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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112859, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522098

RESUMO

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are a class of chiral endogenous catecholamines, which are known as major neurotransmitters. This work described a new LC-MS/MS method coupled with pre-column derivatization, enabling the simultaneous enantiomeric separation of epinephrine and norepinephrine in rat plasma. After protein precipitation procedure, the samples were derivatized with (S)-N-(4-nitrophenoxycarbonyl) phenylalanine methoxyethyl ester, [(S)-NIFE]. The derivatives resolved with good baseline separation on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) with mobile phase composed of methanol with 0.2% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Analysis was performed by multiple reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode. The linear ranges were 1.0-500 ng/mL for epinephrine enantiomers and 1.5-750 ng/mL for norepinephrine enantiomers. The lower limits of quantification for epinephrine and norepinephrine enantiomers were 1.0 and 1.5 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision were all less than 10.7% and accuracy ranged from 96.0 to 101.5%. Recoveries for all the analytes were more than 80.3%. The proposed method was successfully applied to simultaneously determine endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine enantiomers in rat plasma. l-epinephrine and l-norepinephrine were sensitively and accurately quantified while both the d-enantiomers were not detected. Additionally, epinephrine enantiomers were analyzed for stereoselective pharmacokinetics in rats after intravenous administration of racemic epinephrine for the first time. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the disposition of epinephrine enantiomers was stereoselective and chiral inversion did not occur in rats.


Assuntos
Epinefrina/farmacocinética , Norepinefrina/farmacocinética , Simpatomiméticos/farmacocinética , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Epinefrina/sangue , Epinefrina/química , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Estrutura Molecular , Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Norepinefrina/sangue , Norepinefrina/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Simpatomiméticos/administração & dosagem , Simpatomiméticos/sangue , Simpatomiméticos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 323, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transport stress not only causes physiological changes but also induces behavioral responses, including anxiety-like and depression-like behavioral responses in animals. The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a pivotal role in transport stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acute transport stress on the expression of nNOS and the distribution of nNOS-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus in rats and to explore the neuroendocrine mechanism of transport stress. RESULTS: In this study, for the first time, we investigated the effects of transport stress on nitric oxide (NO)-NOS in the hypothalamus. After simulated stress, rats exhibited behavioral changes in the open field test (OFT), increased serum corticosterone (CORT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and increased NO content in the hypothalamus. In addition, nNOS expression in the hypothalamic PVN was upregulated, and its distribution was altered in stressed rats compared with that of unstressed rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that simulated transport stress increases nNOS expression and alters its distribution in the PVN of the rat hypothalamus.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/sangue , Neurônios/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/genética , Norepinefrina/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 903-909, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378103

RESUMO

True drug-resistant hypertension (RHT) is characterized by a marked neuroadrenergic activation and reflex alterations compared with the nonresistant hypertensive state. It is unknown however, whether this behavior is specific for the RHT state or is also shared by apparent RHT (ARHT). In 38 middle-age patients with RHT, 44 treated essential controlled hypertensives (HT) and 32 ARHT; we evaluated sphygmomanometric, beat-to-beat (Finapres) and 24-hour (Spacelabs) blood pressure, heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve traffic (microneurography). Measurements included plasma aldosterone, plasma norepinephrine, homeostasis model assessment index, and spontaneous baroreflex-muscle sympathetic nerve traffic sensitivity. All the various above-mentioned blood pressure values were significantly greater in both RHT and ARHT as compared with HT, while 24-hour blood pressure was significantly lower in ARHT as compared with RHT. In ARHT, muscle sympathetic nerve traffic was significantly lower than RHT (74.8±5.2 versus 89.2±4.8 bursts/100 hb, P<0.01) and similar to HT (69.7±4.8 bursts/100 hb, P=NS). RHT showed, at variance from the other 2 groups, greater plasma aldosterone and homeostasis model assessment index values and an impaired baroreflex function. In RHT, but not in ARHT and HT, muscle sympathetic nerve traffic was significantly and inversely related to baroreflex function (r=-0.40, P<0.02) and directly to plasma aldosterone and homeostasis model assessment index values (r=0.34-0.36, P<0.05). Plasma norepinephrine and heart rate values were not significantly different in the 3 groups. These data provide evidence that the marked sympathetic activation and baroreflex dysfunction detected in RHT is not present in ARHT, which displays a sympathetic and baroreflex profile superimposable to that seen in HT. These differences in the neurogenic function may have important clinical and therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aldosterona/sangue , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/sangue
4.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 36(1): 660-665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317816

RESUMO

Background: Although acute thermal stress appears to be one of the most effective stressors that increase the intra- and extracellular concentrations of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72), 17ß-estradiol has been shown to inhibit heat-induced Hsp72 expression. Materials and Methods: To determine whether severe whole-body hyperthermia (increase in rectal temperature up to 39.5 °C) induced by lower-body heating is a sufficient stimulus to modulate hormonal (17ß-estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and extracellular Hsp72 responses, we investigated young adult women (21 ± 1 yr). Results and Conclusions: In the present study, we show that a severe whole-body hyperthermia (increase in rectal temperature of approximately 2.6 °C and heart rate of approximately 80 bpm from baseline) was sufficient to increase 17ß-estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin and catecholamine norepinephrine concentration. Moreover, we show that the concentration of extracellular Hsp72 and catecholamine epinephrine were not affected by severe whole-body hyperthermia in young adult women. From the functional point of view, expression of ovarian hormones induced by passive heat stress may have therapeutic potential for young adult women in, for example, estrogen treatment and overall women's health.


Assuntos
Epinefrina/sangue , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP72/sangue , Hormônios/sangue , Hipertermia Induzida , Norepinefrina/sangue , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal , Feminino , Fase Folicular/sangue , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ovário , Sensação Térmica , Adulto Jovem
5.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 536-545, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327262

RESUMO

Renal nerve stimulation (RNS) can result in substantial blood pressure (BP) elevation, and the change was significantly blunted when repeated stimulation after ablation. However, whether RNS could provide a meaningful renal nerve mapping for identification of optimal ablation targets in renal denervation (RDN) is not fully clear. Here, we compared the antihypertensive effects of selective RDN guided by two different BP responses to RNS and explored the nerve innervations at these sites in Kunming dogs. Our data indicated that ablation at strong-response sites showed a more systolic BP-lowering effect than at weak-response sites (P=0.002), as well as lower levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and norepinephrine in kidney and a greater reduction in plasma norepinephrine (P=0.004 for tyrosine hydroxylase, P=0.002 for both renal and plasma norepinephrine). Strong-response sites showed a greater total area and mean number of renal nerves than weak-response sites (P=0.012 for total area and P<0.001 for mean number). Systolic BP-elevation response to RNS before RDN and blunted systolic BP-elevation to RNS after RDN were correlated with systolic BP changes at 4 weeks follow-up (R=0.649; P=0.012 and R=0.643; P=0.013). Changes of plasma norepinephrine and renal norepinephrine levels at 4 weeks were also correlated with systolic BP changes at 4 weeks (R=0.837, P<0.001 and R=0.927, P<0.001). These data suggest that selective RDN at sites with strong BP-elevation response to RNS could lead to a more efficient RDN. RNS is an effective method to identify the nerve-enriched area during RDN procedure and improve the efficacy of RDN.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Hipertensão/cirurgia , Nervos Esplâncnicos/cirurgia , Simpatectomia/métodos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Feminino , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/inervação , Masculino , Norepinefrina/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 546-554, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303108

RESUMO

Radiofrequency renal denervation is under investigation for treatment of hypertension with variable success. We developed preclinical models to examine the dependence of ablation biomarkers on renal denervation treatment parameters and anatomic variables. One hundred twenty-nine porcine renal arteries were denervated with an irrigated radiofrequency catheter with multiple helically arrayed electrodes. Nerve effects and ablation geometries at 7 days were characterized histomorphometrically and correlated with associated renal norepinephrine levels. Norepinephrine exhibited a threshold dependence on the percentage of affected nerves across the range of treatment durations (30-60 s) and power set points (6-20 W). For 15 W/30 s treatments, norepinephrine reduction and percentage of affected nerves tracked with number of electrode treatments, confirming additive effects of helically staggered ablations. Threshold effects were only attained when ≥4 electrodes were powered. Histomorphometry and computational modeling both illustrated that radiofrequency treatments directed at large neighboring veins resulted in subaverage ablation areas and, therefore, contributed suboptimally to efficacy. Account for measured nerve distribution patterns and the annular geometry of the artery revealed that, regardless of treatment variables, total ablation area and circumferential coverage were the prime determinants of renal denervation efficacy, with increased efficacy at smaller diameters.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Hipertensão/cirurgia , Rim/inervação , Norepinefrina/sangue , Artéria Renal/cirurgia , Simpatectomia/métodos , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 100-106, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Law enforcement personnel often confront violent and dangerous individuals suffering from Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDS) who need emergent medical evaluation and treatment to optimize the best outcomes for this potentially lethal medical emergency. These subjects typically require physical restraint and use of force measures to control them. We sought to determine if stress-related biomarkers can differentiate ExDS subjects when compared with agitation and stress under other circumstances, including agitation and extreme physical exhaustion and restraint coupled with emotional stressors. METHODS: This was a prospective multi-center study enrolling a convenience sample of patients who presented with agitation or ExDS. Patients were enrolled from three academic emergency departments (ED), two in the United States and one in Canada. Three study groups (SG) included: SG1) patients brought to the ED with ExDS based on the use of standardized clinical criteria; SG2) ED patients with acute agitation who were not in a clinical state of ExDS but required sedation; SG3) a laboratory control group of subjects exercised to physical exhaustion, restrained, and psychologically stressed with threat of Conducted Energy Device (CED) activation. We examined a panel of stress-related biomarkers, including norepinephrine (NE), cortisol, copeptin, orexin A, and dynorphin (Dyn) from the blood of enrolled subjects. RESULTS: A total of 82 subjects were enrolled: 31 in the agitation group, 21 in the ExDS group, and 30 in the laboratory control group. Data were analyzed, comparing the findings between ExDS and the two other groups to determine if specific stress-related biomarkers are associated with ExDS. Biomarker comparisons between subjects identified with ExDS, agitation, and control groups demonstrated that cortisol levels were more elevated in the ExDS group compared with the other groups. Orexin was only significant in ExDs (with Agitated tendency but lot of variability in the group). NE and Dyn increased as response to stress in Agitated and ExDS. CONCLUSIONS: Cortisol levels were more elevated in subjects in the ExDS group compared with the other comparison groups and orexin was elevated in ExDS compared to controls, a trend that did not reach statistical significance in the agitated group. The clinical or diagnostic significance of these difference have yet to be defined and warrants further study.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita , Delírio/complicações , Prisioneiros , Agitação Psicomotora , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinorfinas/sangue , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Norepinefrina/sangue , Orexinas/sangue , Polícia , Estudos Prospectivos , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos , Amostragem
8.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(10): e4619, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177559

RESUMO

Hypertension is a common chronic disease, and it is the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, the number of patients with hypertension-related complications has increased significantly, adding a heavy burden to the public health system. It is known that chronic stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and stroke. However, the impact of hypertension on the dysfunctions induced by chronic stress remains poorly understood. In this study, using LC-MS-based metabolomics, we established a chronic stress model to demonstrate the mechanisms of stress-induced hypertension. We found that 30 metabolites in chronically stressed rats were changed; of these metabolites, seven had been upregulated, and 23 had been downregulated, including amino acids, phospholipids, carnitines and fatty acids, many of which are involved in amino acid metabolism, cell membrane injury, ATP supply and inflammation. These metabolites are engaged in dysregulated pathways and will provide a targeted approach to study the mechanism of stress-induced hypertension.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangue , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Corticosterona/sangue , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/sangue , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(7): 453-461, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108562

RESUMO

Offering large muscle benefits despite low metabolic demand, continuous eccentric exercise appears to be an interesting alternative to concentric exercise. Nevertheless, further knowledge is needed about prolonged eccentric exercise. This work sought to investigate the cardiovascular responses to prolonged constant-load eccentric compared to concentric cycling. Ten healthy males performed two 45-min exercise sessions of either concentric or eccentric cycling separated by a month and matched for heart rate during the first 5 min of exercise. Cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous system and vascular responses were assessed at rest, and during exercise and recovery. During cycling, oxygen uptake, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure were similar but heart rate and diastolic blood pressure were greater whereas stroke volume was lower during eccentric than concentric cycling (118±21 vs. 104±10 bpm; 77±9 vs. 65±8 mmHg; 122±12 vs. 135±13 mL). Baroreflex and noradrenaline concentration were altered during eccentric cycling, and after eccentric exercise, vascular tone was greater than after concentric cycling. We observed increased cardiovascular strain and altered baroreflex activity during eccentric compared with concentric exercise, suggesting eccentric cycling triggers greater sympathetic activity.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica , Adulto , Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Norepinefrina/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico , Resistência Vascular , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(7): 1343-1349, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028503

RESUMO

To evaluate the clinical value of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and its effect on AQP-4 expression. Children with HFMD were divided into a common group, a severe group and a critical group according to Chinese guidelines; children in the critical group were further divided into two subgroups: routine treatment group and MgSO4 group. Outcome measures included systolic blood pressure (SBP), Heart rate (HR), the levels of AQP-4, interleukin-6 (IL-6), norepinephrine (NE), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Serum AQP-4, IL-6, NE, and NSE levels varied significantly among the critical, severe, and common groups before and after treatment. There were no significant differences in AQP-4 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the critical and severe groups before and after treatment; however, CSF AQP-4 levels in these two groups were higher than those in the common group before treatment. Serum and CSF AQP-4 levels in convalescence decreased significantly in the critical and severe groups. SBP, HR and serum AQP-4, IL-6, NE, NSE levels, but not CSF AQP-4 levels, were significantly lower in MgSO4 group than in the routine treatment group. AQP-4 in serum, but not in CSF, is a candidate biomarker for evaluating the severity and prognosis of HFMD; MgSO4 can provide protection on children with critical HFMD.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/sangue , Aquaporina 4/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Norepinefrina/sangue , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(3): 795-805.e1, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well known that the clinical outcome of patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) is poor. However, the relationship between stress-related hormone levels and CLI outcome remains unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal the association of stress hormones with the risk of a perioperative major adverse cardiovascular event (pMACE) in CLI patients undergoing surgical and endovascular revascularization. METHODS: The study analyzed 467 CLI patients who had levels of stress-related hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol) measured before undergoing revascularization. The primary end point was pMACE, including all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke within 30 days after revascularization. Propensity score matching was used to try to control for potential confounding. RESULTS: Of the 467 patients analyzed, pMACE was observed in 21 patients (4.5%). The crude comparison of stress-related hormone levels between those with and those without pMACE showed that those with pMACE had a higher level of epinephrine, dopamine, and cortisol compared with those without pMACE. After propensity matching (20 patients with pMACE and 192 patients without pMACE), epinephrine and cortisol levels were significantly higher in those with pMACE. Multivariate analysis confirmed that both epinephrine and cortisol levels were related to the risk of pMACE independently of each other. The Cox proportional hazards regression model demonstrated that both hormones were associated with 30-day mortality but not with longer term mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Stress-related hormone (epinephrine and cortisol) levels were significantly associated with the risk of pMACE in CLI patients undergoing revascularization. Both hormones were related to 30-day mortality.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Epinefrina/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Isquemia/cirurgia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dopamina/sangue , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia/sangue , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Norepinefrina/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade
13.
Acupunct Med ; 37(1): 40-46, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) for the treatment of anxiety and depression in unmarried patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. METHODS: A prospective pilot randomised controlled trial of unmarried women with PCOS was conducted from November 2012 to March 2016. Participants were assigned to the acupuncture group (receiving EA for 16 weeks) or the control group (receiving sham acupuncture for 16 weeks), with 27 patients in each group. The pre-specified primary outcomes and all secondary outcomes, with the exception of serum levels of neurotransmitters including norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (AD), serotonin (5-HT) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), will be reported separately. Additional outcome measures selected for this secondary analysis included anxiety and depression scale scores (Zung-SAS and Zung-SDS), 36-Item Short Form (SF-36) scale scores, PCOS Quality of Life (PCOSQOL) scale scores and Chinese Quality of Life (CHQOL) scale scores. RESULTS: After the16-week intervention, an increase in serum NE and reduction in 5-HT were observed in the acupuncture group (P=0.028 and P=0.023, respectively). The serum level of GABA decreased in both groups after the interventions (both P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of any neurotransmitters (p>0.05). After EA treatment, SAS and SDS scores were decreased in the acupuncture group (P=0.007 and P=0.027, respectively) and were lower than those of the control group (P=0.003 and P=0.004, respectively). The SF-36 domain scores for mental health, vitality, social functioning, general health and health transition, the total CHQOL scores, and the infertility problems and body hair domains of the PCOSQOL improved significantly after EA (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA appears to improve symptoms of anxiety/depression and quality of life in PCOS patients and may influence serum levels of NE and 5-HT. These findings should be interpreted with caution, given the secondary nature of the outcome measures reported herein. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01812161; ChiCTR-TRC-12002529.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Eletroacupuntura , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/psicologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Pessoa Solteira/psicologia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Adolescente , Adulto , Epinefrina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Neurotransmissores/sangue , Norepinefrina/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Serotonina/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sports Sci ; 37(15): 1717-1724, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836837

RESUMO

This study investigates the relationship between autonomic function and the inflammatory response to a wheelchair half-marathon in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Seventeen wheelchair athletes with a cervical SCI (CSCI, N = 7) and without CSCI (NON-CSCI, N = 10) participated in a wheelchair half-marathon. Blood was taken prior, post and 1 h post-race to determine the concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). A sit-up tilt test was performed to assess autonomic function at rest. CSCI showed a lower supine ratio of the low and high frequency power of the variability in RR intervals (LF/HF RRI, p = 0.038), total and low frequency power of the systolic blood pressure variability (TP SBP, p < 0.001; LF SBP, p = 0.005) compared to NON-CSCI. Following the race, catecholamine concentrations increased only in NON-CSCI (p < 0.036). The increase in IL-6 post-race was larger in NON-CSCI (p = 0.040). Post-race catecholamine levels explained 60% of the variance in the IL-6 response (r = 0.77, p = 0.040), which was further increased when the resting autonomic function indices were added to the regression model (R2 > 81%, p < 0.012). In summary, the dampened acute inflammatory response to a wheelchair half-marathon in CSCI was strongly associated with the autonomic dysfunction present in this group.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Epinefrina/sangue , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP72/sangue , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/sangue , Receptores de Interleucina-6/sangue , Teste da Mesa Inclinada , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Cadeiras de Rodas
15.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 4, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728061

RESUMO

BACKGROUOND: The purpose of this study was to examine resting the metabolic response to the ingestion of a complex containing Citrus Aurantium + Caffeine (CA + C) and if its consumption influences metabolic recovery following a high-intensity anaerobic exercise bout in habitual caffeine users. METHODS: Ten physically active males (25.1 ± 3.9 years; weight 78.71 ± 9.53 kg; height 177.2 ± 4.6 cm; body fat 15.5 ± 3.13%) participated in this study. This study was performed in a double-blind, randomized crossover fashion consisting of two exhaustive exercise protocols. On each visit the participants consumed either a CA + C (100 mg of CA and 100 mg of C) or placebo (dextrose) capsule. After consumption, participants were monitored throughout a 45-min ingestion period, then completed a repeated Wingate protocol, and were then monitored throughout a 45-min recovery period. Metabolic function was measured through blood glucose, plasma insulin, plasma triglycerides, and plasma catecholamines: epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE). Biomarkers were taken at four different time points; Ingestion period: baseline (I1), post-ingestion period (I2); Recovery period: immediately post-exercise (R1), post-recovery period (R2). RESULTS: A repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant time-dependent increases in plasma E and NE at I2 only in the CA + C trial (p < 0.05), and a significant decrease in blood glucose at I2 in the PLA trial (p < 0.05); however, no meaningful changes in glucose was observed following CA + C ingestion. No changes in insulin or triglycerides were observed during the ingestion period. No trial-dependent differences were observed in the Recovery period. All biomarkers of metabolic recovery were equivalent when evaluating R1 v R2. Participants recovered in a similar time-dependent manner in all markers of metabolism following the PLA and CA + C trials. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggested that normal recommended dosages of 100 mg CA + 100 mg C is sufficient to promote glucose sparing at rest, with modest increases in SNS activity; however, the individual role of CA or C in this response cannot be determined.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Citrus , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Metabolismo Energético , Epinefrina/sangue , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Norepinefrina/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
16.
Theriogenology ; 128: 110-115, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743099

RESUMO

Mares usually give birth when they perceive their environment as safe and therefore disturbance at foaling may inhibit labor. In this study, foaling mares were transferred to an unfamiliar environment at rupture of the allantochorion (stress, n = 6) or were left undisturbed (control, n = 5). The progress of foaling, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma catecholamine, oxytocin and cortisol concentration were determined. In stressed mares, time from rupture of the allantochorion to appearance of the fetal feet (5.3 ±â€¯1.1 vs. 1.6 ±â€¯0.4 min) and total length of fetal expulsion were longer than in controls (both p < 0.05). Heart rate decreased during the expulsive phase of foaling in control mares (p < 0.01) but increased transiently in stressed mares. Heart rate calculated as percentage of the baseline was higher in stressed than in control mares (p = 0.05). HRV variables SDRR (standard deviation of the beat-to-beat interval) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive beat-to-beat differences) increased during foal expulsion (SDRR p < 0.01 and RMSSD p < 0.05). The increase in HRV was delayed in stressed compared to control mares (SDRR and RMSSD time x group p < 0.05). Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations calculated as area under the curve for the expulsive phase of foaling were higher in stressed than control mares (p < 0.05). Concentrations of oxytocin and cortisol were elevated during foal expulsion (both p < 0.001) but not different between groups. In conclusion, disturbance of mares during expulsion of the foal prolonged foaling. This effect is most likely mediated via increased sympathetic activity and not inhibition of oxytocin release.


Assuntos
Cavalos/fisiologia , Parto , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Catecolaminas/sangue , Membrana Corioalantoide , Epinefrina/sangue , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/veterinária , Norepinefrina/sangue , Ocitocina/sangue , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(5): e14374, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic angiotensin axis blockade (AAB) has been associated with profound hypotension following anesthetic induction with propofol. To combat this problem, investigators have attempted to withhold angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) preoperatively, or evaluated the effects of different induction agents in conferring greater hemodynamic stability. To date, methohexital has not been compared with the most commonly used induction agent, propofol. Hence, the primary objective was to study the hypothesis that methohexital confers a better hemodynamic profile than propofol for anesthetic induction, in patients receiving AAB. The secondary objective was to investigate the postinduction levels of serum neurohormones in an attempt to explain the mechanisms involved. METHODS: Forty-five adult, hypertensive patients taking ACEi or ARB and scheduled for elective, noncardiac surgery completed the study. Patients were randomized to receive equi-anesthetic doses of either propofol or methohexital for anesthetic induction. Hemodynamic variables were measured and blood samples were drawn before induction and for 15 minutes afterwards. RESULTS: Methohexital resulted in less hypotension compared with propofol (P = .01), although the degree of refractory hypotension was similar (P = .37). The postinduction systolic blood pressure (P = .03), diastolic blood pressure (P < .001) and heart rate (P = .03) were significantly higher in the methohexital group. A nonsignificant elevation of serum norepinephrine and epinephrine levels was observed in the methohexital group, while serum arginine vasopressin and angiotensin II levels did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: While methohexital was shown to confer greater hemodynamic stability in patients taking ACEi/ARB, the measured hormone levels could not explain the mechanism for this effect.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Metoexital/uso terapêutico , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Angiotensina II/sangue , Arginina Vasopressina/sangue , Epinefrina/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/sangue
18.
Ir J Med Sci ; 188(4): 1279-1287, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is a heterogeneous disorder that creates challenges for treatment. Metoprolol is an important therapeutic option for children with VVS. AIMS: The study examined the predictive value of 24-h urine norepinephrine (NE) levels in the assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol for recurrent VVS in children. METHODS: Thirty-eight children with recurrent VVS and 20 healthy children were enrolled in our study. Twenty-four-hour urine NE levels were measured by LC-MS-MS. VVS children were diagnosed by BHUTT and/or SNHUTT, and received metoprolol treatment for 3 months. Symptom scoring was utilized to evaluate the therapeutic effect. A ROC curve was used to investigate the predictive value of 24-h urine norepinephrine levels. RESULTS: There exists significant correlation between 24-h urine NE levels and supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The 24-h urine NE levels of responders (40.75 ± 12.86 µg/24 h) were higher than those of nonresponders (21.48 ± 6.49 µg/24 h), and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). A ROC curve of the predictive value of 24 h urine NE levels revealed that the area under the curve was 0.926. A cutoff value for 24-h urine NE level of 34.84 µg/24 h produced both high sensitivity (70%) and specificity (100%) in predicting the efficacy of metoprolol therapy for VVS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high 24-h urine NE levels have higher supine systolic and diastolic pressures and more effective responses to metoprolol. A 24-h urine norepinephrine level of > 34.84 µg/24 h was an indicator of the effectiveness of metoprolol therapy for VVS in children.


Assuntos
Metoprolol/administração & dosagem , Norepinefrina/sangue , Síncope Vasovagal/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 28: 250-255, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities on disease activity (relapses and new MRI lesions) and disease progression in people with clinically isolated syndrome (pwCIS). METHODS: Out of 121 consecutive pwCIS, data on disease activity and progression after 2.9 (1.4-4.1) years of follow-up, was available for 94 pwCIS. Baseline characteristics included MRI parameters, Composite Autonomic System Score-31 (COMPASS-31), Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale, and supine and standing levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine. RESULTS: Univariable logistic regression analysis revealed three predictors for occurrence of new relapse, COMPASS-31 > 7.32, total number of T2 lesions > 3 and decreasing supine level of epinephrine. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with COMPASS-31 > 7.32 have statistically significant lower probability that they will be relapse free (p = 0.013). It has also showed that the relative risk reduction for occurrence of new relapse in participants with COMPASS < 7.32 was 46%. The multivariable regression model confirmed that COMPASS-31 > 7.32 and total number of T2 lesions > 3 increase the likelihood and the increasing supine level of epinephrine reduces the likelihood for a relapse. Finally, results of the Cox regression analysis showed, that after controlling for age, sex, total number of T2 lesions > 3 and supine level of epinephrine, the hazard for occurrence of new relapse for participants with COMPASS-31 > 7.32 is 2.7 times that of participants with COMPASS-31 < 7.32. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that ANS is an important contributor to development of disease activity in pwCIS.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/diagnóstico , Doenças Desmielinizantes/fisiopatologia , Epinefrina/sangue , Norepinefrina/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Postura , Prognóstico , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Physiol Res ; 68(2): 209-217, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628826

RESUMO

To determine the influence of IGF-1 deletion on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), left ventricular dysfunction, and renal function in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice. The DOCA-salt hypertensive mice models were constructed and the experiment was classified into WT (Wild-type mice) +sham, LID (Liver-specific IGF-1 deficient mice) + sham, WT + DOCA, and LID+ DOCA groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the serum IGF-1 levels in mice. The plasma norepinephrine (NE), urine protein, urea nitrogen and creatinine, as well as RSNA were measured. Echocardiography was performed to assess left ventricular dysfunction, and HE staining to observe the pathological changes in renal tissue of mice. DOCA-salt induction time-dependently increased the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of mice, especially in DOCA-salt LID mice. Besides, the serum IGF-1 levels in WT mice were decreased after DOCA-salt induction. In addition, the plasma NE concentration and NE spillover, urinary protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine and RSNA were remarkably elevated with severe left ventricular dysfunction, but the creatinine clearance was reduced in DOCA-salt mice, and these similar changes were obvious in DOCA-salt mice with IGF-1 deletion. Moreover, the DOCA-salt mice had tubular ectasia, glomerular fibrosis, interstitial cell infiltration, and increased arterial wall thickness, and the DOCA-salt LID mice were more serious in those aspects. Deletion of IGF-1 may lead to enhanced RSNA in DOCA-salt hypertensive mice, thereby further aggravating left ventricular dysfunction and renal damage.


Assuntos
Acetato de Desoxicorticosterona/toxicidade , Hipertensão/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/deficiência , Rim/fisiologia , Fibras Simpáticas Pós-Ganglionares/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Animais , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/inervação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mineralocorticoides/toxicidade , Norepinefrina/sangue , Fibras Simpáticas Pós-Ganglionares/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
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