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1.
Euro Surveill ; 26(35)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477054

RESUMO

Some variants of SARS-CoV-2 are associated with increased transmissibility, increased disease severity or decreased vaccine effectiveness (VE). In this population-based cohort study (n = 4,204,859), the Delta variant was identified in 5,430 (0.13%) individuals, of whom 84 were admitted to hospital. VE against laboratory confirmed infection with the Delta variant was 22.4% among partly vaccinated (95% confidence interval (CI): 17.0-27.4) and 64.6% (95% CI: 60.6-68.2) among fully vaccinated individuals, compared with 54.5% (95% CI: 50.4-58.3) and 84.4% (95%CI: 81.8-86.5) against the Alpha variant.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 931, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Norwegian Board of Health Supervision aims to contribute to the improvement of quality and patient safety in the healthcare services. Planned audits were performed to investigate how 12 selected Norwegian obstetric units reported and analyzed adverse events as the part of their quality assurance and patient safety work. METHODS: Serious adverse events coded as birth asphyxia, shoulder dystocia and severe postpartum hemorrhage that occurred during 2014 (the most recent year for which the quality assured data were available) were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The obstetric units were asked to submit medical records, internal adverse events reports, and their internal guidelines outlining which events should be reported to the quality assurance system. We identified the adverse events at each obstetric unit that were reported internally and/or to the central authorities. Two obstetricians carried out an evaluation of each event reported. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-three serious adverse events were registered among 17,323 births that took place at the selected units. Twenty-one events were excluded because of incorrect coding or missing information. Eight events were registered in more than one category, and these were distributed to the category directly related to injury or adverse outcome. Nine of twelve (75 %) obstetric units had written guidelines describing which events should be reported. The obstetric units reported 49 of 524 (9.3 %) serious adverse events in their internal quality assurance system and 39 (7.4 %) to central authorities. Of the very serious adverse events, 29 of 149 (19.4 %) were reported. Twenty-three of 49 (47 %) reports did not contain relevant assessments or proposals for improving quality and patient safety. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that adverse event reporting and analyses by Norwegian obstetric units, as a part of quality assurance and patient safety work, are suboptimal. The reporting culture and compliance with guidelines need to be improved substantially for better safety in patient care, risk mitigation and clinical quality assurance.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Noruega/epidemiologia , Segurança do Paciente , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros
3.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 130, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common in adults with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM). The literature on depression and anxiety in CVDs and DM populations is extensive; however, studies examining these relationships over time, directly compared to adults without these conditions, are still lacking. This study aimed to investigate trends in depression and anxiety symptom prevalence over more than 20 years in adults with CVDs and DM compared to the general population. METHODS: We used data from the population-based Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway, including adults (≥ 20 years) from three waves; the HUNT2 (1995-97; n = 65,228), HUNT3 (2006-08; n = 50,800) and HUNT4 (2017-19; n = 56,042). Depressive and anxiety symptom prevalence was measured independently by the Hospital Anxiety and Depressions scale (HADS) in sex-stratified samples. We analyzed associations of these common psychological symptoms with CVDs and DM over time using multi-level random-effects models, accounting for repeated measurements and individual variation. RESULTS: Overall, the CVDs groups reported higher levels of depression than those free of CVDs in all waves of the study. Further, depressive and anxiety symptom prevalence in adults with and without CVDs and DM declined from HUNT2 to HUNT4, whereas women reported more anxiety than men. Positive associations of depression and anxiety symptoms with CVDs and DM in HUNT2 declined over time. However, associations of CVDs with depression symptoms remained over time in men. Moreover, in women, DM was associated with increased depression symptom risk in HUNT2 and HUNT4. CONCLUSIONS: Depression and anxiety symptoms are frequent in adults with CVDs. Further, our time trend analysis indicates that anxiety and depression are differentially related to CVDs and DM and sex. This study highlights the importance of awareness and management of psychological symptoms in CVDs and DM populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 877, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reablement is a municipal service given to patients at home. The purpose of the service is to assist recovery after hospital discharges or other sudden changes in a patient's functional level. The service is often provided by a team of nurses, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists. The purpose of this paper is to compare users of this service to users who receive traditional home care services. Outcomes to be measured are risk of long-term care and mortality. METHODS: All users of health and care services in a Norwegian municipality were eligible for inclusion. Data was extracted from the local user administrative database. Users were divided in two groups: those who received reablement and those home care users who did not receive reablement service. Propensity score matching was used to match users based on age, sex, and level of functioning in activities of daily living (ADL). Survival analysis was deployed to test if the reablement users had different risk of becoming long-term care users, and whether the mortality rate differed for this group. RESULTS: 153 reablement users were included in the study. These were matched to 153 non-reablement home care users. The groups had similar distributions of age, sex, and level of functioning when starting their service trajectories. Regressions showed that reablement users had lower risk of using long-term care services in the study period (time at risk up to 4 years), and lower mortality. However, none of these estimates were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that the reablement users in one municipality had lower use of long -term care and lower mortality when properly estimated, but numbers were too small for statistical significance to be found.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Fisioterapeutas , Atividades Cotidianas , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2121934, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427678

RESUMO

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting conditions may negatively affect adolescents. Objective: To examine aspects of self-reported mental and physical health among adolescents in Norway before and during the pandemic, including the role of pandemic-associated anxiety. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined a diverse nationwide sample of grade 11 students from the longitudinal MyLife study in Norway. The original study recruitment of all 8th, 9th, and 10th graders from the same middle schools facilitated identification of 2 sociodemographically comparable cohorts assessed in October to December 2018 and 2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, and October to December 2020, during the pandemic. School entry and enrollment in Norway is determined by the birth year, and students usually start high school (11th grade) during the fall of the year of their 16th birthday. Data were analyzed from March to June 2021. Exposures: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated conditions in Norway. Main Outcomes and Measures: In grades 10 and 11, adolescents reported their depression symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (cutoff scores for moderate/severe depression, ≥15), number of close friends, physical health, and organized sports participation. Cohort differences were examined with a set of nested regression models, incrementally controlling for sociodemographic covariates and grade 10 outcomes. Results: A sample of 2536 adolescents (1505 [59.4%] girls) was analyzed, including 1621 adolescents before the pandemic and 915 adolescents during the pandemic, of whom 158 adolescents (17.3%) reported high pandemic anxiety. The only significant difference in outcomes between the COVID-19 cohort and the pre-COVID-19 cohort were lower odds of organized sports participation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56-0.87). However, in subanalyses comparing adolescents with high anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic with adolescents in the pre-COVID-19 cohort, adolescents with high pandemic anxiety were more likely to experience clinical-level depression symptoms (aOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.39-3.37) and poor physical health (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.31). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of Norwegian adolescents, adolescents who started high school during the pandemic year had lower odds of organized sports participation in late 2020, but were otherwise comparable in terms of self-reported mental and physical health with their pre-COVID-19 counterparts. However, adolescents in the COVID-19 cohort experiencing high pandemic-related anxiety had significantly greater odds of poorer mental and physical health than adolescents in the pre-COVID-19 cohort. Strategies aiming to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 may benefit from identifying youth disproportionally affected by the pandemic conditions.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Depressão/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Adolescente , Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Esportes
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0250378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic lead to a sudden shift to online teaching and restricted campus access. AIM: To assess how university students experienced the sudden shift to online teaching after closure of campus due to the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Students in Public Health Nutrition answered questionnaires two and 12 weeks (N = 79: response rate 20.3% and 26.6%, respectively) after the lockdown in Norway on 12 March 2020 and participated in digital focus group interviews in May 2020 (mixed methods study). FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: Two weeks into the lockdown, 75% of students reported that their life had become more difficult and 50% felt that learning outcomes would be harder to achieve due to the sudden shift to online education. Twelve weeks into the lockdown, the corresponding numbers were 57% and 71%, respectively. The most pressing concerns among students were a lack of social interaction, housing situations that were unfit for home office purposes, including insufficient data bandwidth, and an overall sense of reduced motivation and effort. The students collaborated well in digital groups but wanted smaller groups with students they knew rather than being randomly assigned to groups. Most students agreed that pre-recorded and streamed lectures, frequent virtual meetings and student response systems could improve learning outcomes in future digital courses. The preference for written home exams over online versions of previous on-campus exams was likely influenced by student's familiarity with the former. The dropout rate remained unchanged compared to previous years. CONCLUSION: The sudden shift to digital teaching was challenging for students, but it appears that they adapted quickly to the new situation. Although the concerns described by students in this study may only be representative for the period right after campus lockdown, the study provide the student perspective on a unique period of time in higher education.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação à Distância , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Currículo/normas , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 659, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) severely menaces modern chemotherapy and immunosuppression. Detailed description of the epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii today is needed to identify candidates for PCP-prophylaxis. METHODS: We performed a 12-year retrospective study of patients with P. jirovecii detected by polymerase chain reaction in Central Norway. In total, 297 patients were included. Comprehensive biological, clinical and epidemiological data were abstracted from patients' medical records. Regional incidence rates and testing trends were also assessed. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2017 we found a 3.3-fold increase in testing for P. jirovecii accompanied by a 1.8-fold increase in positive results. Simultaneously, regional incidence rates doubled from 5.0 cases per 100,000 person years to 10.8. A majority of the study population had predisposing conditions other than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hematological (36.0%) and solid cancers (25.3%) dominated. Preceding corticosteroids were a common denominator for 72.1%. Most patients (74.4%) presented with at least two cardinal symptoms; cough, dyspnea or fever. Main clinical findings were hypoxia, cytopenias and radiological features consistent with PCP. A total of 88 (29.6%) patients required intensive care and 121 (40.7%) suffered at least one complication. In-hospital mortality was 21.5%. Three patients (1.0%) had received prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: P. jirovecii is re-emerging; likely due to increasing immunosuppressants use. This opportunistic pathogen threatens the life of heterogenous non-HIV immunosuppressed populations currently at growth. Corticosteroids seem to be a major risk factor. A strategy to increase prophylaxis is called for.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Pneumocystis carinii/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/mortalidade , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200397

RESUMO

Alcohol-related presenteeism (impaired work performance caused by alcohol use) is an important but under-researched topic. The aim of this study was to explore whether psychosocial work environment factors were associated with alcohol-related presenteeism. A cross sectional study of Norwegian employees (n = 6620) was conducted. Logistic regression analyses were used for estimating associations with alcohol-related presenteeism, which was reported among 473 (7.1%) of the employees. Adjusted by age, gender, education level and managerial level, higher levels of overcommitment to work were associated with alcohol-related presenteeism. Higher age, male gender and higher education were also associated with alcohol-related presenteeism. Occupational health services and employers should especially focus on overcommitted employees when designing workplace health promotion programs. Modifying attitudes towards alcohol-related presenteeism among overcommitted employees may be of importance for safety at work.


Assuntos
Presenteísmo , Desempenho Profissional , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 697, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is highly prevalent, but knowledge is scarce as to whether increased public awareness and strengthened government focus on mental health have changed how general practitioners (GPs) help their depressed patients. This study aimed to examine national time trends in GP depression care and whether trends varied regarding patient gender, age, and comorbidity. METHODS: Nationwide registry-based cohort study, Norway. The study population comprised all residents aged 20 years or older with new depression diagnoses recorded in general practice, 2009-2015. We linked reimbursement claims data from all consultations in general practice for depression with information on demographics and antidepressant medication. The outcome was type(s) of GP depression care during 12 months from the date of diagnosis: (long) consultation, talking therapy, antidepressant drug treatment, sickness absence certification, and referral to secondary mental health care. Covariates were patient gender, age, and comorbidity. The data are presented as frequencies and tested with generalized linear models. RESULTS: We included 365,947 new depression diagnoses. Mean patient age was 44 years (SD = 16), 61.9 % were women, 41.2 % had comorbidity. From 2009 to 2015, proportions of patients receiving talking therapy (42.3-63.4 %), long consultations (56.4-71.8 %), and referral to secondary care (16.6-21.6 %) increased, while those receiving drug treatment (31.3-25.9 %) and sick-listing (58.1-50 %) decreased. The trends were different for gender (women had a greater increase in talking therapy and a smaller decrease in sick-listing, compared to men), age (working-aged patients had a smaller increase in talking therapy, a greater increase in long consultations, and a smaller decrease in antidepressant drug use, compared to older patients) and comorbidity (patients with mental comorbidity had a smaller increase in talking therapy and a greater increase in long consultations, compared to those with no comorbidity and somatic comorbidity). CONCLUSIONS: The observed time trends in GP depression care towards increased provision of psychological treatment and less drug treatment and sick-listing were in the desired direction according to Norwegian health care policy. However, the large and persistent differences in treatment rates between working-aged and older patients needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sistema de Registros
10.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 81, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many phenols and parabens are applied in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food, to prevent growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these chemicals affect inflammatory diseases like allergies and overweight is largely unexplored. We aimed to assess the associations of use of personal care products with urine biomarkers levels of phenols and paraben exposure, and whether urine levels (reflecting body burden of this chemical exposures) are associated with eczema, rhinitis, asthma, specific IgE and body mass index. METHODS: Demographics, clinical variables, and self-report of personal care products use along with urine samples were collected concurrently from 496 adults (48% females, median age: 28 years) and 90 adolescents (10-17 years of age) from the RHINESSA study in Bergen, Norway. Urine biomarkers of triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), parabens and benzophenone-3, bisphenols and dichlorophenols (DCP) were quantified by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Detection of the urine biomarkers varied according to chemical type and demographics. TCC was detected in 5% of adults and in 45% of adolescents, while propyl (PPB) and methyl (MPB) parabens were detected in 95% of adults and in 94% (PPB) and 99% (MPB) of adolescents. Women had higher median urine concentrations of phenolic chemicals and reported a higher frequency of use of personal care products than men. Urine concentration of MPB increased in a dose-dependent manner with increased frequency of use of several cosmetic products. Overall, urinary biomarker levels of parabens were lower in those with current eczema. The biomarker concentrations of bisphenol S was higher in participants with positive specific IgE and females with current asthma, but did not differ by eczema or rhinitis status. MPB, ethylparaben (EPB), 2,4-DCP and TCS were inversely related to BMI in adults; interaction by gender were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Reported frequency of use of personal care products correlated very well with urine biomarker levels of paraben and phenols. Several chemicals were inversley related to BMI, and lower levels of parabens was observed for participants with current eczema. There is a need for further studies of health effects of chemicals from personal care products, in particular in longitudinally designed studies.


Assuntos
Asma/urina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carbanilidas/urina , Eczema/urina , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Parabenos/análise , Fenóis/urina , Rinite/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Cosméticos , Eczema/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Rinite/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S22-S31, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Civilian and military guidelines recommend early balanced transfusion to patients with life-threatening bleeding. Low titer group O whole blood was introduced as the primary blood product for resuscitation of massive hemorrhage at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, in December 2017. In this report, we describe the whole blood program and present results from the first years of routine use. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients who received whole blood from December 2017 to April 2020 were included in our quality registry for massive transfusions. Post-transfusion blood samples were collected to analyze isohemagglutinin (anti-A/-B) and hemolysis markers. Administration of other blood products, transfusion reactions, and patient survival (days 1 and 30) were recorded. User experiences were surveyed for both clinical and laboratory staff. RESULTS: Two hundred and five patients (64% male and 36% female) received 836 units in 226 transfusion episodes. Patients received a mean of 3.7 units (range 1-35) in each transfusion episode. The main indications for transfusion were trauma (26%), gastrointestinal (22%), cardiothoracic/vascular (18%), surgical (18%), obstetric (11%), and medical (5%) bleeding. There was no difference in survival between patients with blood type O when compared with non-group O. Haptoglobin level was lower in the transfusion episodes for non-O group patients, however no clinical hemolysis was reported. No patients had conclusive transfusion-associated adverse events. Both clinical and laboratory staff preferred whole blood to component therapy for massive transfusion. DISCUSSION: The experience from Haukeland University Hospital indicates that whole blood is feasible, safe, and effective for in-hospital treatment of bleeding.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Ressuscitação , Reação Transfusional/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemólise , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Reação Transfusional/sangue , Reação Transfusional/patologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 692605, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249850

RESUMO

Background: The extent to which eligible individuals in a target population are willing to participate in interventions is important when evaluating the efficacy of public health interventions. Objectives: As part of a process evaluation of an ongoing randomized controlled trial, this study aimed to identify the proportion of risky drinkers who were willing to participate in an alcohol prevention intervention in an occupational health setting, and correlates for such willingness. Methods: Risky drinking employees from 22 companies in Norway were identified through an alcohol screening survey. Risky drinkers' (N = 779) willingness to complete a health examination and to be randomized into an alcohol prevention intervention (digital or face-to-face intervention, or control) was recorded by personnel from occupational health services. The proportion of employees who were willing to participate was assessed on 31 potential correlates (sociodemographic, alcohol-related, work-related, and lifestyle/daily activity). Adjusted (multiple logistic regression) analyses were utilized to explore associations between potential correlates and willingness to participate. Results: Altogether, 38.1% of employees were willing to participate in prevention interventions. In the adjusted analysis, only 5 out of 31 potential correlates were significantly associated with willingness to participate. Managers were more than twice as willing to participate than workers (OR = 2.17, p < 0.01). Willing employees had less workplace decision latitude (perceived control over workplace decisions and less possibility of utilizing personal skills in the job) (OR = 0.62, p < 0.05), and were more overcommitted with exorbitant work ambition and need for approval (OR = 1.49, p < 0.05). Willing employees had to some extent less alcohol-related impaired work performance (presenteeism, OR = 0.78, p < 0.05), and they spent less time on care activities (OR = 0.84, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Reaching four out of ten with risky drinking habits for prevention interventions strengthens the rationale for targeting this public health problem in occupational health care settings. In particular, this study suggests the importance of ensuring secure commitment among workers, who were less willing til participate than managers. Nevertheless, tailoring recruitment and implementation strategies based on easily identifiable correlates may be onerous.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Presenteísmo , Local de Trabalho
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 684, 2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elder abuse in nursing homes (NH) is a widespread and complex problem. Residents' ability to share their experiences are impeded, due to a high degree of cognitive problems and frailty, and previous studies are thus mainly based on reports from staff. Therefore, we aimed to give voice to the residents by investigating their relatives' experiences with elder abuse in NH. METHODS: Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with 16 relatives of residents with experience of abuse and/or neglect in NH. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Relatives perceived neglect as most pervasive and staff-to-resident psychological abuse as a key problem. Physical abuse was mostly related to resident-to-resident aggression. Relatives perceived elder abuse in NH to be related to low competence among staff, low staffing, poor NH leadership, working cultures characterized by fear and loyalty to employer or co-workers, and a lack of individualized care for the residents. Furthermore, relatives themselves experienced maltreatment from NH, which caused them to suffer stress, anxiety and distrust. Relatives also expressed a need to compensate for lack of care. CONCLUSIONS: Relatives of NH residents who had experienced abuse reported that neglect of basic care and individual rights was predominant and viewed organizational explanations as most important. Relatives perceive themselves as collaborators in care and are emotionally attached to their family member. Therefore, if relatives experience resident abuse or neglect, it inflicts a feeling of being mistreated themselves, particularly if they are not listened to or their notice of abuse on the part of the resident is ignored or trivialized. Including relatives in a committed partnership with NH in care practices is not only a valuable path to reduce the risk of abuse, but it also leads to a more sustainable healthcare with high standards of quality and safety.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Família , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205921

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the association between maternal origin and birthplace, and caesarean section (CS) by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and length of residence. METHODS: We linked records from 118,459 primiparous women in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 2013 and 2017 with data from the National Population Register. We categorized pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) into underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5-24.9) and overweight/obese (≥25). Multinomial regression analysis estimated crude and adjusted relative risk ratios (RRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for emergency and elective CS. RESULTS: Compared to normal weight women from Norway, women from Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia/Pacific had a decreased risk of elective CS (aRRR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.87 and aRRR = 0.56, 0.41-0.77, respectively). Overweight/obese women from Europe/Central Asia had the highest risk of elective CS (aRRR = 1.42, 1.09-1.86). Both normal weight and overweight/obese Sub-Saharan African women had the highest risks of emergency CS (aRRR = 2.61, 2.28-2.99; 2.18, 1.81-2.63, respectively). Compared to women from high-income countries, the risk of elective CS was increasing with a longer length of residence among European/Central Asian women. Newly arrived migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest risk of emergency CS. CONCLUSION: Women from Sub-Saharan Africa had more than two times the risk of emergency CS compared to women originating from Norway, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.


Assuntos
Cesárea , África ao Sul do Saara , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 678, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing the economic impact of hip fractures (HF) is a global issue. Some efforts aimed at curtailing costs associated with HF include rehabilitating patients within primary care. Little, however, is known about how different rehabilitation settings within primary care influence patients' subsequent risk of institutionalization for long-term care (LTC). This study examines the association between rehabilitation setting (outside an institution versus short-term rehabilitation stay in an institution, both during 30 days post-discharge for HF) and risk of institutionalization in a nursing home (at 6-12 months from the index admission). METHODS: Data were for 612 HF incidents across 611 patients aged 50 years and older, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2013 in Oslo, Norway, and who lived at home prior to the incidence. We used logistic regression to examine the effect of rehabilitation setting on risk of institutionalization, and adjusted for patients' age, gender, health characteristics, functional level, use of healthcare services, and socioeconomic characteristics. The models also included fixed-effects for Oslo's boroughs to control for supply-side and unobserved effects. RESULTS: The sample of HF patients had a mean age of 82.4 years, and 78.9 % were women. Within 30 days after hospital discharge, 49.0 % of patients received rehabilitation outside an institution, while the remaining 51.0 % received a short-term rehabilitation stay in an institution. Receiving rehabilitation outside an institution was associated with a 58 % lower odds (OR = 0.42, 95 % CI = 0.23-0.76) of living in a nursing home at 6-12 months after the index admission. The patients who were admitted to a nursing home for LTC were older, more dependent on help with their memory, and had a substantially greater increase in the use of municipal healthcare services after the HF. CONCLUSIONS: The setting in which HF patients receive rehabilitation is associated with their likelihood of institutionalization. In the current study, patients who received rehabilitation outside of an institution were less likely to be admitted to a nursing home for LTC, compared to those who received a short-term rehabilitation stay in an institution. These results suggest that providing rehabilitation at home may be favorable in terms of reducing risk of institutionalization for HF patients.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Fraturas do Quadril , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Institucionalização , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204043

RESUMO

Although concern affects one's welfare or happiness, few studies to date have focused on peoples' concerns during the initial COVID-19 lockdown. The aim of the study was to explore concerns in the Norwegian populations according to gender and age, and identify which concerns were most prominent during the lockdown. A population-based cross-sectional online survey using snowball-sampling strategies was conducted, to which 4527 adults (≥18 years) responded. Questions related to concerns had response alternatives yes or no. In addition, they were asked which concern was most prominent. Nearly all the 4527 respondents (92%) reported that they were concerned: 60.9% were generally concerned about the pandemic, 83.9% were concerned about family and friends, 21.8% had financial concerns, and 25.3% expected financial loss. More women were concerned about family and friends than males, (85.2% vs. 76.2%, p < 0.001), whereas more men expected financial loss (30.4% vs. 24.4%y, p = 0.001). Younger adults (<50 years) had more financial concerns than older adults (25.9% vs. 10.5%, p < 0.001). Being concerned about family and friends was the most prominent concern and was associated with; lower age (OR 0.79), female gender (OR 1.59), and being next of kin (2.42). The most prominent concern for adults 70 years or older was being infected by COVID-19. In conclusion, women and younger individuals were most concerned. While adults under 70 years of age were most concerned about family and friends and adults 70 years or older were most concerned about being infected by COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(7): jrm00217, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between sociodemographic and spinal cord injury characteristics, of people living with spinal cord injury, and participation and quality of life, and to study the association between participation and quality of life in this group of people. DESIGN: Persons registered in the Norwegian Spinal Cord Injury Registry after post-acute rehabilitation between 2011 and 2017 were invited to participate in a survey in 2019 when they were in a community setting. SUBJECTS: A total of 339 people living with spinal cord injury. METHODS: The Frequency scale and Restrictions scale of the Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation were used to measure participation. Quality of life was measured as life satisfaction with the World Health Organization Quality of life assessment (WHOQoL-5) and mental health was measured using the Mental Health subscale (MHI-5). RESULTS: Overall, sociodemographic characteristics were more prominently associated with quality of life and participation than were spinal cord injury characteristics. Currently working as main activity and having a family income in the highest quartile were associated with higher scores on all 4 measures of participation and quality of life. There was a strong gradient between higher level of participation (frequency and restrictions) and better quality of life. CONCLUSION: Participation was strongly associated with life satisfaction and mental health in people living with spinal cord injury. This indicates that participation issues should be given greater priority during post-acute rehabilitation, follow-up and subsequent care efforts provided in the community.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Adulto , Emprego , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia
18.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(9)2021 06 08.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older patients with mental disorders are particularly likely to be affected by negative consequences of the infection control measures that have been implemented as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A questionnaire survey was sent to 18 departments of geriatric psychiatry from all four health regions in Norway. RESULTS: Altogether 83 therapists from various occupational groups responded, with representatives from all the health regions. Almost one-half (45.8 %) reported an exacerbation of patients' mental condition to a large or very large degree due to social isolation, and an equal proportion (48.2 %) reported that normal follow-up was limited. The contact between the specialist and primary health services was reduced, and 15.6 % reported that patients had failed to receive the necessary somatic medical assistance to a large or very large degree. INTERPRETATION: The service for older patients with mental disorders in the specialist health service was reduced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, while coordination with the primary health service was also curtailed, and many patients deteriorated mentally as a result of the infection control measures. Collaboration between the specialist and primary health services may be an important focus area for this patient group.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Idoso , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 56(8): 899-905, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Modern treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are postulated to change the natural disease course. Inception cohort studies are the gold standard for investigating such changes. We have initiated a new population-based inception cohort study; Inflammatory bowel disease in South Eastern Norway III (IBSEN III). In this article, we describe the study protocol and baseline characteristics of the cohort. METHODS: IBSEN III is an ongoing, population-based observational inception cohort study with prospective follow-up. Adult and pediatric patients with suspected IBD in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway (catchment area of 2.95 million inhabitants in 2017), during the 3-year period from 2017 to 2019, were eligible for inclusion. Comprehensive clinical, biochemical, endoscopic, demographic, and patient-reported data were collected at the time of diagnosis and throughout standardized follow-up. For a portion of the patients, extensive biological material was biobanked. RESULTS: The study included 2168 patients, of whom 1779 were diagnosed with IBD (Crohn's disease: 626, ulcerative colitis: 1082, IBD unclassified: 71). In 124 patients, there were subtle findings indicative of, but not diagnostic for, IBD. The remaining 265 patients were classified as symptomatic non-IBD controls. CONCLUSION: We have included patients in a comprehensive population-based IBD cohort from a catchment population of 2.95 million, and a unique biobank with materials from newly diagnosed and treatment-naïve IBD patients and symptomatic non-IBD controls. We believe this cohort will add important knowledge about IBD in the years to come.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071905

RESUMO

Considering the importance of iodine to support optimal growth and neurological development of the brain and central nervous system, this study aimed to assess and evaluate iodine status in Norwegian infants. We collected data on dietary intake of iodine, iodine knowledge in mothers, and assessed iodine concentration in mother's breast milk and in infant's urine in a cross-sectional study at two public healthcare clinics in the inland area of Norway. In the 130 mother-infant pairs, the estimated infant 24-h median iodine intake was 50 (IQR 31, 78) µg/day. The median infant urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 146 (IQR 93, 250) µg/L and within the recommended median defined by the World Health Organization for this age group. Weaned infants had a higher UIC [210 (IQR 130, 330) µg/L] than exclusively breastfed infants [130 (IQR 78, 210) µg/L] and partially breastfed infants [135 (IQR 89, 250) µg/L], which suggest that the dietary data obtained in this study did not capture the accurate iodine intake of the included infants. The iodine status of infants in the inland area of Norway seemed adequate. Weaned infants had higher UIC compared to breastfed infants, suggesting early access and consumption of other sources of iodine in addition to breast milk.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Iodo/urina , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Iodo/análise , Masculino , Leite Humano/química , Noruega/epidemiologia
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