Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.757
Filtrar
1.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 33-38, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social inequity is a primary driver of health disparities, creating multiple barriers to good health. These inequities were exacerbated during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with Latinx communities suffering more than others. Grassroots collaborations have long existed to address disparities. OBJECTIVE: We describe the creation and work of the Latinx Advocacy Team and Interdisciplinary Network for COVID-19 (LATIN-19; http://latin19.org/), a multisector coalition in North Carolina created to address the unique challenges of COVID-19 in the Latinx community. METHODS: We discuss challenges and solutions that LATIN-19 addressed and the impact of LATIN-19 on community partners and members. RESULTS: LATIN-19 learned of challenges including, lack of awareness, need for data systems to track disparities, the need to increase access to resources, the need for policy changes, and the need to coordinate services by community organizations. CONCLUSIONS: LATIN-19 represents a grassroots organization that has had an impact on community and community organizations that spans beyond COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Políticas
2.
South Med J ; 115(8): 616-621, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individuals who began using alcohol or other drugs before the age of 15 are 7 times more likely to develop a substance use disorder (SUD) in adulthood. This study sought to determine the common characteristics of SUD-related hospitalizations and patterns of discharge diagnoses among adolescents in North Carolina. METHODS: Using the 2014 State Inpatient Database (SID), discharge records associated with the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic codes for SUD were identified. Adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 years were included. SUD and non-SUD groups were compared using the Student t test for continuous variables and the χ2 test for categorical variables. A total of 1.1 million hospital discharges were analyzed. A uniform and standardized coding system called Clinical Classifications Software was used to identify cases. The Clinical Classifications Software collapses the ICD-9-CM codes into 679 clinically meaningful categories. A cluster of 3900 ICD-9-CM procedure codes also was used to identify clinically relevant groups of procedures performed during hospitalization. RESULTS: An estimated 3276 adolescents associated with SUD were discharged from North Carolina hospitals during the study year. Discharged patients with a SUD spent a total of 21,242 inpatient days, at a cost of $62 million. Among the adolescents with a SUD, 53% were boys, 62% were White, 24% were Black, 8% were Hispanic (8%), and 6% were of other races. Compared with patients without a SUD, those with a SUD had longer mean hospital stays (6.5 days vs 4.7 days; P < 0.0001) and lower mean hospital charge per hospitalization ($18,932 vs 24,532; P < 0.0001). Adolescents with a SUD also were diagnosed primarily as having mood disorders (44.78%), followed by schizophrenia and other psychological disorders, upon discharge. Approximately 37% of the SUD-related discharges occurred in areas, denoted in this study using ZIP code designations, with mean household annual incomes <$38,999. A large proportion of the SUD-related hospitalizations (44%) were billed to Medicaid. Frequently observed diagnoses associated with adolescents with a SUD were mood disorders (45%), schizophrenia (7%), and poisoning by other medications and drugs (4%). In 16% of hospitalized adolescents with a SUD, there were at least 2 procedures performed. There was a statistically significant mean hospital charge difference of $5600 between SUD and non-SUD teens. CONCLUSIONS: The literature reflects the connection between adolescent use and the propensity for diagnosis with a SUD in adulthood; it is evident that this is a growing public health crisis. This study identified patterns of adolescent substance use that, based on the current literature, are indicative of problematic futures for these individuals. The concerning data and literature identify a significant need to address prevention, treatment, and recovery services for adolescents, not only in North Carolina but throughout the United States. The need for focused interventions, access to care, and funding of substance-specific adolescent education and services is greatly needed to change the trajectory of these adolescents' lives.


Assuntos
Adolescente Hospitalizado , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
3.
N C Med J ; 83(4): 280-283, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817452

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol use, already problematic in North Carolina, has increased markedly during COVID-19. Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality have also increased.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Morbidade , North Carolina/epidemiologia
4.
N C Med J ; 83(4): 244-248, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817459

RESUMO

Many states and localities in the United States are implementing evidence-based tobacco control policies at the retail level, including Tobacco 21 laws, tobacco retailer licensing, restrictions on point-of-sale promotions, and bans on flavored tobacco products. With the passage of new point-of-sale tobacco control policies, North Carolina could reduce youth tobacco use rates.


Assuntos
Comércio , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Políticas , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
5.
N C Med J ; 83(4): 249-252, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817460

RESUMO

Despite the stark decline in North Carolina's teen birth rates over the past three decades, rates remain disproportionately highest amongst Black, Latinx, and Native American teens in comparison to white teens. Numerous upstream factors continue to drive racial inequities, creating greater disparities in birth rates among teens of color.


Assuntos
Gravidez na Adolescência , Adolescente , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Feminino , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Grupos Raciais , Natação
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(6): 67002, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No safe level of lead in blood has been identified. Blood lead testing is required for children on Medicaid, but it is at the discretion of providers and parents for others. Elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) cannot be identified in children who are not tested. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this research were to identify determinants of lead testing and EBLLs among North Carolina children and estimate the number of additional children with EBLLs among those not tested. METHODS: We linked geocoded North Carolina birth certificates from 2011-2016 to 2010 U.S. Census data and North Carolina blood lead test results from 2011-2018. We estimated the probability of being screened for lead and created inverse probability (IP) of testing weights. We evaluated the risk of an EBLL of ≥3µg/dL at <30 months of age, conditional on characteristics at birth, using generalized linear models and then applied IP weights to account for missing blood lead results among unscreened children. We estimated the number of additional children with EBLLs of all North Carolina children using the IP-weighted population and bootstrapping to produce 95% credible intervals (CrI). RESULTS: Mothers of the 63.5% of children (402,002 of 633,159) linked to a blood lead test result were disproportionately young, Hispanic, Black, American Indian, or on Medicaid. In full models, maternal age ≤20y [risk ratio (RR)=1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.20] or smoking (RR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.17); proximity to a major roadway (RR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.15); proximity to a lead-releasing Toxics Release Inventory site (RR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14) or a National Emissions Inventory site (RR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.14); and living in neighborhoods with more housing built before 1950 (RR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) or before 1940 (RR=1.18; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.25) or more vacant housing (RR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.17) were associated with an increased risk of EBLL, whereas overlap with a public water service system was associated with a decreased risk of EBLL (RR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.87). Children of Black mothers were no more likely than children of White mothers to have EBLLs (RR=0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.01). Complete blood lead screening in 2011-2018 may have identified an additional 17,543 (95% CrI: 17,462, 17,650) children with EBLLs ≥3µg/dL. DISCUSSION: Our results indicate that current North Carolina lead screening strategies fail to identify over 30% (17,543 of 57,398) of children with subclinical lead poisoning and that accounting for characteristics at birth alters the conclusions about racial disparities in children's EBLLs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10335.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Risco , Estados Unidos
7.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Short-term ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction (MI). However, few studies have examined associations between PM2.5 and subclinical cardiomyocyte damage outside of overt cardiovascular events. Here we evaluate the impact of daily PM2.5 on cardiac troponin I, a cardiomyocyte specific biomarker of cellular damage. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2924 patients identified using electronic health records from the University of North Carolina Healthcare System who had a recorded MI between 2004 and 2016. Troponin I measurements were available from 2014 to 2016, and were required to be at least 1 week away from a clinically diagnosed MI. Daily ambient PM2.5 concentrations were estimated at 1 km resolution and assigned to patient residence. Associations between log-transformed troponin I and daily PM2.5 were evaluated using distributed lag linear mixed effects models adjusted for patient demographics, socioeconomic status and meteorology. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 elevation in PM2.5 3 days before troponin I measurement was associated with 0.06 ng/mL higher troponin I (95% CI=0.004 to 0.12). In stratified models, this association was strongest in patients that were men, white and living in less urban areas. Similar associations were observed when using 2-day rolling averages and were consistently strongest when using the average exposure over the 5 days prior to troponin I measurement. CONCLUSIONS: Daily elevations in PM2.5 were associated with damage to cardiomyocytes, outside of the occurrence of an MI. Poor air quality may cause persistent damage to the cardiovascular system leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and adverse cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobreviventes , Troponina I
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269338, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: It has been demonstrated that marginalized populations across the U.S. have suffered a disproportionate burden of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, illustrating the role that social determinants of health play in health outcomes. To better understand how these vulnerable and high-risk populations have experienced the pandemic, we conducted a qualitative study to better understand their experiences from diagnosis through recovery. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study of patients in a North Carolina healthcare system's registry who tested positive for COVID-19 from March 2020 through February 2021, identified from population-dense outbreaks of COVID-19 (hotspots). We conducted semi-structured phone interviews in English or Spanish, based on patient preference, with trained bilingual study personnel. Each interview was evaluated using a combination of deductive and inductive content analysis to determine prevalent themes related to COVID-19 knowledge, diagnosis, disease experience, and long-term impacts. FINDINGS: The 10 patients interviewed from our COVID-19 hotspot clusters were of equal distribution by sex, predominantly Black (70%), aged 22-70 years (IQR 45-62 years), and more frequently publicly insured (50% Medicaid/Medicare, vs 30% uninsured, vs 20% private insurance). Major themes identified included prior knowledge of COVID-19 and patient perceptions of their personal risk, the testing process in numerous settings, the process of quarantining at home after a positive diagnosis, the experience of receiving medical care during their illness, and difficulties with long-term recovery. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest areas for targeted interventions to reduce COVID-19 transmission in these high-risk communities, as well as improve the patient experience throughout the COVID-19 illness course.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Medicare , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
9.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 23(6): 339-345, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While proper restraint use is protective against motor traffic vehicle crash (MVTC)-associated morbidity and mortality, it is inconsistently measured across health and MVTC data sources. This project addresses this gap by assessing differences in child restraint measures between two North Carolina (NC) datasets and comparing the utility of these sources to evaluate patterns of child restraint use and associated health outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed 2018 NC MVTC and NC Trauma Registry (NCTR) data for children ≤15 years old, both separately and as linked MVTC-NCTR records. We calculated mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and frequency and proportion for categorical variables. Among linked records, we compared reported restraint use and performed age-adjusted logistic regression to estimate associations between restraint use and severe injury. RESULTS: A lower proportion of pediatric MVTC victims were reported as unrestrained in the MVTC (14.7%) versus NCTR (25.8%) data. Among linked MVTC-NCTR records, only 41.3% featured perfect concordance of restraint information between datasets. Among linked records, child restraint was reported for 31.3% of children, while the NCTR data allowed more granular coding of child restraint (30.3% overall), including child booster seat (13.5%), child car seat (8.7%), infant car seat (4.8%), and unrestrained in child car seat (3.4%). Age-adjusted regression analyses of the linked data revealed that lap/shoulder seatbelt use was significantly associated with lower likelihood of severe injury compared to being unrestrained whether informed by MVTC (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.93) or NCTR (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) data. While the association between reported use of a child car seat and severe injury was not statistically significant in the MVTC data (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.32), child car seat use reported in the NCTR data revealed a significant association (OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Linked crash and trauma center data allow for identifying important patterns of restraint use among pediatric passengers in MVTCs. Dataset-dependent differences in measuring restraint use have critical public health implications and illustrate the importance of careful dataset selection prior to analysis, as the use of different data sources may impact overall study conclusions.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Proteção para Crianças , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Veículos Automotores , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Cintos de Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
10.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(7): 1109-1113.e8, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) deeply affected all forms of long-term care for older adults, highlighting infection control issues, provider and staff shortages, and other challenges. As a comparatively new, community-based long-term care option, the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) faced unique challenges. This project investigated the impact of COVID-19 on operations in all PACE programs in one US state. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Structured interviews with administrators of all 12 PACE programs in North Carolina. METHODS: Interviews were conducted December 2020 to January 2021 by trained interviewers over Zoom; they were transcribed, coded, and qualitatively analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Reported COVID-19 infection rates among PACE participants for 2020 averaged 12.3 cases, 4.6 hospitalizations, and 1.9 deaths per 100 enrollees. Six themes emerged from analyses: new, unprecedented administrative challenges; insufficient access to and integration with other health care providers; reevaluation of the core PACE model, resulting in a transition to home-based care; reorientation to be more family-focused in care provision; implementation of new, creative strategies to address participant and family psychological and social well-being in the home; and major reconfiguration of staffing, including transitions to new and different roles and a concomitant effort to provide support and relief to staff. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: While facing many challenges that required major changes in care provision, PACE was successful in mounting a COVID-19 response that upheld safety, promoted the physical and mental well-being of participants, and responded to the needs of family caregivers. Administrators felt that, after the pandemic, the PACE service model is likely to remain more home-based and less reliant on the day center than in the past. As a result, PACE may have changed for the better and be well-positioned to play an expanded role in our evolving long-term care system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Idoso , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Pandemias
11.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 33(3): 259-269, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500057

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Women living with HIV have a higher burden of non-AIDS comorbidities and prevalence of chronic conditions. The Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness clarifies living with complex health challenges by delineating the technical work of health care providers as well as the adaptive work and leadership behaviors of patients and their providers. We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study of women residing in the Southern United States who were participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study in North Carolina. Twenty-two participants (mean age = 52.2 years; 90.9% self-identifying as Black or African American) completed semi-structured qualitative interviews. We identified adaptive challenges (e.g., affective and disclosure challenges) and adaptive work and leadership behaviors. Women learned skills to care for their health and support their families and to work with their providers to manage their care. Findings support the importance of identifying leadership behaviors for the purpose of developing person-centered interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Liderança , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
N C Med J ; 83(3): 221-228, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The average lifetime risk of breast cancer for an American woman is 12.5%, but individual risks vary significantly. Risk modeling is a standard of care for breast cancer screening and prevention with recommended tools to stratify individual risks based on age, family history, breast density, and a host of other known risk factors. Because of a lack of resources rurally, we have not consistently met this standard of care within all of North Carolina.METHODS We implemented a quality improvement project to assess the risk for breast cancer by gathering data on community risks. We implemented an evidence-based tool (Tyrer-Cuzick) for quantifying risk within a mostly rural population of Eastern North Carolina and developed customized services for women meeting elevated-risk definition. These services included additional imaging for elevated-risk women and a risk-reduction program. We also assessed genetic risks for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in our at-risk population using National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines based on family history and added local genetics extenders to help test more women. We analyzed data regularly using Plan-Do-Study-Act methods to improve outcomes over 1 year.RESULTS We screened a population of 4500 women at a community hospital over a 1-year period for their individual lifetime cancer risk and genetic risk. Breast cancer risk was quantitated at the time of mammography, and women were stratified into 3 groups for risk management. Within our screening population, 6.3% of women were at high risk (defined by a lifetime breast cancer risk greater than or equal to 20%) and another 8.1% were above-average risk (defined by a lifetime breast cancer risk of 15%-20%). These women (14.4%) could potentially benefit from additional risk-management strategies. Additionally, 20% of all unaffected women within a typical screening population of Eastern North Carolina met NCCN guidelines for hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer testing independent of their cancer risk score. Using a model of targeted intervention within a population with elevated risks can be helpful in improving outcomes.LIMITATIONS This population within Eastern North Carolina is mostly rural and represents a potentially biased population, as it involves older women undergoing annual mammography. It may not be broadly applicable to the entire population based on age, geography, and other risks.CONCLUSIONS This model for improving cancer risk assessment and testing at a small community hospital in Eastern North Carolina was successful and addressed a community need. We discovered a high rate of increased-risk women who can benefit from individualized risk management, and a higher percentage of women who potentially benefit from genetic testing. These higher cumulative risks may in part explain some of the disparities seen for breast-cancer-specific outcomes in some parts of the state.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mamografia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
N C Med J ; 83(3): 197-202, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504705

RESUMO

North Carolina implemented a rapid statewide COVID-19 vaccine strategy that focused on vaccinating people quickly and equitably. We describe the sociodemographic factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine uptake in North Carolina and how these factors were considered in communication as well as community and health care provider engagement in the COVID-19 response.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Vacinação
14.
N C Med J ; 83(3): 163-168, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504718

RESUMO

Advanced practice providers comprise an increasing percentage of the health care and primary care workforce. This paper evaluates the weighted contribution of advanced practice providers to the primary care workforce in well-served and underserved counties across North Carolina using age- and sex-adjusted population measures of access.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos
15.
N C Med J ; 83(3): 214-220, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Excessive drinking, including binge and heavy drinking, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in North Carolina. In 2010, excessive drinking cost North Carolina $7.03 billion, and this analysis aimed to update this figure for 2017.METHODS Following the methods of Sacks, et al. (2015), we obtained proxies for the 2010 and 2017 incidence and price for 26 alcohol-attributable cost components. We then multiplied each component's 2010 cost by the incidence trend (2017 incidence/2010 incidence) and price trend (2017 price/2010 price) to estimate the 2017 cost. Finally, we summed these cost components to calculate the total cost and allocated them by payer and county.RESULTS Excessive drinking cost $9.72 billion in North Carolina in 2017, which equals approximately $2.09 per standard drink. Government paid $4.43 billion (45.6%), drinkers paid $3.76 billion (38.7%), and persons other than the drinker paid $1.53 billion (15.7%).LIMITATIONS These methods relied on alcohol-attributable fractions, which were calculated using scientific literature and national data. If consumption patterns differ between the United States and North Carolina, these fractions may not generalize. Scaling processes may over- or underestimate individual cost components, so total state costs should be interpreted as estimates.CONCLUSIONS The societal costs from excessive drinking are high but spread across public sectors. This can make it difficult to attribute this burden to alcohol. While drinkers paid less than half of the costs of excessive drinking, a broad range of stakeholders bore the burden. Evidence-based strategies to reduce excessive drinking may decrease these costs.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
16.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 28: 189-193, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576746

RESUMO

This study examined the risk factors that moderate the relationship between hypertension and infant outcomes or were independent risk factors in a large and diverse sample of pregnant women with and without hypertension before conception. The sample included 2,996 women, where 197 had hypertension. Black women comprised 35.5% of the hypertension group relative to 19.7% of non-hypertension. Women with hypertension were more likely to have more preterm births (17.7% vs. 7.4%; ARR = 1.91, p <.001) and have infants with low birth weights (16.8% vs. 6.7%; ARR = 2.26, p <.001), independent of other maternal risk factors in logistic modeling. Maternal Black race versus White also was independently associated with preterm birth (ARR = 1.42, p =.045) and low birth weight (ARR = 1.72, p <.001). Maternal age and race did not significantly moderate the effects of hypertension on infant outcomes, but both Black race and hypertension status were independently associated with adverse birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627477

RESUMO

Leaded fuel used by piston-engine aircraft is the largest source of airborne lead emissions in the United States. Previous studies have found higher blood lead levels in children living near airports where leaded aviation fuel is used. However, little is known about the health effects on adults. This study is the first to examine the association between exposure to aircraft operations that use leaded aviation fuel and adult cardiovascular mortality. We estimated the association between annual piston-engine air traffic and cardiovascular mortality among adults age 65 and older near 40 North Carolina airports during 2000 to 2017. We used several strategies to minimize the potential for bias due to omitted variables and confounding from other health hazards at airports, including coarsened exact matching, location-specific intercepts, and adjustment for jet-engine and other air traffic that does not use leaded fuel. Our findings are mixed but suggestive of adverse effects. We found higher rates of cardiovascular mortality within a few kilometers downwind of single- and multi-runway airports, though these results are not always statistically significant. We also found significantly higher cardiovascular mortality rates within a few kilometers and downwind of single-runway airports in years with more piston-engine air traffic. We did not consistently find a statistically significant association between cardiovascular mortality rates and piston-engine air traffic near multi-runway airports, where there was greater uncertainty in our measure of the distance between populations and aviation exposures. These results suggest that (i) reducing lead emissions from aviation could yield health benefits for adults, and (ii) more refined data are needed to obtain more precise estimates of these benefits. Subject Areas: Toxic Substances, Health, Epidemiology, Air Pollution, Ambient Air Quality. JEL codes: Q53, I18.


Assuntos
Aviação , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Idoso , Aeronaves , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Chumbo , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
18.
Behav Res Ther ; 154: 104102, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561644

RESUMO

Trajectory studies of the COVID-19 pandemic have described patterns of symptoms over time. Yet, few have examined whether social determinants of health predict the progression of depression and anxiety symptoms during COVID-19 or identified which social determinants worsen symptom trajectories. Using a racially, ethnically, and linguistically diverse sample of adults participating in a randomized clinical trial with pre-existing moderate to severe depression and/or anxiety symptoms, we compare symptom patterns before and during COVID-19; characterize symptom trajectories over a 20-week follow-up period; and evaluate whether social determinants are associated with within- and between- person differences in symptom trajectories. Data were collected before and during COVID-19 in Massachusetts and North Carolina. On average, depression and anxiety symptoms did not seem to worsen during the pandemic compared to pre-pandemic. During COVID-19, anxiety scores at follow-up were higher for participants with baseline food insecurity (vs no food insecurity). Depression scores at follow-up were higher for participants with food insecurity and for those with utilities insecurity (vs no insecurity). Participants with child or family care responsibilities at baseline had depression symptoms decreasing at a slower rate than those without these responsibilities. We discuss the important implications of these findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
19.
N C Med J ; 83(3): 206-213, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that those who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at increased risk of adverse behaviors and health indicators, such as certain chronic physical and mental health conditions. However, little is known about the prevalence of these behaviors and health indicators among these individuals, information that could help decrease their risk of developing such conditions.METHODS Data (N = 4733) from the 2018 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were analyzed to determine the prevalence of behaviors and health indicators among individuals who report having a lifetime history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC).RESULTS North Carolinians who report a lifetime history of TBI with LOC were at increased risk of reporting a range of 3 negative health behaviors: less than always seatbelt use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-2.4), HIV risk behaviors (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.1-2.6), and reporting less than 7 hours of sleep (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-1.8); more difficulty obtaining health care (not seeing a doctor due to health care cost in the past 12 months [AOR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8]; not getting a routine medical check-up in the past 12 months [AOR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0]); worse self-reported health (fair or poor general health [AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.4-2.3]); and reporting fair or poor mental health (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.6-2.8) compared with individuals who did not report a history of TBI.LIMITATIONS There are several limitations to the study, such as the sample being biased toward more severe brain injuries. Additionally, because the data in the BRFSS are retrospective and cross-sectional, it is not possible to determine temporality and causality between TBI history and the behaviors and health indicators examined.CONCLUSION Despite these limitations, this paper is one of the first to directly examine the association between history of TBI with LOC and a range of current behaviors and health care utilization. Assessing positive and negative behaviors and health indicators can help identify and tailor evidence-based interventions for those who have a history of TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inconsciência/epidemiologia
20.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(5): 448-451, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500087

RESUMO

The linking of surveillance data sets has increasingly become an essential public health activity. We compared a traditional method in North Carolina (NC) with a newer collaborative approach when linking Hospital Discharge Data (HDD) and NC Violent Death Reporting System (NC-VDRS) data. We found the collaborative approach to be superior, enabling wider ownership combined with subject matter expertise the traditional method lacked. We used Link Plus and Match*Pro software for linkage, which had similar matching results. However, the collaborative process using Match*Pro resulted in fewer matches requiring review and enabled better case adjudication and collaboration between partners. Of the 1361 unique suicides that matched to HDD, 44% (n = 599) had multiple prior hospitalizations. Public health needs to innovate and enable partners to foster solutions when traditional methods are dated and result in less reliable data. The process outlined builds consensus, increases trust, and ultimately saves time.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Causas de Morte , Homicídio , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Violência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...