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1.
Oecologia ; 192(2): 425-437, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927627

RESUMO

Spatial synchrony between populations emerges from endogenous and exogenous processes, such as intra- and interspecific interactions and abiotic factors. Understanding factors contributing to synchronous population dynamics help to better understand what determines abundance of a species. This study focuses on spatial and temporal dynamics in the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) using snow-track data from Finland from 29 years. We disentangled the effects of bottom-up and top-down forces as well as environmental factors on population dynamics with a spatiotemporally explicit Bayesian hierarchical approach. We found red squirrel abundance to be positively associated with both the abundance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) cones and the predators, the pine marten (Martes martes) and the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), probably due to shared habitat preferences. The results suggest that red squirrel populations are synchronized over remarkably large distances, on a scale of hundreds of kilometres, and that this synchrony is mainly driven by similarly spatially autocorrelated spruce cone crop. Our research demonstrates how a bottom-up effect can drive spatial synchrony in consumer populations on a very large scale of hundreds of kilometres, and also how an explicit spatiotemporal approach can improve model performance for fluctuating populations.


Assuntos
Sciuridae , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Finlândia , Noruega , Dinâmica Populacional
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(1): 157-167, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748876

RESUMO

Endogenous retroviruses of domestic cats (ERV-DCs) are members of the genus Gammaretrovirus that infect domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Uniquely, domestic cats harbor replication-competent proviruses such as ERV-DC10 (ERV-DC18) and ERV-DC14 (xenotropic and nonecotropic viruses, respectively). The purpose of this study was to assess invasion by two distinct infectious ERV-DCs, ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14, in domestic cats. Of a total sample of 1646 cats, 568 animals (34.5%) were positive for ERV-DC10 (heterozygous: 377; homozygous: 191), 68 animals (4.1%) were positive for ERV-DC14 (heterozygous: 67; homozygous: 1), and 10 animals (0.6%) were positive for both ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14. ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14 were detected in domestic cats in Japan as well as in Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, South Korea and Spain. Breeding cats, including Singapura, Norwegian Forest and Ragdoll cats, showed high frequencies of ERV-DC10 (60-100%). By contrast, ERV-DC14 was detected at low frequency in breeding cats. Our results suggest that ERV-DC10 is widely distributed while ERV-DC14 is maintained in a minor population of cats. Thus, ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14 have invaded cat populations independently.


Assuntos
Gammaretrovirus/classificação , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Ásia , Cruzamento , Gatos , Gammaretrovirus/genética , Gammaretrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Noruega , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Espanha , Tanzânia
3.
Phytopathology ; 110(1): 68-79, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631806

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing technologies were used to identify plant viruses in cereal samples surveyed from 2012 to 2017. Fifteen genome sequences of a tenuivirus infecting wheat, oats, and spelt in Estonia, Norway, and Sweden were identified and characterized by their distances to other tenuivirus sequences. Like most tenuiviruses, the genome of this tenuivirus contains four genomic segments. The isolates found from different countries shared at least 92% nucleotide sequence identity at the genome level. The planthopper Javesella pellucida was identified as a vector of the virus. Laboratory transmission tests using this vector indicated that wheat, oats, barley, rye, and triticale, but none of the tested pasture grass species (Alopecurus pratensis, Dactylis glomerata, Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis), are susceptible. Taking into account the vector and host range data, the tenuivirus we have found most probably represents European wheat striate mosaic virus first identified about 60 years ago. Interestingly, whereas we were not able to infect any of the tested cereal species mechanically, Nicotiana benthamiana was infected via mechanical inoculation in laboratory conditions, displaying symptoms of yellow spots and vein clearing evolving into necrosis, eventually leading to plant death. Surprisingly, one of the virus genome segments (RNA2) encoding both a putative host systemic movement enhancer protein and a putative vector transmission factor was not detected in N. benthamiana after several passages even though systemic infection was observed, raising fundamental questions about the role of this segment in the systemic spread in several hosts.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Vírus do Mosaico , Vírus de Plantas , Animais , Grão Comestível/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Hemípteros/virologia , Vírus do Mosaico/genética , Noruega , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Suécia
4.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 24(1): 79-87, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of innovative nanotechnologies in medicine and dentistry may initiate a need for curriculum revision at the universities. The aim of this study was to assess dental students' knowledge and attitudes related to nanotechnology. Covariates of students' intention to use nanomaterials in their future dental practice were evaluated using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). METHODS: Dental students at Norwegian and Romanian Universities were invited to participate. A self-administered structured questionnaire including socio-demographics and Ajzen's TPB components was used. FINDINGS: A total of 212 out of 732 dental students participated in the survey: 52 Norwegian and 160 Romanian. Most students reported to have little knowledge about nanotechnology (Norwegians = 44.2% vs Romanians = 46.9%, P < .05). More than 90% of the students in both countries reported that they wanted to get more information about nanotechnology. Mean knowledge score was similar for Norwegian and Romanian students (4.4 ± 1.7 vs 4.2 ± 1.4, P > .05). Romanian students had more positive attitude, stronger subjective norms and stronger perceived behavioural control towards nanotechnology compared to their Norwegian counterparts. Intention to use nanomaterials in the total sample was most strongly influenced by attitude towards the use of dental nanomaterials (beta = 0.42, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Dental students in Norway and Romania demonstrated limited knowledge about nanotechnology. Intention to use nanomaterials was primarily influenced by attitudes. A clear desire for more information about the application of nanotechnology in dentistry was expressed by the respondents indicating a need for curriculum modification.


Assuntos
Intenção , Estudantes de Odontologia , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Nanotecnologia , Noruega , Romênia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Water Res ; 169: 115217, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675608

RESUMO

The reducing capacity (RC) of natural organic matter plays an important role in the carbon cycle and biogeochemical fates of environmental contaminants in the aquatic system. However, the electron donation potentials of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from high-latitude lakes are still uncertain. In this study, we collected DOM samples from high-latitude lakes across the Arctic and boreal regions in Sweden and Norway to investigate the effects of the DOM concentration and characteristics on its ambient reducing capacity (ARC). Mercury (Hg(II)) abiotic reduction in darkness was used to determine the ARC. The results showed that the DOM in Arctic lakes is less terrestrial-dominant than in reference sites (i.e., forest lakes). Between the two categories of Arctic lakes, tundra lakes are more terrestrial-influenced compared to mountain lakes. Additionally, terrestrial-originated DOM is a main controlling factor for enhancing the ambient reducing capacity, whereas the DOM concentration, i.e., dissolved organic carbon (DOC), resulted in variations in the Hg/DOC ratios that also cause the variations of the observed ARC values. Thus, comparisons of the ARC values can be conducted while oxidant/DOC ratios are kept the same and reported through the method using heavy metals as a chemical probe. After correction for Hg/DOC ratio interference, the ambient reducing capacity of DOM followed the order: boreal forest lakes > Arctic tundra lakes > Arctic mountain lakes. This study highlights that the DOM concentration should also be considered when estimating the ARC as compared to the previous that mainly focusing on the properties of DOM such as its origins. As climate change is projected to be severe in high latitudes, this study demonstrates a significant connection between aquatic DOM geochemical reactivity and terrestrial inputs, which is crucial for a better prediction of the role of DOM in high-latitude lakes in the context of climate change.


Assuntos
Lagos , Mercúrio , Carbono , Noruega , Suécia
6.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 227-239, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834515

RESUMO

The production and fate of seaweed detritus is a major unknown in the global C-budget. Knowing the quantity of detritus produced, the form it takes (size) and its timing of delivery are key to understanding its role as a resource subsidy to secondary production and/or its potential contribution to C-sequestration. We quantified the production and release of detritus from 10 Laminaria hyperborea sites in northern Norway (69.6° N). Kelp biomass averaged 770 ± 100 g C m-2 while net production reached 499 ± 50 g C m-2 year-1, with most taking place in spring when new blades were formed. Production of biomass was balanced by a similar formation of detritus (478 ± 41 g C m-2 year-1), and both were unrelated to wave exposure when compared across sites. Distal blade erosion accounted for 23% of the total detritus production and was highest during autumn and winter, while dislodgment of whole individuals and/or whole blades corresponded to 24% of the detritus production. Detachment of old blades constituted the largest source of kelp detritus, accounting for > 50% of the total detrital production. Almost 80% of the detritus from L. hyperborea was thus in the form of whole plants or blades and > 60% of that was delivered as a large pulse within 1-2 months in spring. The discrete nature of the delivery suggests that the detritus cannot be retained and consumed locally and that some is exported to adjacent deep areas where it may subsidize secondary production or become buried into deep marine sediments as blue carbon.


Assuntos
Kelp , Carbono , Ecossistema , Florestas , Noruega
7.
Waste Manag ; 102: 868-883, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835064

RESUMO

Almost 500 municipal solid waste incineration plants in the EU, Norway and Switzerland generate about 17.6 Mt/a of incinerator bottom ash (IBA). IBA contains minerals and metals. Metals are mostly separated and sold to the scrap market and minerals are either disposed of in landfills or utilised in the construction sector. Since there is no uniform regulation for IBA utilisation at EU level, countries developed own rules with varying requirements for utilisation. As a result from a cooperation network between European experts an up-to-date overview of documents regulating IBA utilisation is presented. Furthermore, this work highlights the different requirements that have to be considered. Overall, 51 different parameters for the total content and 36 different parameters for the emission by leaching are defined. An analysis of the defined parameter reveals that leaching parameters are significantly more to be considered compared to total content parameters. In order to assess the leaching behaviour nine different leaching tests, including batch tests, up-flow percolation tests and one diffusion test (monolithic materials) are in place. A further discussion of leaching parameters showed that certain countries took over limit values initially defined for landfills for inert waste and adopted them for IBA utilisation. The overall utilisation rate of IBA in construction works is approximately 54 wt%. It is revealed that the rate of utilisation does not necessarily depend on how well regulated IBA utilisation is, but rather seems to be a result of political commitment for IBA recycling and economically interesting circumstances.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão , Incineração , Europa (Continente) , Noruega , Resíduos Sólidos , Suíça
8.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(1): 6-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267814

RESUMO

Aim: To describe the distribution of enamel-, dentin-, root- and secondary caries within an elderly population in Northern-Norway.Material and methods: A study population (n = 1 173) was divided into age groups: 65-69 (seniors), 70-74 (young elderly), 75-79 (elderly) and 80-94 (old elderly). Seven examiners registered presence, location and severity of caries lesions on x-rays and intra-oral photos. Severity of approximal, occlusal, secondary and root caries was graded (D1-2: into enamel; D3-5: into dentin, root caries), and decayed missing filled surfaces/teeth (DMFS/DMFT) were calculated. T-test, ANOVA and a Bonferroni correction were used.Results: The seniors had more primary caries (DS1-5) compared to the oldest age groups, while the old elderly had significantly more secondary caries than the other groups (p < .05). Of those ≥65 years 13.8% were affected with root caries, 21% among the oldest. About 48% of the old elderly had one or more surfaces with untreated caries lesions into dentin, while for the other groups the number was 35% (p < 0.05).Conclusion: Individuals seem to maintain good oral health up to at least 80 years of age. Those older than 80 years have more root caries needing more intensified caries-controlling measures and a higher prevalence of untreated dentin lesions often in need of operative treatment.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Dentina/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência
9.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(1): 13-19, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287346

RESUMO

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of dental anxiety, and to explore factors that may increase the risk of reporting dental anxiety among 18-year-old Norwegians in 2016. A further objective was to report changes in dental anxiety since 1996.Material and methods: An anonymous survey from a strategic sample of upper secondary students (n = 351) in 2016 with high response rate (93%) was compared with the results of an investigation of a similar population conducted in 1996.Results: The prevalence of dental anxiety and dental distrust was reduced from 1996 to 2016. Dental Fear Survey (DFS) from 19 to 8% (p < .001), and Dental Belief Survey (DBS) from 15 to 6% (p < .001). Geer Fear Scale (GFS) which measure phobic anxiety did not show a similar reduction (17 versus 15%, p = .37). Phobic anxiety, avoidance behaviour, self-reported poor oral health and previous experiences of pain were all associated with dental anxiety.Conclusion: The prevalence of dental anxiety was reduced from 1996 to 2016, but 8% still report dental anxiety. Proper pain management and use of behavioural management techniques still needs to be highlighted to prevent development of dental anxiety, avoidance behaviour and poor oral health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/epidemiologia , Medo , Adolescente , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/etiologia , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica/psicologia , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/psicologia , Prevalência , Odontologia em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 213-225, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828530

RESUMO

With the increasing imperative for societies to act to curb climate change by increasing carbon stores and sinks, it has become critical to understand how organic carbon is produced, released, transformed, transported, and sequestered within and across ecosystems. In freshwater and open-ocean systems, shredders play a significant and well-known role in transforming and mobilizing carbon, but their role in the carbon cycle of coastal ecosystems is largely unknown. Marine plants such as kelps produce vast amounts of detritus, which can be captured and consumed by shedders as it traverses the seafloor. We measured capture and consumption rates of kelp detritus by sea urchins across four sampling periods and over a range of kelp detritus production rates and sea urchin densities, in northern Norway. When sea urchin densities exceeded 4 m-2, the sea urchins captured and consumed a high percentage (ca. 80%) of kelp detritus on shallow reefs. We calculated that between 1.3 and 10.8 kg of kelp m-2 are shredded annually from these reefs. We used a hydrodynamic dispersal model to show that transformation of kelp blades to sea urchin feces increased its export distance fourfold. Our findings show that sea urchins can accelerate and extend the export of carbon to neighboring areas. This collector-shredder pathway could represent a significant flow of small particulate carbon from kelp forests to deep-sea areas, where it can subsidize benthic communities or contribute to the global carbon sink.


Assuntos
Kelp , Animais , Carbono , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Noruega , Ouriços-do-Mar
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105247, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405514

RESUMO

Using data from the national register of police-reported crashes and from the bridge register of the Norwegian Public Roads Administration, we estimated rates of single-vehicle crashes on road sections adjacent to road bridges and on different sections of the bridges. Data included all single-vehicle personal injury crashes occurring on or close to road bridges in Norway between 2010 and 2016, a total of 219 crashes. All bridges on state and county roads were included. Crash rate was found to be highest in the approach zone of short bridges (last 50 m before bridge) and lowest in the middle of long bridges. On bridges shorter than about 100 m, crash rate was higher in the first than in the last bridge zone. Total crash rate on bridges was close to the figure for the total road network. However, for the approach to short bridges, crash rate was significantly higher than for the total road network, and for the middle part of long bridges it was significantly lower. A supplementary analysis of in-depth data from 31 fatal crashes including both single-vehicle and multiple-vehicle crashes supported the results from the main analysis. A higher proportion of fatal crashes occurred on approaching or entering a bridge than when leaving the bridge, as seen from the direction of travel of the at-fault vehicle. Concerning countermeasures against bridge accidents, particular attention should be payed to the approach zone and to the design of barriers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Ambiente Construído , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Noruega , Fatores de Risco
12.
Lancet ; 394(10216): 2271-2281, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) are the standard treatment for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In the FLYER trial, we assessed whether four cycles of CHOP plus six applications of rituximab are non-inferior to six cycles of R-CHOP in a population of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with favourable prognosis. METHODS: This two-arm, open-label, international, multicentre, prospective, randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial was done at 138 clinical sites in Denmark, Israel, Italy, Norway, and Germany. We enrolled patients aged 18-60 years, with stage I-II disease, normal serum lactate dehydrogenase concentration, ECOG performance status 0-1, and without bulky disease (maximal tumour diameter <7·5 cm). Randomisation was computer-based and done centrally in a 1:1 ratio using the Pocock minimisation algorithm after stratification for centres, stage (I vs II), and extralymphatic sites (no vs yes). Patients were assigned to receive either six cycles of R-CHOP or four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab. CHOP comprised cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m2), doxorubicin (50 mg/m2), and vincristine (1·4 mg/m2, with a maximum total dose of 2 mg), all administered intravenously on day 1, plus oral prednisone or prednisolone at the discretion of the investigator (100 mg) administered on days 1-5. Rituximab was given at a dose of 375 mg/m2 of body surface area. Cycles were repeated every 21 days. No radiotherapy was planned except for testicular lymphoma treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival after 3 years. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of assigned treatment. A non-inferiority margin of -5·5% was chosen. The trial, which is completed, was prospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00278421. FINDINGS: Between Dec 2, 2005, and Oct 7, 2016, 592 patients were enrolled, of whom 295 patients were randomly assigned to receive six cycles of R-CHOP and 297 were assigned to receive four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab. Four patients in the four-cycles group withdrew informed consent before the start of treatment, so 588 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. After a median follow-up of 66 months (IQR 42-100), 3-year progression-free survival of patients who had four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab was 96% (95% CI 94-99), which was 3% better (lower limit of the one-sided 95% CI for the difference was 0%) than six cycles of R-CHOP, demonstrating the non-inferiority of the four-cycles regimen. 294 haematological and 1036 non-haematological adverse events were documented in the four-cycles group compared with 426 haematological and 1280 non-haematological adverse events in the six-cycles group. Two patients, both in the six-cycles group, died during study therapy. INTERPRETATION: In young patients with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and favourable prognosis, four cycles of R-CHOP is non-inferior to six cycles of R-CHOP, with relevant reduction of toxic effects. Thus, chemotherapy can be reduced without compromising outcomes in this population. FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Dinamarca , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Israel , Itália , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Noruega , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
13.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(1): 33-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The risk of graft revision following ACL reconstruction may depend on the sport type the individuals are engaged in. The purpose of this study was to report the ACL graft revision rate in alpine skiers, football and handball players. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary ACL reconstructions and graft revision data from 2004 to December 2016 were obtained from the Norwegian Cruciate Ligament Registry. The graft survival rates were calculated for individuals in each of the three sport types, for bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB) and hamstring tendons (HT) grafts separately, and related to age at primary operation and sex. RESULTS: A total of 711 grafts in 14 201 primary ACL reconstructions were revised (5.0%) after median 6 years, 3.8% in alpine skiers, 5.0% in soccer and 6.1% in handball players (p<0.001). Adjusted Cox regression showed similar ACL graft survival rates in the three groups. The HR for graft revision was 5 times higher for individuals aged ≤18 years than for those aged ≥35 years (p<0.001). The corresponding HR for graft type was 1.8 times higher for HT than for BPTB grafts (p<0.001), but 2.8 times higher for individuals aged ≤18 years (p<0.001). The 12 years survival of BPTB grafts was 96% compared with 93% for HT grafts (p <0.001). CONCLUSION: The revision rate for ACL grafts was similar among alpine skiers, football and handball players, and the results support the use of BPTB grafts in young athletes with closed growth zones in the knee. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; level of evidence, 2.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Enxerto Osso-Tendão Patelar-Osso/métodos , Tendões dos Músculos Isquiotibiais/transplante , Esportes com Raquete/lesões , Reoperação , Esqui/lesões , Futebol/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Transplante Autólogo , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109792, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731030

RESUMO

Windfelled Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees play a crucial role in triggering large-scale outbreaks of the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Outbreak management therefore strives to remove windfelled trees to reduce the risk of outbreaks, a measure referred to as sanitation logging (SL). Although this practice has been traditionally applied, its efficiency in preventing outbreaks remains poorly understood. We used the landscape simulation model iLand to investigate the effects of different spatial configurations and intensities of SL of windfelled trees on the subsequent disturbance by bark beetles. We studied differences between SL applied evenly across the landscape, focused on the vicinity of roads (scenario of limited logging resources) and concentrated in a contiguous block (scenario of spatially diversified management objectives). We focused on a 16 050 ha forest landscape in Central Europe. The removal of >80% of all windfelled trees is required to substantially reduce bark beetle disturbances. Focusing SL on the vicinity of roads created a "fire break effect" on bark beetle spread, and was moderately efficient in reducing landscape-scale bark beetle disturbance. Block treatments substantially reduced outbreaks in treated areas. Leaving parts of the landscape untreated (e.g., conservation areas) had no significant amplifying effect on outbreaks in managed areas. Climate change increased bark beetle disturbances and reduced the effect of SL. Our results suggest that past outbreak management methods will not be sufficient to counteract climate-mediated increases in bark beetle disturbance.


Assuntos
Besouros , Árvores , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Florestas , Noruega , Casca de Planta
15.
APMIS ; 128(1): 35-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628868

RESUMO

Kingella kingae colonizes the upper airways in children and has been recognized as the most common causative agent of osteoarticular infections (OAI) in children below 4 years of age. This is the first Scandinavian study to investigate oropharyngeal K. kingae carriage in healthy children. From June 2015 to August 2016, we recruited 198 healthy children aged 11-14 months from routine consultations at health promotion centers in Hordaland County, Norway for a cross-sectional study. After their parents had provided informed consent; demographic data were registered, and an oropharyngeal swab was collected. The oropharyngeal swab was analyzed with a real-time PCR assay specific to K. kingae targeting the RTX toxin locus. Results showed an asymptomatic carriage rate of 12.6%. A striking and highly significant difference was observed between the children that had started attending day care facilities as compared with children still being at home (33.33% vs 8.5%; p < 0.001). K. kingae is prevalent in young children in Norway. This study emphasize that K. kingae should be considered an important etiological agent in OAI. Transmission seems to be facilitated in day care facilities. The correlation between oropharyngeal carriage and OAI needs to be further explored.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Creches , Kingella kingae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Neisseriaceae/epidemiologia , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Kingella kingae/genética , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 133761, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493576

RESUMO

In Romania, natural Norway spruce forests are spread across upper mountain slopes (1300-1800 m). They perform multiple functions, being especially recognised for their economic value. However, where planted forests extend beyond the spruce's naturally occurring areas, they are frequently exposed to deleterious environmental factors. In Romania, forest planning is based on typological studies that were carried out between 1950 and 1970, and the regulations are applied in a somewhat flexible manner. In the context of the potential threats from climate change that could amplify induced destabilising phenomena, the risks to which these forests are becoming exposed can only be mediated through flexible management and the permanent adaptation of forest planning. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to develop a strategy for adapting forest management plan guidelines, with a view to improving ecosystem stability. A Norway spruce forest was chosen from the south-eastern Carpathians, which is included in the Natura 2000 Fagaras Mountains site. The models on which we based our current stand compositions resulted from long-term monitoring and analysis of species and stand structures. Stand structure - and forest structure, in general - is key to the continuous existence of stand functions and ecosystem services. Through design decisions, we promote biodiversity and the natural, better adapted, regeneration of local provenances. We highlight the rationale behind forest management planning and its regulations, with respect to the sustainable management of Norway spruce forests, which are vulnerable to potential changes in their structure as a result of climate change. Based on our findings, we propose the adaptation of measures used in forest management planning for Norway spruce forests to include protective functions that can be applied to all man-made Norway spruce forests introduced in former beech forest regions, and mixed coniferous/beech forests, that are vulnerable to changing environmental factors.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Picea , Noruega , Romênia
17.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 341, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) is commonly used by cancer patients in Northern Norway, in particular spiritual forms like traditional healing. T&CM is mainly used complementary to conventional cancer treatment and is rarely discussed with conventional health care providers, increasing the risk of negative interaction with conventional cancer care. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of T&CM among cancer patients in Tromsø, and to investigate the differences in T&CM use between people living with cancer, people with cancer previously, and people without a history of cancer. METHOD: Data was drawn from the seventh survey of the Tromsø study conducted in 2015-2016. All inhabitants of Tromsø aged 40 and above were invited to participate (n = 32,591) of whom n = 21,083 accepted the invitation (response rate 65%). Data was collected thorough three self-administered questionnaires and a comprehensive clinical examination. Pearson chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and one-way ANOVA tests were used to describe differences between the groups while binary logistic regressions were used for adjusted values. RESULTS: Eight percent of the participants (n = 1636) reported to have (n = 404) or have had (n = 1232) cancer. Of the participants with cancer at present 33.4% reported use of T&CM within the last year, 13.6% had consulted a T&CM provider, 17.9% had used herbal medicine/natural remedies and 6.4% had practiced self-help techniques. The participants with cancer at present were more likely to have visited a T&CM provider than participants with cancer previously (13.6% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.020). Among the participants with cancer at present, 6.4% reported to have consulted a TM provider, 5.8% had consulted an acupuncturist, while 4.7% had consulted other CM providers. Women were significantly more likely than men to have used acupuncture and self-help techniques. No significant gender differences were found regarding visits to other CM providers, TM providers nor use of herbal medicine/natural remedies. CONCLUSION: The findings are in line with previous research suggesting that both men and women use TM complementary to other CM modalities outside the official health care system. As herbal medicine might interact with conventional cancer treatment, health care providers need to discuss such use with their patients.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(18)2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the prevalence of gestational diabetes and pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes in Nordland and Troms counties. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We included all 1 067 women with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes among 34 915 births at four hospitals in Nordland and Troms counties from 2004 to 2015. Prevalence of diabetes was calculated based on ICD-10 codes in patient records for women with diabetes in Nordland and Troms counties, and compared with national prevalence figures from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Prevalence of pre-eclampsia, macrosomia (birth weight > 4 500 grams) and caesarian section was calculated for all women with diabetes and all those giving birth in the same region. RESULTS: Prevalence of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes remained stable. Prevalence of gestational diabetes increased from 1.0 % to 4.0 % in Nordland and Troms counties and from 1.0 % to 3.8 % nationally. Prevalence of pre-eclampsia among all women with diabetes fell from 18.8 % in 2004-06 to 12.4 % in 2013-15. In women with diabetes, the prevalence of pre-eclampsia was 4.6 times higher, that of macrosomia was 3.5 times higher, and the proportion of caesarian sections was 2.3 times higher than in the background population. INTERPRETATION: Prevalence of gestational diabetes increased in Nordland and Troms counties, as it did nationally. Prevalence of pre-eclampsia among pregnant women with diabetes fell, but prevalence of pre-eclampsia, macrosomia and caesarean section was higher than in the background population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Cesárea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Prevalência
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