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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141801, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861950

RESUMO

Bisphenols are increasingly recognized as environmental pollutants with endocrine-disrupting potential. Nonetheless, the study of environmental occurrence and some endocrine-disrupting activities of some bisphenols came widely into focus of research only recently. The aims of the present study were to: 1) determine the predominant bisphenols in Norwegian sewage sludge and sediment and in Czech surface waters, and 2) characterize the binding of bisphenols to a transport protein transthyretin (TTR) and their (anti-)thyroid, (anti-)progestagenic, and (anti-)androgenic activities. High-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization or photoionization coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI/APPI-HRMS) and Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) in vitro reporter gene bioassays were used to detect the target compounds and to determine endocrine-disrupting activities, respectively. Bisphenol A (BPA), 4,4'-bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol E (BPE) were the most frequently found compounds in municipal sewage sludge. Furthermore, bisphenol TMC (BPTMC) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) frequently occurred in sediment and surface waters, respectively. BPA was the major contributor to Ʃ of bisphenols in Norwegian sewage sludge with exception of one sample where BPF predominated. We also monitored a few bisphenols in sediment but only BPTMC was found. BPA, BPAF and BPF were the dominant bisphenols in Czech surface waters. Some bisphenols have shown TTR binding potency (BPAF = BPF > BPA = BPE) and some have displayed the following endocrine-disrupting activities: anti-thyroid (BPAF), anti-progestagenic (BPTMC > BPA = BPAF), and anti-androgenic (BPAF > BPE > BPA > BPTMC > BPF > BPS). It is noteworthy that BPAF exhibited stronger or similarly potent endocrine-disrupting activities compared to BPA. Our results provide new insights into these less-studied endocrine-disrupting activities of environmentally relevant bisphenols and may be useful in prioritizing those compounds that deserve further attention in environmental monitoring and eco-toxicological research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Pré-Albumina , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , República Tcheca , Noruega , Fenóis , Pré-Albumina/genética
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141403, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889313

RESUMO

Chronic or repeated exposure to environmental contaminants may result in allostatic overload, a physiological situation in which the costs of coping affect long-term survival and reproductive output. Continuous measurements in Otra, the largest river in southern Norway, show the occurrence of repeated 24-48 h episodes of acidification. This work investigates the impact of repeated short acidification episodes on a unique land-locked population of normally anadromous Atlantic salmon ("Bleke"). This was done by recording physiological measures of stress and allostatic load in fish exposed for 7 days to continuous or repeated episodes of simulated environmental acidification or untreated Otra water (controls). A standardized acute stress test was performed after these different exposure regimes, with brain and blood samples taken before (baseline) or after the stress test. Treatment effects on stress coping ability were assessed by neuroendocrine indicators, including telencephalic serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol. Continuous exposure to acidification resulted in increased baseline plasma Cl- and Na+ and elevated baseline plasma cortisol compared to episodic exposed fish. However, both episodic and continuous acidification resulted in similar increase in gill Al, indicating similar impact on gill permeability of these two exposures. This suggests a lower impact on the electrolyte homeostasis in episodic compared to continuous exposure and that this effect is not directly related to the effects of Al complexes binding to the gills. Furthermore, there were no treatment induced differences on stress coping ability, suggesting that episodic exposure to the sublethal concentrations of Al in pH 5.5 in the present study do not result in higher allostatic load than in control or continuous exposed Bleke.


Assuntos
Salmo salar , Animais , Brânquias/metabolismo , Homeostase , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Noruega , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141794, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898800

RESUMO

Covering large parts of Europe, Norway spruce (Picea abies L Karst.) plays an important role in the adaptation strategy of forest services to future climate change. Although dendroecology can provide valuable information on the past relationships between tree growth and climate, most previous studies were biased towards species-specific distribution limits, where old individuals grow slowly under extreme conditions. In the present study, we investigated the growth variability and climate sensitivity of 2851 Norway spruce trees along longitudinal (E 12-26°), latitudinal (N 45-51°), and elevation (118-1591 m a.s.l.) gradients in central-eastern Europe. We reveal that summer weather significantly affects the radial growth of spruce trees, but the effects strongly vary along biogeographical gradients. Extreme summer heatwaves in 2000 and 2003 reduced the growth rates by 10-35%, most pronounced in the southern Carpathians. In contrast to the population in the Czech Republic, climate warming induced a synchronous decline in the growth rates across biogeographical gradients in the Carpathian arc. By demonstrating the increased vulnerability of Norway spruce under warmer climate conditions, we recommended that the forest services and conservation managers replace or admix monocultures of this species with more drought-resilient mixtures including fir, beech and other broadleaved species.


Assuntos
Picea , Mudança Climática , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , Europa Oriental , Humanos , Noruega , Árvores
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085716

RESUMO

In the frontline of the pandemic stand healthcare workers and public service providers, occupations which have proven to be associated with increased mental health problems during pandemic crises. This cross-sectional, survey-based study collected data from 1773 healthcare workers and public service providers throughout Norway between March 31, 2020 and April 7, 2020, which encompasses a timeframe where all non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) were held constant. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression were assessed by the Norwegian version of the PTSD checklist (PCL-5), General Anxiety Disorder -7, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), respectively. Health anxiety and specific predictors were assessed with specific items. Multiple regression analysis was used for predictor analysis. A total of 28.9% of the sample had clinical or subclinical symptoms of PTSD, and 21.2% and 20.5% were above the established cut-offs for anxiety and depression. Those working directly in contrast to indirectly with COVID-19 patients had significantly higher PTSD symptoms. Worries about job and economy, negative metacognitions, burnout, health anxiety and emotional support were significantly associated with PTSD symptoms, after controlling for demographic variables and psychological symptoms. Health workers and public service providers are experiencing high levels of PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Health workers working directly with COVID-19 patients have significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms and depression compared to those working indirectly. Appropriate action to monitor and reduce PTSD, anxiety, and depression among these groups of individuals working in the frontline of pandemic with crucial societal roles should be taken immediately.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Pandemias , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zootaxa ; 4822(2): zootaxa.4822.2.4, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056289

RESUMO

The male and female adult and larva of Clunio balticus Heimbach, 1978 are diagnosed and described based on reared material, which was collected in the marine littoral zone along the coast of Bergen (Norway). Male and female adults and larvae of C. balticus can be easily distinguished from other known European Clunio species on the basis of some atypical features found in the male and female adults and fourth instar larvae. The biological cycle (reproduction and emergence) of C. balticus is a slight semilunar-periodic synchronization on days near the high tides. C. balticus is a local biogeographic representative of the northern Atlantic coast, which includes the eastern and western seashores. Remarks on related known Clunio species from Europe with comments on the ecology and geographical distribution of C. balticus are given.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , Noruega
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 769, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norwegian children are more frequently hospitalized with influenza than adults. Little is known about the characteristics of these children. Our aim was to investigate the presence of pre-existing risk conditions and to determine the duration of influenza hospitalizations in children during two influenza seasons. METHODS: The Norwegian Patient Registry holds data on all hospitalized patients in Norway. We included all patients younger than 18 years hospitalized with a diagnosis of influenza during the influenza seasons 2017-18 and 2018-19. Pre-existing risk conditions for influenza were identified by ICD-10 diagnoses in the Norwegian Patient Registry. In addition, information on asthma diagnoses were also retrieved from the Norwegian Registry for Primary Health Care. To estimate the prevalence of risk conditions in the child population, we obtained diagnoses on all Norwegian children in a two-year period prior to each influenza season. We calculated age-specific rates for hospitalization and risk for being hospitalized with influenza in children with risk conditions. RESULTS: In total, 1013 children were hospitalized with influenza during the two influenza seasons. Children younger than 6 months had the highest rate of hospitalization, accounting for 13.5% of all admissions (137 children). Hospitalization rates decreased with increasing age. Among children hospitalized with influenza, 25% had one or more pre-existing risk conditions for severe influenza, compared to 5% in the general population under 18 years. Having one or more risk conditions significantly increased the risk of hospitalization, (Odds Ratio (OR) 6.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.0-7.4 in the 2017-18 season, and OR 6.8, 95% CI 5.4-8.4 in the 2018-19 season). Immunocompromised children and children with epilepsy had the highest risk of hospitalization with influenza, followed by children with heart disease and lung disease. The average length of stay in hospital were 4.6 days, and this did not differ with age. CONCLUSION: Children with pre-existing risk conditions for influenza had a higher risk of hospitalization for influenza. However, most children (75%) admitted to hospital with influenza in Norway during 2017-2019 did not have pre-existing risk conditions. Influenza vaccination should be promoted in particular for children with risk conditions and pregnant women to protect new-borns.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Influenza Humana/complicações , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Pneumopatias/complicações , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Cobertura de Condição Pré-Existente , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1597, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norway and Sweden have similar populations and health care systems, but different reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic. Norway closed educational institutions, and banned sports and cultural activities; Sweden kept most institutions and training facilities open. We aimed to compare peoples' attitudes towards authorities and control measures, and perceived impact of the pandemic and implemented control measures on life in Norway and Sweden. METHODS: Anonymous web-based surveys for individuals age 15 or older distributed through Facebook using the snowball method, in Norway and Sweden from mid-March to mid-April, 2020. The survey contained questions about perceived threat of the pandemic, views on infection control measures, and impact on daily life. We performed descriptive analyses of the responses and compared the two countries. RESULTS: 3508 individuals participated in the survey (Norway 3000; Sweden 508). 79% were women, the majority were 30-49 years (Norway 60%; Sweden 47%), and about 45% of the participants in both countries had more than 4 years of higher education. Participants had high trust in the health services, but differed in the degree of trust in their government (High trust in Norway 17%; Sweden 37%). More Norwegians than Swedes agreed that school closure was a good measure (Norway 66%; Sweden 18%), that countries with open schools were irresponsible (Norway 65%; Sweden 23%), and that the threat from repercussions of the mitigation measures were large or very large (Norway 71%; Sweden 56%). Both countries had a high compliance with infection preventive measures (> 98%). Many lived a more sedentary life (Norway 69%; Sweden 50%) and ate more (Norway 44%; Sweden 33%) during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Sweden had more trust in the authorities, while Norwegians reported a more negative lifestyle during the pandemic. The level of trust in the health care system and self-reported compliance with preventive measures was high in both countries despite the differences in infection control measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(7): 1312-1326, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079712

RESUMO

The Municipality of Asker (Norway) is at risk of not meeting the water quality targets set by the European Union Water Framework Directive within the stipulated timeframe. While there are multiple factors negatively impacting water quality in the municipality, wastewater is likely to be a major contributor. Infiltration and inflow water (I/I-water) leads to a number of unwanted consequences, of which direct discharge of untreated wastewater through overflow points is particularly important. In Aker municipality the portion of I/I-water is about 63%, while the goal is to achieve a level of about 30%. This study utilises a socio-economic cost-effectiveness analysis of measures to prevent sewer overflows into waterbodies. The most effective alternative identified in the analysis is a complete renovation of old pipes in combination with troubleshooting for faulty stormwater connections, when compared to alternatives considering upsizing/retention. I/I-water cost the municipality of Asker NOK34 million in 2017, when using a price of NOK16,434 for each kg of total phosphorus (Tot-P) let into the recipient water bodies. If the phosphorus cost is equal to or less than NOK17,806/kg Tot-P, then it will not be socio-economically justified to reduce I/I-water.


Assuntos
Movimentos da Água , Água , Cidades , Análise Custo-Benefício , Noruega
9.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(13)2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, type-2 diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were initially noted as the most common diseases among individuals who were hospitalised for COVID-19. However, the evidence base is weak. The objective of this study is to describe how selected diseases were distributed among adults with confirmed COVID-19 (COVID-19 positive tests) and among those hospitalised for COVID-19 compared to the general population. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We used data from the Norwegian Patient Registry, the Norwegian Registry for Primary Health Care and the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases for adults from the age of 20 and older for the period 1 March 2020-13 May 2020. RESULTS: Of all those who tested positive for COVID-19, 7 632 (94 %) were aged 20 years or older, and 1 025 (13.4 %) of these had been hospitalised. Among those hospitalised with COVID-19, there was a higher proportion of individuals with cardiovascular diseases (18.3 % versus 15.6 %), cancer (6.9 % versus 5.4 %), type-2 diabetes (8.6 % versus 5.2 %) and COPD (3.8 % versus 2.7 %) than in the general population as a whole after adjusting for age. The proportion of hospitalised patients with asthma, other chronic respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, ongoing cancer treatment, complications related to hypertension, obesity and overweight, neurological disorders and cardiac and renal failure was also higher than in the general population. There were few differences between persons who had tested positive for COVID-19 and the general population in terms of underlying conditions. INTERPRETATION: Among those hospitalised for COVID-19, there was a higher proportion of patients with underlying illnesses than in the general population. This may indicate that these patients tend to have a more severe course of disease or that they are more likely to be hospitalised compared to healthy individuals. The results must be interpreted with caution, since the sample of COVID-19 individuals is non-random.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Asma , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hospitalização , Humanos , Neoplasias , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adulto Jovem
10.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(11): 2142-2146, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000820

RESUMO

In the summer of 2019, eleven of the best-selling fluorinated ski wax products were purchased from one of Norway's largest sports stores and soon after analysed for a suite of 26 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The waxes were shown to contain a wide range of perfluoroalkyl acids, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids with up to 25 carbons. Of particular concern was the finding that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) levels in nine of the eleven ski lubrication products analysed were above the EU limit values of 25 ng g-1, which came into force on 4th July 2020. The ski wax with the highest PFOA levels had a concentration that was 1215 times higher than the EU restrictions. Although some of the ski wax manufacturers have indicated that they have switched to formulations that contain chemistries based on shorter perfluoroalkyl chains, the analytical results show that this is not the case.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Noruega , Ceras
11.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 128, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic is causing changes in delivery of medical care worldwide. It is not known how the management of headache patients was affected by the lockdown during the pandemic. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the initial phase of the Covid-19 pandemic affected the hospital management of headache in Denmark and Norway. METHODS: All neurological departments in Denmark (n = 14) and Norway (n = 18) were invited to a questionnaire survey. The study focused on the lockdown and all questions were answered in regard to the period between March 12th and April 15th, 2020. RESULTS: The responder rate was 91% (29/32). Of the neurological departments 86% changed their headache practice during the lockdown. The most common change was a shift to more telephone consultations (86%). Video consultations were offered by 45%. The number of new headache referrals decreased. Only 36% administered botulinum toxin A treatment according to usual schemes. Sixty% reported that fewer patients were admitted for in-hospital emergency diagnostics and treatment. Among departments conducting headache research 57% had to halt ongoing projects. Overall, 54% reported that the standard of care was worse for headache patients during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Hospital-based headache care and research was impacted in Denmark and Norway during the initial phase of the Covid-19-pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde , Transtornos da Cefaleia/terapia , Neurologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Cefaleia Histamínica/diagnóstico , Cefaleia Histamínica/terapia , Dinamarca , Gerenciamento Clínico , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/terapia , Transtornos da Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Departamentos Hospitalares , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Noruega , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telecomunicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação por Videoconferência/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5404, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106479

RESUMO

There is a robust observational relationship between lower birthweight and higher risk of cardiometabolic disease in later life. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis posits that adverse environmental factors in utero increase future risk of cardiometabolic disease. Here, we explore if a genetic risk score (GRS) of maternal SNPs associated with offspring birthweight is also associated with offspring cardiometabolic risk factors, after controlling for offspring GRS, in up to 26,057 mother-offspring pairs (and 19,792 father-offspring pairs) from the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT) Study. We find little evidence for a maternal (or paternal) genetic effect of birthweight associated variants on offspring cardiometabolic risk factors after adjusting for offspring GRS. In contrast, offspring GRS is strongly related to many cardiometabolic risk factors, even after conditioning on maternal GRS. Our results suggest that the maternal intrauterine environment, as proxied by maternal SNPs that influence offspring birthweight, is unlikely to be a major determinant of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in population based samples of individuals.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Herança Materna , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Noruega/epidemiologia , Herança Paterna , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105184, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065519

RESUMO

A simulation model framework (SYMBIOSES) that includes a 3-dimensional ocean physics and biology model and a model for transport and fate of oil was used to investigate the potential for bioaccumulation and lethal/sublethal effects of oil components in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the Lofoten-Vesterålen archipelago of Norway. The oil model is coupled with the biology model by way of a bioaccumulation model, from which mortality and reduction in reproduction are calculated via a total body burden (TBB). The simulation results indicate that copepod body burden levels are affected by the spill type (surface spill, subsea blowout) and the spill timing (spring, autumn). The effects of oil component bioaccumulation on the copepod population for all scenarios are small, though greatest in the subsea blowout scenarios. We attribute this to the limited spatial and temporal overlap between copepods and oil in the environment simulated by the model. The coupling of the processes of oil transport, bioaccumulation/excretion and the associated effects are discussed in the context of the model framework and with a view towards applications for Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA).


Assuntos
Copépodes , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Noruega , Petróleo/toxicidade , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Euro Surveill ; 25(37)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945254

RESUMO

To limit SARS-CoV-2 spread, quarantine and isolation are obligatory in several situations in Norway. We found low self-reported adherence to requested measures among 1,704 individuals (42%; 95% confidence interval: 37-48). Adherence was lower in May-June-July (33-38%) compared with April (66%), and higher among those experiencing COVID-19-compatible symptoms (71%) compared with those without (28%). These findings suggest that consideration is required of strategies to improve people's adherence to quarantine and isolation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Noruega , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Autorrelato
16.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(12)2020 09 08.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can lead to life-threatening disease. While awaiting vaccines or documented specific therapeutic agents, several alternative treatment options are under investigation. This is a case report of the first COVID-19 patient treated with convalescent plasma in Norway. CASE PRESENTATION: A patient with severe COVID-19 on prolonged mechanical ventilation, who was PCR SARS-Cov-2 positive on day 22, was transfused with convalescent plasma on day 31 and tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 the following day. The patient gradually improved and was weaned from the ventilator and discharged alive from the ICU on day 63. INTERPRETATION: This case report concerns one patient with clinical improvement after convalescent plasma transfusion. A SARS-CoV-2 test was not performed immediately before transfusion and the complexity of intensive care treatment makes it difficult to draw any conclusions on the potential effectiveness of this treatment. However, this case report is encouraging with regard to planned trials with convalescent plasma.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Noruega , Pandemias
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970744

RESUMO

Regional differences in tree growth can be used to approximate the geographical provenance of ring-width series ('dendro-provenancing'). This method relies on cross-dated ring-width series (reference chronologies) that are thought to represent the radial growth signal of trees in a given region. Reference chronologies are often established from ring-width series of living tree populations. Frequently, they are too short to allow for investigating the provenance of historical wood. Thus, references are extended by ring-width series from buildings and art-historical objects that exhibit best matching growth patterns with the living tree references. Yet, series from other provenances may erroneously be included. Thereby the local or regional growth signal of the references is progressively contaminated, but this has received little attention to date. I investigate this contamination risk using a simulation approach that allows for generating pseudo site chronologies that preserve the relevant statistical properties of the real site chronologies. While the exact provenance of historical wood is unknown, for simulated ring-width series the provenance is unambiguous. Hence, pseudo reference chronologies may be established while monitoring the signal mixture. Specifically, 15 site chronologies of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) from northeastern Switzerland were used to generate 15 pseudo site growth signals that span 1000 years. The simulation demonstrates that quasi uncontaminated references can be established in ideal circumstances for the study area. However, the thresholds for the similarity in between-series correlation must be very high. Even then, contaminated pseudo references occurred in rare cases during the simulation. Yet, elevation-specific pseudo references were established with lower thresholds. Simulation currently offers the only approach for assessing the contamination risk of reference chronologies, and it allows for elucidating the conditions under which acceptable levels of contamination can be guaranteed. Therefore, the present approach paves the way towards a practical simulation tool for dendro-provenancing.


Assuntos
Picea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Noruega , Picea/fisiologia , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cycling for transport could integrate physical activity (PA) into daily routines and potentially increase total PA levels. However, for parents with young children, most factors affecting transport mode choice tend to facilitate car use. Greater insight is necessary into reasons for (not) using sustainable transport modes in parents with young children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the experiences, including motives, perceptions, attitudes, and norms, of parents of young children by using an e-bike, a longtail bike, and a traditional bike for everyday travel to the workplace, kindergarten, and the grocery store during the autumn, winter, and spring, in nine months. METHODS: Semistructured focus group interviews were conducted with 18 parents of young children residing in southern Norway. Parents were recruited through Facebook announcements and direct contact with kindergartens, selected organisations, and companies in the Kristiansand municipality. Data were analysed by systematic text condensation by using NVivo V.11. RESULTS: Participants' experiences were summarised by three main themes: 'cycling is cumbersome', 'cycling reflects the desirable me', and 'breaking the cycling code'. Time use, planning, logistics, wet and cold weather, long distances, and no cycling habit were frequently mentioned barriers, and the most notable facilitator was the children's attitude towards cycling. In general, children loved to cycle and preferred cycling to driving. Additionally, the freedom and independence of cycling were emphasised and valued. CONCLUSION: In challenging weather conditions, parents of young children may experience cycling as cumbersome but desirable, and bike access could increase the feasibility of daily cycling.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Motivação , Pais/psicologia , Transportes/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estações do Ano , Transportes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239162, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956408

RESUMO

Our primary aim was to explore the development of player load throughout match time (i.e., the pattern) using moving 5-min windows in an elite soccer team and our secondary aim was to compare player load patterns between different positions within the same team. The dataset included domestic home matches (n = 34) over three seasons for a Norwegian Elite League team. Player movements (mean ± SD age 25.5 ± 4.2 years, height 183.6 ± 6.6 cm, body mass 78.9 ± 7.4 kg) were recorded at 20 Hz using body-worn sensors. Data for each variable (player load, player load per meter, total distance, accelerations, decelerations, sprint distance, high-intensity running distance) were averaged within positions in each match, converted to z-scores and averaged across all matches, yielding one time series for each variable for each position. Pattern similarity between positions was assessed with cross-correlations. Overall, we observed a distinct pattern in player load throughout match time, which also occurred in the majority of individual matches. The pattern shows peaks at regular intervals (~15 min), each followed by a period of lower load, declining until the next peak. The same pattern was evident in player load per meter. The cross-correlation analyses support the visual evidence, with correlations ranging 0.88-0.97 (p < .001) in all position pairs. In contrast, no specific patterns were discernible in total distance, accelerations, decelerations, sprint distance and high-intensity running distance, with cross-correlations ranging 0.65-0.89 (p < .001), 0.32-0.64 (p < .005), 0.18-0.65 (p < .005 in nine position pairs), 0.02-0.38 (p < .05 in three pairs) and 0.01-0.52 (p < .05 in three pairs), respectively. This study demonstrated similarity in player load patterns between both matches and positions in elite soccer competition, which could indicate a physical "pacing pattern" employed by the team.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Corrida/estatística & dados numéricos , Futebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Posição Ortostática , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3023-3029, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are conflicting figures of the incidence of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). The incidence was previously estimated to around 0.5/100 000/y, but more recent studies have suggested 1 to 1.5/100 000/y. The purpose of this study was to explore the incidence and mortality of CVT in a Norwegian population. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional hospital population-based study conducted at Akershus University Hospital serving roughly 10% of the total Norwegian population. Patients were identified through chart reviews based on the relevant International Classification of Diseases(Tenth Revision) codes for new CVT cases in a 7-year period between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2017. Only inhabitants living in the hospital's catchment area were included. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients aged 0 to 80 years were identified and included. The median age was 46 years and 53% were females. The overall incidence of CVT was 1.75 (95% CI, 1.36-2.23) per 100 000/y with no significant sex differences. The incidence for children and adolescents (<18 years, n=9) was lower than for adults (≥18 years, n=53); 1.08 (0.52-1.97) versus 1.96 (1.49-2.55) per 100 000/y per year, with the highest incidence for those >50 years with 2.10 (1.38-3.07)/100 000/y. Headache was the most prevalent symptom, reported in 83%, followed by nausea, motor deficits, and seizures observed in 45%, 32%, and 32% of the patients. Transverse sinuses and the jugular vein were the most frequent sites of thrombosis. In most patients (61%), thrombosis occurred in multiple sinuses/veins. Risk factors were found in 73% of the patients, and most of the patients had a combination of 2 or more risk factors. The 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 3% and 6%. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of CVT in this population was higher than previously reported. The mortality rate was similar to previous studies.


Assuntos
Trombose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Trombose Intracraniana/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
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