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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109089, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662900

RESUMO

Contamination of bivalve molluscs with viruses is well recognized as a food safety risk. A microbiological criterion for norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in shellfish, however, does not exist in the European Union currently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination levels of these viruses for fluctuation over a long period (2013-2017) in oyster (n = 266) and mussel samples (n = 490) using a method based on ISO/TS 15216-1: 2013. Samples were taken at different points in the food chain, either directly post-harvest, at Dutch dispatch centers or in retail stores, from September until March of each year. Altogether, 53.1% of the mussel and 31.6% of the oyster samples tested positive for NoV RNA. Simultaneous presence of NoV GI and GII RNA was observed in 31.6% of mussel and 10.2% of oyster samples. Contamination levels in NoV positive mussel samples collected post-harvest from B-areas were significantly higher than in those collected post-harvest from A-areas, or at dispatch centers or retail stores. Levels in oysters from dispatch were significantly lower than those collected in retail stores. Ready for sale mussels and oysters contained 2.04 and 1.76 mean log10 transformed NoV genome copies/gram (gc/g), respectively. GII levels were at a constant level in ready for sale mussels throughout all sampling periods in the study. This seemed to be true for oysters as well. HAV RNA was detected in only one of the tested mussel samples (n = 392) (typed HAV 1A) and in none of the tested oyster samples (n = 228). Critical evaluation of NoV and HAV levels in shellfish can be of help for risk assessment and risk management actions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Ostreidae/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Cadeia Alimentar , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Hepatite A/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Frutos do Mar/virologia
2.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 905-913, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462673

RESUMO

From 2010-2016, a total of 251 stool samples were screened for norovirus using next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genotypic diversity of noroviruses in rural and low-income urban areas in northern Brazil. Norovirus infection was detected in 19.9% (50/251) of the samples. Eight different genotypes were identified: GII.4_Sydney[P31] (64%, 32/50), GII.6[P7] (14%, 7/50), GII.17[P17] (6%, 3/50), GII.1[P33] (6%, 3/50), GII.3[P16] (4%, 2/50), GII.2[P16] (2%, 1/50), GII.2[P2] (2%, 1/50), and GII.4_New Orleans[P4] (2%, 1/50). Distinct GII.6[P7] variants were recognized, indicating the presence of different co-circulating strains. Elucidating norovirus genetic diversity will improve our understanding of their potential health burden, in particular for the GII.4_Sydney[P31] variant.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Sequência de Bases , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/classificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462001

RESUMO

A 75-year-old man was admitted with a 3-month history of worsening diarrhoea and weight loss. He was on long-term immunosuppression following cardiac transplantation. Investigations revealed herpes simplex oesophagitis and stool samples were positive for norovirus. Treatment with acyclovir and nitazoxanide resulted in a complete resolution of symptoms. Norovirus is a common cause of infectious gastroenteritis, but immunosuppressed patients may present with chronic diarrhoea rather than an acute illness. This case highlights the importance of a low clinical threshold for testing for norovirus infection in immunocompromised patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Diarreia/virologia , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Perda de Peso , Idoso , Infecções por Caliciviridae/complicações , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Doença Crônica , Diarreia/imunologia , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Perda de Peso/imunologia
4.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418922

RESUMO

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading causes of foodborne illnesses globally. The viral genome is the most essential information for viral source tracing and viral transmission pattern monitoring. However, whole genome sequencing of HuNoVs is still challenging due to the sequence heterogeneity among different genotypes and low titer in samples. To address this need, in this study, the Transposase assisted RNA/DNA hybrid Co-tagmentation (TRACE-seq) method was established for next generation sequencing library preparation of HuNoVs. Our data demonstrated that almost the whole HuNoVs genome (>7 kb) could be obtained from all of the 11 clinical samples tested. Twelve genotypes including GI.3, GI.4, GI.5, GI.8, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.12, GII.13, GII.14, and GII.21 were involved. Compared with the traditional method for viral metagenomics library preparation, optimized TRACE-seq greatly reduced the interference from the host's and bacterial RNAs. In addition, viral genome sequences can be assembled by using less raw data with sufficient depth along the whole genome. Therefore, for the high versatility and reliability, this method is promising for whole viral genome attainment. It is particularly applicable for the viruses with a low titer that are mixed with a complicated host background and are unable to be cultured in vitro, like the HuNoVs utilized in this study.


Assuntos
Biblioteca Gênica , Genoma Viral , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Transposases/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Metagenômica , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 7, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the etiology of childhood diarrhea in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) especially after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. This study aimed to identify gastrointestinal pathogens in children with diarrhea (cases) and the carriage rate of these pathogens in asymptomatic children (controls). METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 203 cases and 73 controls who presented to two major hospitals in Al Ain city, UAE. Samples were analyzed with Allplex™ Gastrointestinal Full Panel Assay for common entero-pathogens. The association between diarrhea and the isolated pathogens was calculated in a multivariate logistic regression model. The adjusted attributable fractions (aAFs) were calculated for all pathogens significantly associated with cases. RESULTS: At least one pathogen was identified in 87 samples (42.8%) from cases and 17 (23.3%) from controls (P < 0.001). Rotavirus, norovirus GII and adenovirus were significantly more prevalent in cases. Their aAFs with 95% ci are 0.95 (0.64, 1.00) for rotavirus, 0.86 (0.38, 0.97) for norovirus GII and 0.84 (0.29, 0.96) for adenovirus. None of the 13 bacteria tested for were more commonly found in the cases than in controls. Cryptosporidium spp. were more significantly detected in cases than in controls. Co-infections occurred in 27.9% of the children. Viruses and parasites were significantly more likely to occur together only in the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex PCR revealed high positivity rates in both cases and controls which demand a cautious interpretation. Rotavirus remains the main childhood diarrhea pathogen in UAE. Effective strategies are needed to better control rotavirus and other causative pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Norovirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(2): 244-248, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, monoclonal-antibody-conjugated immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedure combined with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been used for quantifying non-cultivated human noroviruses (HuNoVs). METHODS: We examined the efficacy of 27 commercially available disinfectants and a prototype against GII.4 strain HuNoV through the IMS/qRT-PCR assay. RESULTS: The average log reduction in viral titer in vitro varied among the disinfectants. The prototype was the most effective with an average log reduction of 6.86 log. CONCLUSIONS: The IMS/RT-qPCR assay is an effective method to evaluate the activities of disinfectants against GII.4 HuNoV in vitro. Further work is needed to enhance the virucidal activity of the prototype disinfectant against more resistant HuNoV strains.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Separação Imunomagnética/métodos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Inativação de Vírus
7.
Nat Protoc ; 16(3): 1452-1475, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514945

RESUMO

Norovirus is a widespread public health threat and has a very low infectious dose. This protocol presents the extremely sensitive mobile detection of norovirus from water samples using a custom-built smartphone-based fluorescence microscope and a paper microfluidic chip. Antibody-conjugated fluorescent particles are immunoagglutinated and spread over the paper microfluidic chip by capillary action for individual counting using a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope. Smartphone images are analyzed using intensity- and size-based thresholding for the elimination of background noise and autofluorescence as well as for the isolation of immunoagglutinated particles. The resulting pixel counts of particles are correlated with the norovirus concentration of the tested sample. This protocol provides detailed guidelines for the construction and optimization of the smartphone- and paper-based assay. In addition, a 3D-printed enclosure is presented to incorporate all components in a dark environment. On-chip concentration and the assay of higher concentrations are presented to further broaden the assay range. This method is the first to be presented as a highly sensitive mobile platform for norovirus detection using low-cost materials. With all materials and reagents prepared, a single standard assay takes under 20 min. Although the method described is used for detection of norovirus, the same protocol could be adapted for detection of other pathogens by using different antibodies.


Assuntos
Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Fluorescência , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/métodos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Smartphone , Água/análise , Microbiologia da Água
8.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 38(9): 431-433, nov. 2020. graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-198627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the aetiological agent causing a gastroenteritis outbreak in two hotels in Majorca (Spain) on August and September 2014. METHODS: An epidemiological study was carried out. Environmental and stool samples were analyzed for different pathogens, including norovirus. RESULTS: Epidemiological analysis detected 79 cases among the tourists hosted in the affected hotels over the period 18th August to 3rd September. They included 52 (attack rate: 6.4%) and 27 (attack rate: 3.0%) cases in hotel A and B, respectively. Seven of the staff members were also affected. Microbiological analyses detected genotype 2 norovirus in patient's stool samples, in rooms and in common areas' surfaces. The specific control plan rapidly implemented at the beginning of the outbreak, and further adapted for norovirus elimination, allowed to control the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the outbreak was caused by genotype 2 norovirus, and reflects the importance of a rapid analysis and response for its control


OBJETIVOS: Determinar el agente etiológico responsable del brote de gastroenteritis producido en 2 hoteles de Mallorca (España) en agosto y septiembre de 2014. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico y se analizaron muestras ambientales y de heces para la presencia de patógenos, incluyendo norovirus. RESULTADOS: El análisis epidemiológico detectó 79 casos entre los clientes hospedados en los hoteles desde el 18 de agosto al 3 de septiembre: 52 en el hotel A (tasa de ataque: 6,4%) y 27 en el B (tasa de ataque: 3,0%), así como en 7 miembros del personal. Los análisis microbiológicos detectaron norovirus genotipo 2 en las heces de los pacientes y en las superficies de las habitaciones y zonas comunes. El plan específico implementado rápidamente y adaptado para la eliminación de norovirus permitió el control del brote. CONCLUSIONES: En este brote causado por norovirus del genotipo 2 se refleja la importancia de un análisis y una respuesta rápida para su control


Assuntos
Humanos , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Saneamento de Hotéis , Infecções por Caliciviridae/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1328-1334, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867445

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the characteristics and differences of diarrhea-related symptoms caused by different pathogens, and the clinical features of various pathogens causing diarrhea. Methods: Etiology surveillance program was conducted among 20 provinces of China from 2010 to 2016. The acute diarrhea outpatients were collected from clinics or hospitals. A questionnaire was used to survey demographics and clinical features. VFeces samples were taken for laboratory detection of 22 common diarrhea pathogens, to detect and analyze the clinical symptom pattern characteristics of the patient's. Results: A total of 38 950 outpatients were enrolled from 20 provinces of China. The positive rates of Rotavirus and Norovirus were the highest among the five diarrhea-causing viruses (Rotavirus: 18.29%, Norovirus: 13.06%). In the isolation and culture of 17 diarrhea-causing bacterial, Escherichia coli showed the highest positive rates (6.25%). The clinical features of bacterial diarrhea and viral diarrhea were mainly reflected in the results of fecal traits and routine examination, but pathogenic Vibrio infection was similar to viral diarrhea. Conclusion: Infectious diarrhea presents different characteristics due to various symptoms which can provide a basis for clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Disenteria/microbiologia , Disenteria/virologia , Vigilância da População , China/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação
10.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 2767-2776, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949263

RESUMO

Human norovirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Rapid detection facilitates management of disease outbreaks, but field diagnosis is difficult to achieve due to the lack of reliable and portable methods. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a robust isothermal amplification method that is capable of rapidly amplifying and detecting nucleic acids using simple equipment. In this study, RPA combined with lateral flow (LF) strips specific for human genogroup II (GII) noroviruses was established and evaluated. The assay specifically detects purified GII noroviruses as well as RNA in boiled human stool samples, with a sensitivity of 50 norovirus genome copies per reaction. The whole detection procedure of the one-step RT-RPA-LF is completed within 20 min, which is eight times faster than that of the standard real-time RT-PCR. The RT-RPA-LF method described here is suitable for rapid field diagnosis of all GII noroviruses in human stool samples.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Infecções por Caliciviridae/genética , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Recombinases/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108785, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717668

RESUMO

Norovirus in oysters is a significant food safety risk. A recent ISO detection method allows for reliable and repeatable estimates of norovirus concentrations in pooled samples, but there is insufficient data to estimate a distribution of copies per animal from this. The spread of norovirus accumulated across individual oysters is useful for risk assessment models. Six sets of thirty individual Crassostrea gigas oysters were tested for norovirus concentration levels by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR): three from a commercial harvest site, and three post-depuration. Five sets had norovirus GII means above the limit of quantification (LOQ), and one below the LOQ, but above the limit of detection. No norovirus GI was detected in pooled tests, and individual oysters were not tested for norovirus GI. Depuration was shown to reduce the mean concentration of GII copies, but not to affect the shape of the distribution around the mean. Deconvoluting the uncertainty of the method, the coefficient of variation was stationary (0.45 ±â€¯0.2). The best fit distribution was either a lognormal distribution or a gamma. Multiplying these distributions by the weight of oyster digestive tissues gave an estimate for the count mean. This was used as the parameter λ in three compound Poisson distributions: Poisson-lognormal, Poisson-gamma, and Poisson-K. No model was found to fit better than the others, with advantages for each. All three could be used in future risk assessments. Preliminary validation of sampling uncertainty using repeated testing data from a previous study suggests that these results have predictive power.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/virologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Frutos do Mar/virologia , Carga Viral/métodos , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Norovirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Medição de Risco/métodos
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108787, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702583

RESUMO

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the primary non-bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we reported a co-infection of HuNoVs with different genotypes during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in travelers. The aim was to trace the source and transmission patterns of the infections using next-generation sequencing (NGS). An investigation was conducted on a cross-border travel group who came back to China from Thailand for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Anal swabs were collected from 23 people and samples were analyzed using RT-qPCR. A total of 11 samples tested positive for HuNoVs. All samples tested negative for bacterial pathogens in the surveillance list. Positive samples for HuNoVs were further analyzed using NGS. Seven out of 11 positive samples were sequenced and 16 viral genome sequences for 10 different strains of HuNoVs were obtained. We demonstrated that the outbreak was associated with co-infection of multiple genotypes of HuNoVs and the source of infections was probably contaminated water or food. Besides, four different HuNoVs genotypes (GI.5[P12], GIX.1[GII·P15], GI.7[P7] and GII.8[P8]) were identified in one patient. Co-infection with both genogroup GI and GII, and co-infection with two different P types ([P10] and [P13]) of genotype GI.3 were identified in different patients. Findings from this study show that individuals can be simultaneously infected with multiple strains of HuNoVs and NGS can help investigating these issues. Further, this study shows that food and water are potential vehicles for transmission of multiple foodborne viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tailândia , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1647-1652, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356188

RESUMO

On 31 March 2019, 68 school students suffered from vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain after participating in a group activity at a commercial park. In this outbreak, multiple norovirus genotypes were observed, including GII.2[P16], GII.17[P17], and GII.13[P21]. Further, we determined the full-genome sequences of two strains of GII.13[P21] recombinant noroviruses, which were 7434 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis based on open reading frames (ORFs) 1 and 2 revealed that these recombinants were related to stains of different genotypes from different countries. The full genome nucleotide sequences of the two isolates were 97.0% and 98.0% identical to those of strains from London and Thailand, respectively. Simplot analysis revealed the presence of a break point at nt 5059 in the ORF1 region. The histo-blood group antigen binding sites were conserved in both recombinant viruses. Our findings not only provide valuable genetic information about a recombinant norovirus but also contribute to our general understanding of the evolution, genetic diversity, and distribution of noroviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Genoma Viral , Norovirus/genética , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(4): 547-551, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344480

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics related to Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea bud events in Shanghai, and to discuss the value of bud events surveillance, so as to help Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea control, prevention and to improve the surveillance system on bud events. Methods: Data related to 142 Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea bud events were gathered from 16 districts of Shanghai areas in 2018 and were analyzed. Results: There were 2 peaks, April and November for 142 Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea bud events reported in 2018. 98.59% (140/142) of the bud events occurred in schools and kindergartens. 80.28% (114/142) of the bud events would involve 6-19 cases per each event. The median time duration between the onset date of the first case and the reporting date of the event was 2 days and the median event duration was 7 days. The bud event scale and regional incidence of bud events as well as the reporting timelines were influential factors on the duration of the bud events. Conclusions: Two peaks, spring and winter bud events of the Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea were seen in Shanghai in 2018. Schools and kindergartens were to be prioritized locations for control and prevention of Norovirus-associated infectious diarrhea bud events. Surveillance system was proved to have contributed to the early detection, reporting and control of bud events.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Humanos
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(3): 417-422, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294846

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea pathogens in Pudong New Areas of Shanghai from 2013 to 2017 to provide evidence for control and prevention of the disease. Methods: From Jan 2013 to Dec 2017, active surveillance program on diarrhea was conducted in 14 sentinel hospitals (three tertiary-level and nine secondary-level, and two primary-level hospitals) in Pudong New Areas of Shanghai, based on location, catchment areas and number of patients. All recruited outpatients were interviewed in hospitals, using a standard questionnaire. Stool specimens were collected and tested for five viral and eight bacterial pathogens. Results: A total of 9 301 cases with infectious diarrhea were included, and the overall positive rate was 55.7% (5 179). Positive rates of single virus, single bacteria and mixed infections were 26.7% (2 481), 17.0% (1 579) and 12.0% (1 119), respectively. For single infection, the most commonly detected viruses appeared as norovirus (15.4%, 1 428/9 301) and rotavirus (7.2%, 667/9 301). The most commonly detected bacteria were diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (6.7%, 619/9 301) and non-typhoid Salmonella (3.3%, 305/9 301). The most common mixed infections were caused by virus-bacteria (4.9%, 459/9 301). Norovirus (17.0%, 838/4 938) showed the highest positive rates, followed by Escherichia coli (7.2%, 354/4 938), both seen in the age group of 20-59 years old group. Rotavirus (9.4%, 178/1 896) and non-typhoid Salmonella (4.9%, 93/1 896) were the most common pathogens found in the age group of 0-4 years old. The prevalence of norovirus peaked both in spring and autumn. The other peaks were seen as: Rotavirus in winter, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in summer and non-typhoid Salmonella in summer. Conclusions: Our data showed that the positive rates of infectious diarrhea pathogens were high in Pudong New Areas of Shanghai from 2013 to 2017. The dominant pathogens would include norovirus, rotavirus and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli but with differenct distributions in age groups. Obvious seasonal patterns were also observed.


Assuntos
Disenteria/epidemiologia , Disenteria/etiologia , Conduta Expectante , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Disenteria/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1377-1384, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296995

RESUMO

Parechovirus A (PeV-A), which causes a wide variety of diseases, is prevalent among young children. However, little is currently known about PeV-A infections in children with acute gastroenteritis in mainland China. In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of acute gastroenteritis in Shenzhen, southern China, with an emphasis on PeV-A infections. A total of 1220 stool specimens from 1220 outpatient children under 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis were collected from January 2016 to December 2018. Viral RNA was detected by a real-time RT-PCR and PCR method. The PeV-A isolates were genotyped by sequencing the VP3/VP1 region. Of 1220 specimens, 148 (12.1%) were positive for PeV-A. The predominant genotype was PeV-A 1B (68.9%), followed by PeV-A 4 (12.2%), PeV-A 14 (6.1%), PeV-A 1A (5.4%), PeV-A 6 (2.7%), PeV-A 3 (2.7%) and PeV-A 5 (2.0%). It was found that 68.2% of PeV-A infections occurred in the summer and rainy months (June to September) in southern China. The majority of PeV-A-positive patients (97.3%) were younger than 24 months old. PeV-A coinfection with norovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus and adenovirus was found in thirty specimens (30/148, 20.3%), five specimens (5/148, 3.4%), five specimens (5/148, 3.4%), and two specimens (2/148, 1.4%), respectively. Coinfections with more than one other enteric virus were not observed in any of the PeV-A-positive specimens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PeV-A isolates from Shenzhen were closely related to each other and to strains circulating in China, suggesting endemic circulation of PeV-A in China. The results of this study indicate that PeV-A is one of important pathogens of acute gastroenteritis in young children and that coinfection is a possible mode of PeV-A infection. PeV-A associated with acute gastroenteritis exhibited high genotypic diversity in Shenzhen, southern China.


Assuntos
Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Parechovirus/genética , Parechovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275685

RESUMO

This study was designed to test the efficacy of an air treatment using ozone and relative humidity (RH) for the inactivation of airborne viruses. Four phages (φX174, PR772, MS2 and φ6) and one eukaryotic virus (murine norovirus MNV-1) were exposed to low ozone concentrations (1.23 ppm for phages and 0.23 ppm for MNV-1) and various levels of RH for 10 to 70 minutes. The inactivation of these viruses was then assessed to determine which of the tested conditions provided the greatest reduction in virus infectivity. An inactivation of at least two orders of magnitude for φX174, MS2 and MNV-1 was achieved with an ozone exposure of 40 minutes at 85% RH. For PR772 and φ6, exposure to the reference condition at 20% RH for 10 minutes yielded the same results. These findings suggest that ozone used at a low concentration is a powerful disinfectant for airborne viruses when combined with a high RH. Air treatment could therefore be implemented inside hospital rooms ventilated naturally.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Ozônio/farmacologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bacteriófago phi X 174/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteriófago phi X 174/isolamento & purificação , Bacteriófago phi X 174/patogenicidade , Escherichia coli/virologia , Umidade , Camundongos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Células RAW 264.7 , Viroses/transmissão , Viroses/virologia , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(1): 15-18, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238253

RESUMO

Introduction: The Norovirus (NoV) constitute a genus within the viral family Caliciviridae, being the main cause of outbreaks of food origin among humans. Fresh vegetables are susceptible to being contaminated with these pathogens during their cultivation, harvest, transport, processing and handling. So it was intended to determine the frequency of detection of NoV in plant samples of leaves of the City of Córdoba, and adapt a method of viral concentration with polyethylene glycol for the recovery of viral particles from the surface of vegetables and characterize the genogroups of NoV detected. Methods: 19 samples of leafy vegetables were taken between June and December 2012. A viral concentration technique previously validated in the laboratory was applied (elution and precipitation with polyethylene glycol). The viral RNA was extracted to the concentrates of the samples using Trizol and precipitation with isopropyl alcohol. The nucleic acid was amplified by Rt-PCR with specific primers to identify genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). The products of the amplification were revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. Results: We found 57.89% positive samples. Ten of the detected strains belonged to genogroup I (GI) and one to genogroup II (GII). They were identified throughout the study period, particularly during the months of August, September and November. Conclusion: These pathogens were detected with a prevalence of 57.89%. The strains belonged mainly to the GI, representing a potential risk for the population.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Verduras/virologia , Argentina , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Genótipo , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
Arch Virol ; 165(5): 1121-1128, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221714

RESUMO

Since 2014, novel non-GII.4 norovirus (NoV) genotypes continue to be reported as the main cause of outbreaks worldwide. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological and genetic features of NoV outbreaks from July 2014 to June 2018 in Huzhou, China. A total of 450 stool samples collected from 51 AGE outbreaks were tested for NoVs by real-time RT PCR. Partial polymerase and capsid sequences of NoV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. NoVs were found to be responsible of 84.3% of AGE outbreaks in Huzhou over the past 5 years. Most NoV outbreaks were reported in the cool months (November-March) and occurred in primary schools and kindergartens. Changes in the diversity of genotypes and the distribution of predominant types were observed in recent years. At least eight genotypes were identified, and 91.9% of the genotyped outbreaks were caused by non-GII.4 strains. The top three circulating genotypes during the study period were GII.2[P16], GII.3[P12], and GII.17[P17]. The predominant NoV genotypes in outbreaks have changed from GII.4 variants to GII.17[P17] in 2014-2015, GII.3[P12] in 2015-2016, and then GII.2[P16] in 2016-2018. Non-GII.4 NoVs play an increasingly important role in outbreaks in Huzhou. Continuous surveillance is needed to monitor the emergence of novel NoV strains and help control NoV outbreaks in the next epidemic season.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Norovirus/classificação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência
20.
Euro Surveill ; 25(7)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098645

RESUMO

On 27 December 2019, the French Public Health Agency identified a large increase in the number of acute gastroenteritis and vomiting visits, both in emergency departments and in emergency general practitioners' associations providing house-calls. In parallel, on 26 and 27 December, an unusual number of food-borne events suspected to be linked to the consumption of raw shellfish were reported through the mandatory reporting surveillance system. This paper describes these concomitant outbreaks and the investigations' results.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Frutos do Mar/virologia , Vômito/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Notificação de Abuso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Ostreidae/virologia , Saúde Pública , Vômito/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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