possible consequences of babies passages through a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), taking the concept of proper name as the guiding point. It consists of written reports of professional experience based on Psychoanalysis's reference, with clippings of work done in NICU with infants and their families. The practice has given rise to the consideration that the bet, coming from the desire of those who surround the baby that there is a subject in him, is the way to give him a life, which appears in the summons that is made from the name that he is assigned.


Assuntos
Identificação Social , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Nomes
12.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 15-26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638597

RESUMO

The heritage of Slovenian house names and surnames reflects, among others, the former medicine and pharmaceutical occupations, midwifery, and folk medicine practices, and besides that, also health status and illnesses of people. Surnames, which are especially strongly intertwined with family, local and social history, are closely related to folk medicine and magic. Unlike house names (vulgo), which are the usual nicknames for physical and mental characteristics and abilities, surnames denote medical occupations and medicinal folk practice as such. According to the most recent data (as of January 1, 2020) of The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, at least 40 surnames reminiscent former medical or pharmaceutical professions. These newly discovered digital data in open access are precious for the history of medicine because they allow comparing surnames geographically, by frequency, and through the time.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , História da Farmácia , Nomes , Médicos/história , Animais , Educação Médica/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/história , Eslovênia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667959

RESUMO

We present a multi-agent computational approach to partitioning semantic spaces using reinforcement-learning (RL). Two agents communicate using a finite linguistic vocabulary in order to convey a concept. This is tested in the color domain, and a natural reinforcement learning mechanism is shown to converge to a scheme that achieves a near-optimal trade-off of simplicity versus communication efficiency. Results are presented both on the communication efficiency as well as on analyses of the resulting partitions of the color space. The effect of varying environmental factors such as noise is also studied. These results suggest that RL offers a powerful and flexible computational framework that can contribute to the development of communication schemes for color names that are near-optimal in an information-theoretic sense and may shape color-naming systems across languages. Our approach is not specific to color and can be used to explore cross-language variation in other semantic domains.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Reforço Psicológico , Semântica , Cor , Percepção de Cores , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Linguística/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Nomes , Vocabulário
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517287

RESUMO

Family medicine is officially a specialty, but is often not regarded as a specialty by the general public. Past studies have usually investigated the opinions of medical students and resident physicians regarding family medicine, whereas few have focused on practicing family physicians themselves, especially in terms of analyzing how they represent themselves. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of clinic names to better apprehend whether general practitioners see themselves as being on an equal footing with other medical specialists. The registered names, medical specialties, and levels of urbanization of all clinics of Western medicine in Taiwan were collected. For clinics of each specialty, we examined whether their names contained the corresponding specialty designation. For example, a family medicine clinic was checked to determine whether its name contained the term "family medicine" or its abbreviation. The naming of family medicine clinics was then compared with that of clinics with other specialties. Of the 9867 Western medicine clinics included in this study, two-thirds (n = 6592) were single-specialty clinics. In contrast to the high percentages of single-specialty clinics of other specialties with specialty-containing names (97.5% for ophthalmology, 94.8% for dermatology, and 94.7% for otolaryngology), only 13.3% (132/989) of the family medicine clinics had such names. In addition, the urban family medicine clinics had a higher proportion (15.2%, 74/487) of specialty-containing names than the suburban (12.6%, 44/349) and rural family medicine clinics (9.2%, 14/153). Overall, a low percentage of family medicine clinics in Taiwan included "family medicine" in their names. This issue of professional identity deserves further qualitative investigation.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Nomes , Humanos , Especialização , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 271: 23-30, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) is the process of detecting dataset entries that refer to the same individual within two independent datasets, without disclosing any personal information. While applied in different fields, it particularly attained importance in the medical sector. One popular PPRL method are Bloom filters. However, Bloom filters were originally used for encoding strings only. OBJECTIVES: This paper evaluates an encoding method specifically designed for numerical data and adjusts it for encoding geocoordinates in Bloom filters. METHODS: The proposed numerical encoding of geocoordinates is compared to the string-based method by using synthetic data. RESULTS: The proposed method for encoding geocoordinates in Bloom filters attains a higher recall and precision than the conventional string encoding. CONCLUSION: Numerical encoding has the potential of increasing the record linkage quality of Bloom filters, as well as their privacy level.


Assuntos
Privacidade , Segurança Computacional , Confidencialidade , Registro Médico Coordenado , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos , Nomes , Registros
17.
Psychol Aging ; 35(4): 497-507, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352805

RESUMO

People see themselves as better than average in many domains, from leadership skills to driving ability. However, many people-especially older adults-struggle to remember others' names, and many of us are aware of this struggle. Our beliefs about our memory for names may be different from other information; perhaps forgetting names is particularly salient. We asked younger and older adults to rate themselves compared with others their age on several socially desirable traits (e.g., honesty); their overall memory ability; and their specific ability to remember scientific terms, locations, and people's names. Participants demonstrated a better-than-average (BTA) effect in their ratings of most items except their ability to remember names, which both groups rated as approximately the same as others their age. Older adults' ratings of this ability were related to a measure of the social consequences of forgetting another's name, but younger adults' ratings were not. The BTA effect is present in many judgments for both younger and older adults, but people may be more attuned to memory failures when those failures involve social consequences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomes , Adulto Jovem
18.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(3): e25-e26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438943

RESUMO

We investigated the adoption of World Health Organization (WHO) naming of COVID-19 into the respective languages among the Group of Twenty (G20) countries, and the variation of COVID-19 naming in the Chinese language across different health authorities. On May 7, 2020, we identified the websites of the national health authorities of the G20 countries to identify naming of COVID-19 in their respective languages, and the websites of the health authorities in mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and Singapore and identify their Chinese name for COVID-19. Among the G20 nations, Argentina, China, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Saudi Arabia and Turkey do not use the literal translation of COVID-19 in their official language(s) to refer to COVID-19, as they retain "novel" in the naming of this disease. China is the only G20 nation that names COVID-19 a pneumonia. Among Chinese-speaking jurisdictions, Hong Kong and Singapore governments follow the WHO's recommendation and adopt the literal translation of COVID-19 in Chinese. In contrast, mainland China, Macau, and Taiwan refer to COVID-19 as a type of pneumonia in Chinese. We urge health authorities worldwide to adopt naming in their native languages that are consistent with WHO's naming of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/classificação , Internacionalidade , Idioma , Nomes , Pandemias/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/classificação , Humanos
19.
PLoS Biol ; 18(4): e3000659, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243450

RESUMO

Putting a name to a face is a highly common activity in our daily life that greatly enriches social interactions. Although this specific person-identity association becomes automatic with learning, it remains difficult and can easily be disrupted in normal circumstances or neurological conditions. To shed light on the neural basis of this important and yet poorly understood association between different input modalities in the human brain, we designed a crossmodal frequency-tagging paradigm coupled to brain activity recording via scalp and intracerebral electroencephalography. In Experiment 1, 12 participants were presented with variable pictures of faces and written names of a single famous identity at a 4-Hz frequency rate while performing an orthogonal task. Every 7 items, another famous identity appeared, either as a face or a name. Robust electrophysiological responses were found exactly at the frequency of identity change (i.e., 4 Hz / 7 = 0.571 Hz), suggesting a crossmodal neural response to person identity. In Experiment 2 with twenty participants, two control conditions with periodic changes of identity for faces or names only were added to estimate the contribution of unimodal neural activity to the putative crossmodal face-name responses. About 30% of the response occurring at the frequency of crossmodal identity change over the left occipito-temporal cortex could not be accounted for by the linear sum of unimodal responses. Finally, intracerebral recordings in the left ventral anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in 7 epileptic patients tested with this paradigm revealed a small number of "pure" crossmodal responses, i.e., with no response to changes of identity for faces or names only. Altogether, these observations provide evidence for integration of verbal and nonverbal person identity-specific information in the human brain, highlighting the contribution of the left ventral ATL in the automatic retrieval of face-name identity associations.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nomes , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Experimentação Humana não Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
20.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 68(3): 199, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268412
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