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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 278, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines have been crucial in the pandemic response and understanding changes in vaccines effectiveness is essential to guide vaccine policies. Although the Delta variant is no longer dominant, understanding vaccine effectiveness properties will provide essential knowledge to comprehend the development of the pandemic and estimate potential changes over time. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we estimated the vaccine effectiveness of Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech; BNT162b2), Spikevax (Moderna; mRNA-1273), Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca; ChAdOx nCoV-19; AZD1222), or a combination against SARS-CoV-2 infections, hospitalisations, intensive care admissions, and death using Cox proportional hazard models, across different vaccine product regimens and age groups, between 15 July and 31 November 2021 (Delta variant period). Vaccine status is included as a time-varying covariate and all models were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, county of residence, country of birth, and living conditions. Data from the entire adult Norwegian population were collated from the National Preparedness Register for COVID-19 (Beredt C19). RESULTS: The overall adjusted vaccine effectiveness against infection decreased from 81.3% (confidence interval (CI): 80.7 to 81.9) in the first 2 to 9 weeks after receiving a second dose to 8.6% (CI: 4.0 to 13.1) after more than 33 weeks, compared to 98.6% (CI: 97.5 to 99.2) and 66.6% (CI: 57.9 to 73.6) against hospitalisation respectively. After the third dose (booster), the effectiveness was 75.9% (CI: 73.4 to 78.1) against infection and 95.0% (CI: 92.6 to 96.6) against hospitalisation. Spikevax or a combination of mRNA products provided the highest protection, but the vaccine effectiveness decreased with time since vaccination for all vaccine regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the vaccine effectiveness against infection waned over time, all vaccine regimens remained effective against hospitalisation after the second vaccine dose. For all vaccine regimens, a booster facilitated recovery of effectiveness. The results from this support the use of heterologous schedules, increasing flexibility in vaccination policy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Adulto , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Noruega/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Eficácia de Vacinas
2.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 17(1): 2116988, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053211

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity is related to lower labour force participation, increased sickness absence and reduced productivity. The rehabilitation services in Norway have not had much experience introducing a work dimension into lifestyle interventions for persons with obesity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate one such type of intervention. METHODS: This is a qualitative study seeking to gather data on the participants' experiences. Twenty participants were recruited from two lifestyle interventions. Intervention A, with work focus, included lectures and individual guidance from a work consultant in addition to the lifestyle intervention. Intervention B was a traditional lifestyle intervention. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews held at each stay. RESULTS: Seven main themes emerged and one of them pointed towards a confusion of the aim of the intervention, which was viewed as focusing on lifestyle rather than a process focused on work. Otherwise, the results showed that persons with obesity struggle with many of the same inhibiting factors as other groups with reduced work ability. CONCLUSIONS: The application process might explain the focus on lifestyle change. Communication, guidance and support reduce barriers for lifestyle change, but work is important for general health and social well-being and a work focus may therefore be beneficial in all lifestyle interventions.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Obesidade , Humanos , Noruega , Obesidade/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 234, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown has had a profound impact on physical and mental well-being throughout the world. Previous studies have revealed that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used for, and can be potential beneficial for strengthening physical mental resilience. The aims of this study were therefore to determine the prevalence and reasons for use of CAM during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic among a representative sample of the Norwegian population, and further determine self-reported effects and adverse effects of the CAM modalities used. METHODS: Computer assisted telephone interviews using a COVID-adapted I-CAM-Q questionnaire were conducted with 1008 randomly selected Norwegians aged 16 and above using multistage sampling during April and May 2020 applying age and sex quotas for each area. Frequencies, Pearson's chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests, and independent sample t-test were used to identify the users of CAM, what they used, why they used it and whether they experienced effect and/or adverse effects of the modalities used, and further to describe differences in sociodemographic factors associated with CAM use. Cronbach's alpha tests were used to test for internal consistency in the different groups of CAM. Significance level was set to p < 0.05. RESULTS: The study revealed that two thirds of the respondents (67%) had used CAM within the first 3 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular CAM modalities that did not involve a provider. Most used were natural remedies and dietary supplement (57%, mainly vitamins and minerals), but self-help practices like yoga and meditation were also widely used (24%). Women used CAM modalities significantly more than men (77% vs. 58%). Most of the respondents found the modalities they used beneficial, and few reported adverse effects of the treatments. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of the Norwegian population used CAM during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic with high satisfaction and few reported adverse effects. CAM was rarely used to prevent or treat COVID-19, but rather to treat a long-term health condition, and to improve well-being.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Terapias Complementares , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pandemias
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 334, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alpha-chloralose (AC) is a compound known to be toxic to various animal species and humans. In 2018 and 2019 an increase in suspected cases of AC poisoning in cats related to the use of AC as a rodenticide was reported to national veterinary and chemical authorities in Finland, Norway and Sweden by veterinarians working in clinical practices in respective country. The aims of this study were to prospectively investigate AC poisoning in cats, including possible secondary poisoning by consuming poisoned mice, and to study metabolism and excretion of AC in cats through analysis of feline urine. METHODS: Data on signalment, history and clinical findings were prospectively collected in Finland, Norway and Sweden from July 2020 until March of 2021 using a questionnaire which the attending veterinarian completed and submitted together with a serum sample collected from suspected feline cases of AC-poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed by quantification of AC in serum samples. Content of AC was studied in four feline urine samples, including screening for AC metabolites by UHPLC-HRMS/MS. Bait intake and amount of AC consumed by mice was observed in wild mice during an extermination of a rodent infestation. RESULTS: In total, 59 of 70 collected questionnaires and accompanying serum samples were included, with 127 to 70 100 ng/mL AC detected in the serum. Several tentative AC-metabolites were detected in the analysed feline urine samples, including dechlorinated and oxidated AC, several sulfate conjugates, and one glucuronic acid conjugate of AC. The calculated amount of AC ingested by each mouse was 33 to 106 mg with a mean of 61 mg. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical recognition of symptoms of AC poisoning in otherwise healthy cats roaming free outdoors and known to be rodent hunters strongly correlated with confirmation of the diagnosis through toxicological analyses of serum samples. The collected feline exposure data regarding AC show together with the calculation of the intake of bait and subsequent AC concentrations in mice that secondary poisoning from ingestion of mice is possible. The results of the screening for AC metabolites in feline urine confirm that cats excrete AC both unchanged and metabolized through dechlorination, oxidation, glucuronidation and sulfatation pathways.


Assuntos
Cloralose , Animais , Gatos , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Suécia/epidemiologia
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12116-12125, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065592

RESUMO

Radiocesium contamination in Norwegian reindeer and the factors influencing contamination levels have been studied for more than 50 years, providing significant amounts of data. Monitoring contamination in reindeer is of utmost importance for reindeer husbandry and herders in Norway and will need to be studied for many years because of the persistent contamination levels due to the 1986 Chernobyl fallout. This paper presents a novel dynamic model that takes advantage of the large data sets that have been collected for reindeer monitoring to estimate 137Cs in reindeer meat at any given time. The model has been validated using detailed 137Cs data from one of the herds most affected by the fallout. The model basis includes detailed 137Cs soil data from aerial surveys, GPS-based knowledge of reindeer migration, and local soil-to-vegetation 137Cs transfer information. The validation exercise shows that the model satisfactorily predicts both short- and long-term changes in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer meat and suggests that the model will be a useful tool in estimating seasonal changes and evaluating possible remedial actions in case of a future fallout event.


Assuntos
Cinza Radioativa , Rena , Animais , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Carne/análise , Noruega , Cinza Radioativa/análise , Solo
6.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 142(12)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066228
7.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 142(12)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066229

Assuntos
Idioma , Humanos , Noruega
8.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is followed by an immediate increase in primary care utilisation. The difference in utilisation following infection with the delta and omicron virus variants is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To study whether general practitioner (GP) contacts were different in children infected with the omicron versus delta variant for up to 4 weeks after the week testing positive. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: All residents in Norway aged 0-10. After excluding 47 683 children with a positive test where the virus variant was not identified as delta or omicron and 474 children who were vaccinated, the primary study population consisted of 613 448 children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GP visits. METHODS: We estimated the difference in the weekly share visiting the GP after being infected with the delta or omicron variant to those in the study population who were either not tested or who tested negative using an event study design, controlling for calendar week of consultation, municipality fixed effects and sociodemographic factors in multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: Compared with preinfection, increased GP utilisation was found for children 1 and 2 weeks after testing positive for the omicron variant, with an OR of 6.7 (SE: 0.69) in the first week and 5.5 (0.72) in the second week. This increase was more pronounced for children with the delta variant, with an OR of 8.2 (0.52) in the first week and 7.1 (0.93) in the second week. After 2 weeks, the GP utilisation returned to preinfection levels. CONCLUSION: The omicron variant appears to have resulted in less primary healthcare interactions per infected child compared with the delta variant.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Clínicos Gerais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2/genética
9.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273480, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) is commonly used to measure physical activity (PA) in population studies, but its validity in adolescents is unknown. This study aimed to assess the criterion validity of the SGPALS against accelerometry in a large sample of adolescents. A secondary aim was to examine the validity across strata of sex, body mass index (BMI), parental educational level, study program and self-reported health. METHODS: The study is based on data from 572 adolescents aged 15-17 years who participated in the Fit Futures Study 2010-11 in Northern Norway. The participants were invited to wear an accelerometer (GT3X) attached to their hip for seven consecutive days. We used Spearman's rho and linear regression models to assess the validity of the SGPALS against the following accelerometry estimates of PA; mean counts/minute (CPM), steps/day, and minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). RESULTS: The SGPALS correlated with mean CPM (ρ = 0.40, p<0.01), steps/day (ρ = 0.35, p<0.01) and MVPA min/day (ρ = 0.35, p<0.01). We observed no differences between correlations within demographic strata (all p>0.001). Higher scores on SGPALS were associated with a higher CPM, higher number of steps per day and more minutes of MVPA per day, with the following mean differences in PA measurements between the SGPALS ranks: CPM increased by 53 counts (95% CI: 44 to 62), steps/day increased by 925 steps (95% CI: 731 to 1118), and MVPA by 8.4 min/day (95% CI: 6.7 to 10.0). Mean difference between the highest and lowest SGPALS category was 2947 steps/day (6509 vs. 9456 steps/day) and 26.4 min/day MVPA (35.2 minutes vs 61.6 minutes). CONCLUSION: We found satisfactory ranking validity of SGPALS measured against accelerometry in adolescents, which was fairly stable across strata of sex, BMI, and education. However, the validity of SGPALS in providing information on absolute physical activity levels seem limited.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Noruega , Autorrelato
10.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 610, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several risk factors for anxious-depressive symptomatology during the COVID-19 pandemic have been established. However, few studies have examined the relationship between personality traits, hardiness, and such symptomatology during the pandemic. These constructs might serve as risk- and/or protective factors for such mental distress through the pandemic. METHODS: A sample of 5783 Norwegians responded to a survey at two time points within the first year of the pandemic. The first data collection was in April 2020 (T1) and the second in December 2020 (T2). Measures included the Ten-Item Personality-Inventory, the Revised Norwegian Dispositional Resilience Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety and Depression Scale. Analyses were performed using Pearson's correlations, multiple linear regression, and a moderation analysis. RESULTS: Anxious-depressive symptomatology in early phases (T1) of the pandemic was the strongest predictor for the presence of such symptomatology 9 months after the outbreak (T2). Personality and hardiness correlated significantly with mental distress at T1 and T2. Personality traits explained 5% variance in symptoms when controlling for age, gender, solitary living, negative economic impact, and mental distress at baseline. Higher neuroticism predicted higher mental distress, whereas higher conscientiousness and extraversion predicted less mental distress. Hardiness did not explain variance in outcome beyond personality traits. Hardiness did not significantly moderate the relationship between neuroticism and mental distress. CONCLUSION: Individuals with high levels of neuroticism had greater difficulties adapting to the circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic and were more prone to mental distress. Contrastingly, higher conscientiousness and extraversion may have served as protective factors for mental distress during the pandemic. The current findings might aid identification of vulnerable individuals and groups. Consequently, preventive interventions could be offered to those who need it the most.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Personalidade , Fatores de Proteção
11.
Zootaxa ; 5150(4): 451-486, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095651

RESUMO

A list of all known bird type specimens in the collection of the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway is presented. The specimens originate from northern Australia, eastern Indonesia or Tristan da Cunha, and have either been collected and described by personnel associated with the museum or sent from other museums in exchange for other specimens. The catalogue is not intended as a taxonomic revision of the treated taxa, and consequently no taxonomic revisions are made, but the type status of some specimens formerly considered to be types is refuted. The collection holds name-bearing types of 11 taxa, comprising one holotype and 26 syntypes; two paratypes from the same type series as the holotype; and one paralectotype of a twelfth taxon. The catalogue also includes two specimens of one taxon here refuted as being type specimens.


Assuntos
Museus , História Natural , Animais , Aves , Noruega
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 135, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an international public health interest in sustainable environments that promote human wellbeing. An individual's bond to places, understood as place attachment (PA), is an important factor for quality of life (QoL). The material environment, such as access to nature (AtN), access to amenities (AtA), or noise, and the social environment, such as social support or loneliness, has the potential to influence PA. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between these factors and QoL. METHODS: The study relied on data from 28,047 adults from 30 municipalities in Southern Norway obtained from the Norwegian Counties Public Health Surveys in 2019. Latent regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between the material and social environmental factors and QoL, mediated by PA. RESULTS: We found a relationship between social and material environmental factors and PA. Higher AtN and AtA scores were related to an increase in PA, whereas higher perception of noise problems was related to decreased PA scores. When social environment factors were added to the model, they were even stronger predictors of PA and, in turn, QoL through mediated effects. We also found a strong positive association between PA and QoL (unstandardized ß = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.87-0.90, p < 0.001). The whole model explained 83% of the variance in PA and 65% of the variance in QoL. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the findings suggest the relevance of material and social environmental factors for PA and QoL. Therefore, research on public health and QoL should include place-sensitive variables.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social , Adulto , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Noruega , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work exposures are known predictors of withdrawal from employment, but the associations between work exposures and withdrawal may vary with gender. This study evaluated gender differences in associations between biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures and age of withdrawal from paid employment among older workers in Norway. METHODS: 77,558 men and 67,773 women (born 1949-1953) were followed from age 62 until withdrawal from paid employment or end of follow-up in 2016 (up to five years follow-up). Information about eight biomechanical and seven psychosocial exposures was obtained from a gender-specific job exposure matrix. Using Cox regression, the difference in mean estimated time until withdrawal between non-exposed and exposed was calculated for each gender and work exposure separately. RESULTS: The largest gender difference was found for high psychological demands. Among men, the non-exposed withdrew earlier than the exposed (-3.66 months (95% CI: -4.04--3.25 months)), and contrary among women (0.71 (0.28-1.10)), resulting in a gender difference of 4.37 (3.81-4.97) months. Gender differences were also found for monotonous work (4.12 (3.51-4.69) months), hands above shoulder height (2.41 (1.76-3.10) months), and high iso-strain (2.14 (1.38-2.95) months). CONCLUSIONS: There were observed gender differences in the associations between some biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures and mean age of withdrawal from paid employment among older workers. However, the results are likely affected by the selection of who remains in the workforce at age 62 and should be interpreted accordingly.


Assuntos
Emprego , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 135-142, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073388

RESUMO

The Norwegian mapping authority has developed a standard method and an easy and flexible tool for mapping accessibility mostly for people with limited or no walking abilities in urban and recreational areas. We choose an object-orientated approach where points, lines and polygons represent objects in the environment. All data are stored in a geospatial database and are presented as web map and can be downloaded and analysed using GIS software. By the end of 2021, more than 250 out of 356 municipalities are mapped using that method. The aim of this project is to establish a national standard for mapping of accessibility and to provide a geodatabase that shows the status of accessibility throughout Norway. The data provide a useful tool for national statistics, local planning authorities and private users. The results show that accessibility is still low and Norway and faces many challenges to meet the goals for Universal Design.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Cidades , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Noruega , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 475-482, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073428

RESUMO

Akershus Castle is one of Norway's most important historical monuments and is listed with the highest grade of protection. The earlier medieval castle from around the year 1300 is an arena for the Norwegian state and in use for such as government dinners and receptions. The castle is also an important tourist destination and is used for public events like concerts, etc. Until today, people in wheelchair have had to be carried into the buildings due to stairs and differences in levels inside. In the autumn of 2021 five measures that make large parts of the castle accessible, were completed. Making public buildings accessible has high priority in Norway. Having achieved this at Akershus Castle is of great symbolic value. During the process of defining the projects extent and measures the method values-based conservation was applied. This was done through involving several stakeholders in assessing and quantifying an array of values and criteria. On this basis it was possible to define the project, achieve the permits from the heritage authorities and get acceptance from the organisations representing people with disabilities. The result has been very well received by the public, stakeholders and by the cultural heritage authorities.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Cadeiras de Rodas , Acessibilidade Arquitetônica , Governo , Humanos , Noruega
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 557-564, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073438

RESUMO

Equal access to education for all is a prioritized goal in many parts of the world and included in several national and international regulations. Universal Design (UD) of information and communication technology (ICT) can ensure accessibility of digital learning materials (DLMs). However, until recently the implementation of UD of ICT in higher education institutions (HEIs) has been lacking. This study investigates the practical implementation of UD of ICT of DLMs among teachers in HEIs, challenges experienced by them, and what support is offered by their HEI or what support they believe would be helpful when implementing UD in DLMs. Data was collected through interviews and an online survey from a total of twelve faculty members recruited from eight universities in Norway and analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings indicate that teachers in HEIs do not practice UD of ICT on their DLMs, and that they lack training, sufficient time, and practical support from their HEIs to make their DLMs universally designed. The paper concludes that although HEIs appear willing to provide the necessary support and actions to implement UD of ICT, there seems to be a lack of internal policy on UD.


Assuntos
Tecnologia da Informação , Design Universal , Comunicação , Docentes , Humanos , Noruega
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 298: 8-12, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073447

RESUMO

Digital medicines management is a high priority in Norwegian e-health strategies. A key challenge is the existence of multiple electronic information sources and systems, which require multi-professional cooperation. Lack of communication, understanding and collaboration between pharmacies, hospitals and community caregivers is also a challenge. Communities of practices (CoPs) have been used to establish arenas for discussing issues challenging the workflow to reach a common agreement on successful work practices for electronic medicines management. The purpose of this paper is to explore: How can we establish communities of practice (CoPs) to gather new knowledge on the facilitators and challenges for electronic medicines management practices in Norway? The results show engagement in establishing the CoPs and a willingness for joint enterprise. The establishment of the CoPs was performed simply based on established forms of collaboration. For CoPs to be effective, established alliances need to be expanded and renewed to form new group dynamics and thus a basis for new knowledge about electronic medicines management.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Conhecimento , Eletrônica , Humanos , Noruega
18.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 142(11)2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No overview exists of the types of exams used in medical education in Norway. In this study, we have identified these and analysed the reasons why directors of studies choose a particular type of exam. The aim has been to form an overview and to frame the reasoning behind assessment practices in Norwegian undergraduate medical education in an international and research-based perspective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We gathered information about the types of exams used in the four undergraduate medical education programmes in Norway. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with a director of studies at each university. The strengths and weaknesses of the types of exams used were discussed in the interviews. RESULTS: The number of exams, the types of exams and their position in the study programme varied considerably across the four study programmes. Multiple-choice exams were the most common, supplemented with various oral exams and practical assessments. Arguments for choosing the various types of exam were largely related to the need for standardisation, objectivity and resource availability. INTERPRETATION: Assessment seems to be largely intended to measure and control, while the opportunities to foster learning that examination affords are not well exploited. Systems thinking in relation to the different intentions of the types of assessment, which is touched on in international guidelines, seems to be a low priority.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Educação Médica , Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Noruega
20.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 142(11)2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997177
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