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1.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 137(2): 149-161, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598165

RESUMO

The placenta represents a non-neuronal organ capable of transporting and metabolizing monoamines. Since these bioactive molecules participate in numerous processes essential for placental and fetal physiology, any imbalance in their levels during pregnancy may affect brain development, projecting a higher risk of behavioral disorders in childhood or adulthood. Notably, the monoamine system in the placenta is a target of various psychoactive drugs and can be disrupted in several pregnancy pathologies. As research in pregnant women poses significant ethical restrictions, animal models are widely employed to study monoamine homeostasis as a mechanism involved in fetal programming. However, detailed knowledge of monoamine transport in the rat placenta is still lacking. Moreover, relatability to the human placental monoamine system is not examined. The present study provides insights into the transplacental monoamine dynamics between maternal and fetal circulation. We show that norepinephrine maternal-to-fetal transport is <4% due to high metabolism within the trophoblast. In contrast, dopamine maternal-to-fetal transport exceeds 25%, likely through passive transport across the membrane. In addition, we show high clearance of norepinephrine and dopamine from the fetal circulation mediated by the organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3). Altogether, we present transcriptional and functional evidence that the in situ rat placenta perfusion represents a suitable model for (patho)physiological investigation of dopamine and norepinephrine homeostasis in the fetoplacental unit. With the rapid advancements in drug discovery and environmental toxicity, the use of rat placenta as a preclinical model could facilitate screening of possible xenobiotic effects on monoamine homeostasis in the placenta.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Placenta , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Transporte Biológico , Dopamina/metabolismo , Dopamina/farmacologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674892

RESUMO

Renal vasculature, which is highly innervated by sympathetic fibers, contributes to cardiovascular homeostasis. This renal sympathetic outflow is inhibited by 5-HT in normoglycaemic rats. Considering that diabetes induces cardiovascular complications, we aimed to determine whether diabetic state modifies noradrenergic input at renal level and its serotonergic modulation in rats. Alloxan diabetic rats were anaesthetized (pentobarbital; 60 mg/kg i.p.) and prepared for in situ autoperfusion of the left kidney to continuously measure systemic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), and renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Electrical stimulation of renal sympathetic outflow induces frequency-dependent increases (Δ) in RPP (23.9 ± 2.1, 59.5 ± 1.9, and 80.5 ± 3.5 mm Hg at 2, 4, and 6 Hz, respectively), which were higher than in normoglycaemic rats, without modifying HR or SBP. Intraarterial bolus of 5-HT and 5-CT (5-HT1/5/7 agonist) reduced electrically induced ΔRPP. Only L-694,247 (5-HT1D agonist) reproduced 5-CT inhibition on sympathetic-induced vasoconstrictions, whereas it did not modify exogenous noradrenaline-induced ΔRPP. 5-CT inhibition was exclusively abolished by i.v. bolus of LY310762 (5-HT1D antagonist). An inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, ODQ (i.v.), completely reversed the L-694,247 inhibitory effect. In conclusion, diabetes induces an enhancement in sympathetic-induced vasopressor responses at the renal level. Prejunctional 5-HT1D receptors, via the nitric oxide pathway, inhibit noradrenergic-induced vasoconstrictions in diabetic rats.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Serotonina , Ratos , Animais , Serotonina/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 5-HT1D de Serotonina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Rim , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , Estimulação Elétrica , Pressão Sanguínea
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 158: 114181, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592494

RESUMO

Subjects suffering from psychosis frequently experience anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying this comorbidity remain still unclear. We investigated whether neurochemical and neuroendocrine dysfunctions were involved in the development of anxiety-like behavior in a rodent model of psychotic-like symptoms, obtained by exposing male rats to social isolation rearing from postnatal day 21 to postnatal day 70. In the elevated zero maze test, isolated rats showed a significant reduction in the time spent in the open arms, as well as an increase in the time spent in the closed arms, compared to controls. An increased grooming time in the open field test was also observed in isolated animals. Isolation-induced anxiety-like behavior was accompanied by a decrease of plasmatic oxytocin, prolactin, ghrelin and melatonin levels, whereas plasmatic amount of Neuropeptide S was not altered. Social isolation also caused a reduction of noradrenaline, serotonin and GABA levels, together with an increase of serotonin turnover and glutamate levels in the amygdala of isolated animals. No significant differences were found in noradrenaline and serotonin levels, as well as in serotonin turnover in hippocampus, while glutamate amount was increased and GABA levels were reduced in isolated rats. Furthermore, there was a reduction in plasmatic serotonin content, and an increase in plasmatic kynurenine levels following social isolation, while no significant changes in serotonin turnover were observed. Taken together, our data provide novel insights in the neurobiological alterations underlying the comorbidity between psychosis and anxiety, and open new perspectives for multi-target therapies acting on both neurochemical and neuroendocrine pathways. DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT: The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Serotonina , Ratos , Animais , Masculino , Serotonina/metabolismo , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Isolamento Social , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 243, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604521

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of different anesthetic methods on postoperative immune function in patients undergoing gastrointestinal tumor resection. Ninety patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrointestinal tumor resection were divided into 3 groups. Patients in the GA group were anesthetized by total intravenous anesthesia. The GE group was anesthetized by general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. The GN group was anesthetized by general anesthesia combined with bilateral Transversus Abdominis Plane block (TAP) and rectus sheath nerve blocks. General anesthesia is total intravenous anesthesia in all three groups. Blood samples were taken to test the changes of peripheral lymphocyte subtype analysis, and levels of plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine. Also, the dosage of anesthetic drugs, recovery time, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were recorded. Postoperative immune indexes, including CD4 count, CD8 count, B, and NK cells, in the GE group were significantly higher than those in NA and GA groups (P < 0.01). Perioperative stress indices, including epinephrine levels, norepinephrine level and aldosterone level, in the GE group were significantly lower than in the GA group and GN group (P < 0.01). The intraoperative/total sufentanil dosage and remifentanil dosage in the GE group were significantly lower than those in the GA and GN groups (P < 0.01). The VAS scores in the GE group were significantly better than those in GA and GN groups (P < 0.01). General anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia attenuates the increase in inflammatory mediators. Its possible mechanisms include reducing perioperative stress response and reducing perioperative opioid use.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Bloqueio Nervoso , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória , Músculos Abdominais/inervação , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Epinefrina , Norepinefrina , Imunidade
8.
eNeuro ; 10(1)2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635251

RESUMO

The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) is among the earliest sites of tau and α-synuclein pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively. The onset of these pathologies coincides with loss of noradrenergic fibers in LC target regions and the emergence of prodromal symptoms including sleep disturbances and anxiety. Paradoxically, these prodromal symptoms are indicative of a noradrenergic hyperactivity phenotype, rather than the predicted loss of norepinephrine (NE) transmission following LC damage, suggesting the engagement of complex compensatory mechanisms. Because current therapeutic efforts are targeting early disease, interest in the LC has grown, and it is critical to identify the links between pathology and dysfunction. We employed the LC-specific neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), which preferentially damages LC axons, to model early changes in the LC-NE system pertinent to AD and PD in male and female mice. DSP-4 (two doses of 50 mg/kg, one week apart) induced LC axon degeneration, triggered neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, and reduced tissue NE levels. There was no LC cell death or changes to LC firing, but transcriptomics revealed reduced expression of genes that define noradrenergic identity and other changes relevant to neurodegenerative disease. Despite the dramatic loss of LC fibers, NE turnover and signaling were elevated in terminal regions and were associated with anxiogenic phenotypes in multiple behavioral tests. These results represent a comprehensive analysis of how the LC-NE system responds to axon/terminal damage reminiscent of early AD and PD at the molecular, cellular, systems, and behavioral levels, and provides potential mechanisms underlying prodromal neuropsychiatric symptoms.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Locus Cerúleo , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo , Neurotoxinas/farmacologia , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 38, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596796

RESUMO

Recent studies implicate macrophages in regulation of thermogenic, sympathetic neuron-mediated norepinephrine (NE) signaling in adipose tissues, but understanding of such non-classical macrophage activities is incomplete. Here we show that male mice lacking the allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF1) protein resist high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and hyperglycemia. We link this phenotype to higher adipose NE levels that stem from decreased monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) expression and NE clearance by AIF1-deficient macrophages, and find through reciprocal bone marrow transplantation that donor Aif1-/- vs WT genotype confers the obesity phenotype in mice. Interestingly, human sequence variants near the AIF1 locus associate with obesity and diabetes; in adipose samples from participants with obesity, we observe direct correlation of AIF1 and MAOA transcript levels. These findings identify AIF1 as a regulator of MAOA expression in macrophages and catecholamine activity in adipose tissues - limiting energy expenditure and promoting energy storage - and suggest how it might contribute to human obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Obesidade , Masculino , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Aloenxertos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Inflamação/metabolismo
10.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 23(1): 2, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coughing caused by tracheal extubation is common following general anaesthesia. Heavy aerosol production by coughing during recovery from general anaesthesia in patients with respiratory infections (especially COVID-19) may be one of the highest risk factors for infection in healthcare workers. The application of local anaesthetics to the endotracheal tube is an effective method to reduce coughing. The most commonly used anaesthetics are compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream and tetracaine spray. However, coughing still occurs when the two anaesthetics are used alone. We speculated that the application of compound lidocaine/prilocaine combined with tetracaine spray would better prevent coughing caused by tracheal extubation. METHODS: Patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy or cholecystectomy combined with common bile duct exploration under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to Group C (saline spray), Group L (2 g compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream contains 5 mg of lidocaine and 5 mg prilocaine)), Group T (tetracaine) and Group F (compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream combined with tetracaine). The incidence of coughing, the endotracheal tube tolerance assessment, the incidence of agitation, the active extubation rate, the incidence of postoperative pharyngeal pain and the incidence of postoperative cough were recorded and analysed. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and the plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were measured immediately before extubation and 1 min after extubation. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were randomly assigned to Group C (53 cases), Group L (52 cases), Group T (52 cases) and Group F (54 cases). The primary result is assessment of the incidence of cough. The patients emerged from general anaesthesia, 96% of Group C had cough, which was significantly reduced in Group L (61.5%, P < 0.001), Group T (75%, P < 0.05) and Group F (22.2%, P < 0.001). Group F had a significantly reduced incidence of cough compared to Group L and Group T (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, respectively). The secondary results were assessed. The endotracheal tube tolerance score in Group C ((1, 3) 4, P < 0.001) was higher than Group L ((0, 1) 2), Group T ((0, 1.25) 3) and Group F ((0, 0) 1). Group F had a significantly lower score than Group L and Group T (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). The incidence of agitation and the active extubation rate were also higher in Group C (96.2% and 71.7%, respectively, P < 0.001) than Group L (48.1% and 15.4%, respectively), Group T (61.5% and 26.9%, respectively) and Group F (17.3% and 7.7%, respectively). Blood pressure, HR and plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly higher in Group C than in all other groups at the time of extubation and 1 min after extubation (P < 0.001). Group F exhibited significantly reduced blood pressure, heart rate and plasma concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine compared to Group L and Group T (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of postoperative pharyngeal pain and the incidence of postoperative cough were not significantly different among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compound lidocaine/prilocaine cream combined with tetracaine may be a more effective approach for preventing coughing and stabilising circulation during extubation following general anaesthesia. This may play an important role in preventing medical staff from contracting respiratory infectious diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2200058429 (registration date: 09-04-2022) "retrospectively registered".


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Faringite , Humanos , Tetracaína , Extubação/efeitos adversos , Tosse/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Combinação Lidocaína e Prilocaína , Anestésicos Locais , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Prilocaína/uso terapêutico , Faringite/epidemiologia , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Norepinefrina , Epinefrina , Método Duplo-Cego , Dor/etiologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(4): e32743, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36705345

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Methylene blue (MB) has been used to increase blood pressure in septic shock, acting on the activity of guanylate cyclase and nitric oxide synthase. PATIENCE CONCERNS: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the benefit of MB in early phase of septic shock.Diagnoses: We report 6 cases of patients with septic shock with up to 72 hours of evolution. INTERVENTIONS: We used MB after fluid replacement, use of norepinephrine and vasopressin. Patients received a loading dose of MB and maintenance for 48 hours. OUTCOMES: All patients presented a reduction in the dose of vasopressors and lactate levels soon after the administration of the loading dose of MB, an effect that was maintained with the maintenance dose for 48 hours. Interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 were elevated at the beginning of the septic condition, with a progressive and marked reduction after the beginning of MB infusion, demonstrating a role of MB in reducing the inflammatory activity. LESSONS: This case series suggests that MB used early in the treatment of septic shock may be useful in reducing vasopressor dose and lactate levels. Further studies are still required to further validate these findings.


Assuntos
Azul de Metileno , Choque Séptico , Humanos , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Lactatos
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 941: 175499, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627097

RESUMO

Duloxetine has been shown to produce gastroprotective effect against gastric ulcer induced by water immersion restraint stress (WIRS) via modulation of NADPH oxidases in the gastric mucosa and neurometabolites of central nucleus of amygdala. However, the underlying mechanism based on the basic pharmacological function of duloxetine-regulation on serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) remains unclear. Here, we found that 5-HT level in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) was decreased but NE level in plasma was increased in rats exposed to WIRS, while pretreatment with duloxetine increased 5-HT in PPP dose-dependently and decreased NE in plasma of rats after WIRS. We further showed that depletion of 5-HT by 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine (PCPA) aggravated gastric mucosa damage and supplement of 5-HT alleviated gastric ulcers induced by WIRS. Blockade of NE receptors also mitigated the stress gastric ulcers. Using adrenalectomy and chemical blocking, we identified that it was NE from adrenal medulla rather than sympathetic nerve that was more critical in the gastroprotection of duloxetine, and intriguingly, glucocorticoid did not make a difference in WIRS-provoked gastric ulcers as a classic stress hormone. Together, our work demonstrated prophylactic protection of duloxetine from the stress gastric ulcer depended on enhancing peripheral 5-HT content and reducing NE from adrenal medulla, which provided insight into treatments of WIRS-induced gastric ulcer.


Assuntos
Norepinefrina , Úlcera Gástrica , Ratos , Animais , Cloridrato de Duloxetina/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Duloxetina/uso terapêutico , Serotonina , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Gástrica
13.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 333: 114211, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642230

RESUMO

In the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis, three nonapeptide hormone genes were identified in the brain preoptic area (POA) and ovary: a pro-vasotocin (pro-vt) and two isotocin gene paralogs viz., a novel pro-ita and conventional pro-itb. In the present study, the regulatory role of catecholamines [CA: dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (AD)] on the expression of these genes were investigated in vitro. DA (1, 10, and 100 ng/mL) inhibited significantly the mRNA expression in both the POA and ovary. NA upregulated the POA mRNA expression in a biphasic manner, the lower concentrations (1 ng and 10 ng) scaled up and the higher concentration (100 ng) scaled down the expression of pro-vt and pro-itb, while only the 1 ng NA scaled up the pro-ita expression. In the ovary, NA upregulated the mRNA expressions at all concentrations; the pro-vt expression was stimulated only at 10 and 100 ng. AD stimulated pro-vt and pro-ita expression in the POA at all concentrations but the pro-itb expression was inhibited at 1 and 10 ng, and stimulated at 100 ng concentrations. In the ovary, AD elicited varied effects; no significant change in pro-vt, a stimulation of pro-ita, and an inhibition of pro-itb at 1 ng, and stimulation of pro-itb at the 10 and 100 ng. The incubation of the POA and ovary with α-methylparatyrosine (MPT, 250 µg/mL, a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor) for 8 h downregulated the mRNA expression in the POA but unaltered the expression in the ovary. Pre-incubation with MPT for 4 h, followed by co-incubation with DA, NA or AD for 4 h elicited varied effects. In the POA, the co-incubations with the CAs rescued the inhibition due to MPT. The MPT + DA and MPT + AD treatments reduced the magnitude of the inhibition of pro-vt and pro-itb by MPT. But the pro-ita expression was modestly stimulated in the MPT + AD group. On the other hand, the MPT + NA treatment rescued the MPT effect and elicited 10-folds increase in the expression levels. In the ovary, the changes were: an inhibition in the MPT + DA group, no significant alteration in the MPT + NA group, and a mild stimulation in the MPT + AD group. The results suggest that CAs modulate brain and ovarian nonapeptide gene expression differentially, which is important in the neuroendocrine/endocrine integration of reproduction in the catfish.


Assuntos
Catecolaminas , Peixes-Gato , Animais , Feminino , Catecolaminas/farmacologia , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Área Pré-Óptica/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/genética , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Vasotocina/farmacologia , Vasotocina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
14.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 29, 2023 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670410

RESUMO

Vasopressors and fluids are the cornerstones for the treatment of shock. The current international guidelines on shock recommend norepinephrine as the first-line vasopressor and vasopressin as the second-line vasopressor. In clinical practice, due to drug availability, local practice variations, special settings, and ongoing research, several alternative vasoconstrictors and adjuncts are used in the absence of precise equivalent doses. Norepinephrine equivalence (NEE) is frequently used in clinical trials to overcome this heterogeneity and describe vasopressor support in a standardized manner. NEE quantifies the total amount of vasopressors, considering the potency of each such agent, which typically includes catecholamines, derivatives, and vasopressin. Intensive care studies use NEE as an eligibility criterion and also an outcome measure. On the other hand, NEE has several pitfalls which clinicians should know, important the lack of conversion of novel vasopressors such as angiotensin II and also adjuncts such as methylene blue, including a lack of high-quality data to support the equation and validate its predictive performance in all types of critical care practice. This review describes the history of NEE and suggests an updated formula incorporating novel vasopressors and adjuncts.


Assuntos
Choque Séptico , Choque , Humanos , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Vasopressinas/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Críticos
15.
Sleep Med Rev ; 67: 101714, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509029

RESUMO

An appreciable number of medicines have a recommended unique single time-of-day or asymmetrical or unequal-interval multiple-daily administration schedule. Many prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) products, according to administration time, can exert positive or negative impact on nighttime sleep and daytime wakefulness. Intuitively, medicines used to manage nighttime sleep and daytime wake disorders should be taken, respectively, at night before bedtime and morning after arising. However, some utilized for other medical conditions, if improperly timed, may compromise nocturnal sleep and diurnal attentiveness. We conducted a comprehensive review of the American Prescribers' Digital Reference, internet version of the Physician's Desk Reference, for the recommended scheduling of medications and OTC remedies that can impact sleep and wakefulness. The search revealed several hundred therapies of various classes -- α2-receptor agonists, antidepressants, barbiturates, central nervous system stimulants, benzodiazepines, dopamine agonists, dopamine norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, eugeroics, γ-aminobutyric acid modulators, H1 and H3-receptor antagonists, melatonin analogues, OTC melatonin-containing products, non-benzodiazepine benzodiazepine-receptor agonists, dual orexin-receptor antagonists, and serotonin modulators -- that have a recommended unique dosing schedule. The tables and text of this article are intended to guide the proper scheduling of these medicines to optimize desired and/or minimize undesired effects.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Vigília , Humanos , Vigília/fisiologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Sono/fisiologia , Antidepressivos , Norepinefrina/farmacologia
18.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 939: 175454, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549498

RESUMO

The antidepressant-like activity of (+)-catharanthine and (-)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(-)-18-MC] was studied in male and female mice using forced swim (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). The underlying molecular mechanism was assessed by electrophysiological, radioligand, and functional experiments. The FST results showed that acute administration (40 mg/kg) of (+)-catharanthine or (-)-18-MC induces similar antidepressant-like activity in male and female mice at 1 h and 24 h, whereas the TST results showed a lower effect for (-)-18-MC at 24 h. Repeated treatment at lower dose (20 mg/kg) augmented the efficacy of both congeners. The FST results showed that (-)-18-MC reduces immobility and increases swimming times without changing climbing behavior, whereas (+)-catharanthine reduces immobility time, increases swimming times more markedly, and increases climbing behavior. To investigate the contribution of the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters in the antidepressant effects of (+)-catharanthine and (-)-18-MC, we conducted in vitro radioligand and functional studies. Results obtained demonstrated that (+)-catharanthine inhibits norepinephrine transporter with higher potency/affinity than that for (-)-18-MC, whereas both congeners inhibit serotonin transporter with similar potency/affinity. Moreover, whereas no congener activated/inhibited/potentiated the function of serotonin receptor 3A or serotonin receptor 3AB, both increased serotonin receptor 3A receptor desensitization. Depletion of serotonin decreased the antidepressant-like activity of both congeners, whereas norepinephrine depletion only decreased (+)-catharanthine's activity. Our study shows that coronaridine congeners induce antidepressant-like activity in a dose- and time-dependent, and sex-independent, manner. The antidepressant-like property of both compounds involves serotonin transporter inhibition, without directly activating/inhibiting serotonin receptors 3, while (+)-catharanthine also mobilizes norepinephrinergic neurotransmission.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina , Serotonina , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Serotonina/fisiologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Natação , Transmissão Sináptica , Norepinefrina , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Talanta ; 255: 124206, 2023 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563506

RESUMO

Oxidase-mimicking (catechol oxidase/laccase) nanozymes provide outstanding specificity in the detection of epinephrine (Epi) for the assessment of pheochromocytoma; however, epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) co-existing in the same systems will reduce the selectivity of the biosensor. In the current study, we synthesized copper-based coordination polymer (Cu-CP) nanozymes capable of accelerating the oxidation of Epi with high specificity. Furthermore, the Cu-CP is able to detect Epi over a wide linear range of 0.5-100 µM with a low detection limit of 0.36 µM while providing excellent stability and recyclability. Furthermore, we employed colorimetric and fluorescence signals for sequential detection of the coexistence of Epi and NE for use in tracking the treatment outcomes of patients with pheochromocytoma. Experiments using artificial urine further confirmed the efficacy of the proposed system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Feocromocitoma , Humanos , Cobre , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Norepinefrina , Epinefrina , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Colorimetria
20.
Diabetes ; 72(1): 3-15, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538602

RESUMO

Catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) are essential for a myriad of functions throughout the central nervous system, including metabolic regulation. These molecules are also present in the pancreas, and their study may shed light on the effects of peripheral neurotransmission on glycemic control. Though sympathetic innervation to islets provides NE that signals at local α-cell and ß-cell adrenergic receptors to modify hormone secretion, α-cells and ß-cells also synthesize catecholamines locally. We propose a model where α-cells and ß-cells take up catecholamine precursors in response to postprandial availability, preferentially synthesizing DA. The newly synthesized DA signals in an autocrine/paracrine manner to regulate insulin and glucagon secretion and maintain glycemic control. This enables islets to couple local catecholamine signaling to changes in nutritional state. We also contend that the DA receptors expressed by α-cells and ß-cells are targeted by antipsychotic drugs (APDs)-some of the most widely prescribed medications today. Blockade of local DA signaling contributes significantly to APD-induced dysglycemia, a major contributor to treatment discontinuation and development of diabetes. Thus, elucidating the peripheral actions of catecholamines will provide new insights into the regulation of metabolic pathways and may lead to novel, more effective strategies to tune metabolism and treat diabetes.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/metabolismo , Controle Glicêmico , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo
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