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1.
BMJ ; 367: l5383, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate benefits and harms of different colorectal cancer screening strategies, stratified by (baseline) 15-year colorectal cancer risk. DESIGN: Microsimulation modelling study using MIcrosimulation SCreening ANalysis-Colon (MISCAN-Colon). SETTING: A parallel guideline committee (BMJ Rapid Recommendations) defined the time frame and screening interventions, including selection of outcome measures. POPULATION: Norwegian men and women aged 50-79 years with varying 15-year colorectal cancer risk (1-7%). COMPARISONS: Four screening strategies were compared with no screening: biennial or annual faecal immunochemical test (FIT) or single sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy at 100% adherence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Colorectal cancer mortality and incidence, burdens, and harms over 15 years of follow-up. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Over 15 years of follow-up, screening individuals aged 50-79 at 3% risk of colorectal cancer with annual FIT or single colonoscopy reduced colorectal cancer mortality by 6 per 1000 individuals. Single sigmoidoscopy and biennial FIT reduced it by 5 per 1000 individuals. Colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and annual FIT reduced colorectal cancer incidence by 10, 8, and 4 per 1000 individuals, respectively. The estimated incidence reduction for biennial FIT was 1 per 1000 individuals. Serious harms were estimated to be between 3 per 1000 (biennial FIT) and 5 per 1000 individuals (colonoscopy); harms increased with older age. The absolute benefits of screening increased with increasing colorectal cancer risk, while harms were less affected by baseline risk. Results were sensitive to the setting defined by the guideline panel. Because of uncertainty associated with modelling assumptions, we applied a GRADE rating of low certainty evidence to all estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 15 year period, all screening strategies may reduce colorectal cancer mortality to a similar extent. Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy may also reduce colorectal cancer incidence, while FIT shows a smaller incidence reduction. Harms are rare and of similar magnitude for all screening strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Modelos Estatísticos , Idoso , Colonoscopia/efeitos adversos , Colonoscopia/normas , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sangue Oculto , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sigmoidoscopia/efeitos adversos , Sigmoidoscopia/normas , Sigmoidoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 967-977, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512117

RESUMO

Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, shares several common pathophysiological mechanisms with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to assess the prospective associations between asthma, levels of asthma control and risk of AMI. We followed 57,104 adults without previous history of AMI at baseline from Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT) in Norway. Self-reported asthma was categorised as active asthma (i.e., using asthma medication) and non-active asthma (i.e., not using asthma medication). Levels of asthma control were defined as controlled, partly controlled, and uncontrolled based on the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. AMI was ascertained by linking HUNT data with hospital records. A total of 2868 AMI events (5.0%) occurred during a mean (SD) follow-up of 17.2 (5.4) years. Adults with active asthma had an estimated 29% higher risk of developing AMI [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.29, 95% CI 1.08-1.54] compared with adults without asthma. There was a significant dose-response association between asthma control and AMI risk, with highest risk in adults with uncontrolled asthma (adjusted HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.13-2.66) compared to adults with controlled asthma (p for trend < 0.05). The associations were not explained by smoking status, physical activity and C-reactive protein levels. Our study suggests that active asthma and poor asthma control are associated with moderately increased risk of AMI. Further studies are needed to evaluate causal relationship and the underlying mechanisms and to clarify the role of asthma medications in the risk of AMI.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/fisiopatologia , Asma/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(9): 1129-1137, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474142

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate mortality and risk of intraoperative medical complications depending on delay to hip fracture surgery by using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (NHFR) and the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 83 727 hip fractures were reported to the NHFR between 2008 and 2017. Pathological fractures, unspecified type of fractures or treatment, patients less than 50 years of age, unknown delay to surgery, and delays to surgery of greater than four days were excluded. We studied total delay (fracture to surgery, n = 38 754) and hospital delay (admission to surgery, n = 73 557). Cox regression analyses were performed to calculate relative risks (RRs) adjusted for sex, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, type of surgery, and type of fracture. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated for intraoperative medical complications. We compared delays of 12 hours or less, 13 to 24 hours, 25 to 36 hours, 37 to 48 hours, and more than 48 hours. RESULTS: Mortality remained unchanged when total delay was less than 48 hours. Total delay exceeding 48 hours was associated with increased three-day mortality (RR 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23 to 2.34; p = 0.001) and one-year mortality (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22; p = 0.003). More intraoperative medical complications were reported when hospital delay exceeded 24 hours. CONCLUSION: Hospitals should operate on patients within 48 hours after fracture to reduce mortality and intraoperative complications. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1129-1137.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/mortalidade , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/mortalidade , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/mortalidade , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemiartroplastia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(5): K37-K41, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491746

RESUMO

Objective: To screen for CLCN2 mutations in apparently sporadic cases of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). Description: Recently, CLCN2, encoding for the voltage-gated chloride channel protein 2 (ClC-2), was identified to be mutated in familial hyperaldosteronism II (FH II). So far, somatic mutations in CLCN2 have not been reported in sporadic cases of APAs. We screened 80 apparently sporadic APAs for mutations in CLCN2. One somatic mutation was identified at p.Gly24Asp in CLCN2. The male patient had a small adenoma in size but high aldosterone levels preoperatively. Postoperatively, the patient had normal aldosterone levels and was clinically cured. Conclusion: In this study, we identified a CLCN2 mutation in a sporadic APA comprising about 1% of all APAs investigated. This mutation was complementary to mutations in other susceptibility genes for sporadic APAs and may thus be a driving mutation in APA formation.


Assuntos
Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/metabolismo , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/genética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(12)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Norueguês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hospital departments for occupational medicine and the National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI) established a shared, anonymous patient register in 2009. This report describes the diagnoses, occupations and exposure factors that occur most frequently in the youngest patient group. This will reflect exposures in modern working life in particular, and thus produce important knowledge with regard to targeted prevention efforts. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We have undertaken a descriptive analysis of 910 examinations of patients in the age group 20-29 years, performed in occupational medicine departments in Norway during the period 2010-17. RESULTS: Examinations of patients aged 20-29 years accounted for 914 (8 %) of a total of 11 969 recorded patient examinations. We excluded four participants for whom information on their sex was missing. This age group encompassed 498 (55 %) men, compared to 75 % men in the total dataset. The most frequent diagnoses were asthma (187/910, 21 %), contact eczema (184/910, 20 %) and rhinitis (73/910, 8 %). The most frequent exposure factors were irritants/allergens (469/910, 52 %). The most common occupations were hairdresser (159/910, 17 %) and painter/varnisher (46/910, 5 %). Hairdresser was the predominant occupation among women (154/412, 37 %), while painter/varnisher (35/498, 7 %) and electrician (25/498, 5 %) predominated among men. INTERPRETATION: Young patients who are examined in occupational medicine departments in Norway are most frequently registered with asthma or hand eczema. Hairdressers are especially exposed, indicating a special need for primary prevention in this occupation to prevent development of illness. In cases of asthma and hand eczema, doctors should be aware of the possibility that this might be occupationally related.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Asma Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Barbearia , Dermatite de Contato/epidemiologia , Traumatismos por Eletricidade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Medicina do Trabalho , Pintura/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Rinite/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(12)2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is a policy objective to increase the percentage of journeys made by bicycle in Norway from the current 5 % to 10 %. Kristiansand is one of the most active cities in Norway in terms of cycling. We wished to identify the extent of injuries among cyclists admitted to the hospital. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We reviewed the medical records of patients with cycling-related injuries who were admitted to Sørlandet Hospital, Kristiansand in the period 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2015. Patient, accident, injury and treatment characteristics were recorded, as well as any sequelae after 12 months. RESULTS: Altogether 224 adults and 53 children (<16 years) were registered with cycling-related injuries, most of which (n=192, 69 %) were mild/moderate. Very severe and critical injuries were recorded in 6 (11 %) children and 22 (10 %) adults. Fractures (n=179, 65 %) and minor head injuries (n= 78, 28 %) dominated the injury panorama. Surgical treatment was undertaken in 107 (48 %) adults and 19 (36 %) children. A total of 12 (4 %) patients were transferred to the trauma centre at Oslo University Hospital Ullevål. Four adults had significant sequelae after 12 months, all related to severe head/neck injury. INTERPRETATION: A considerable proportion of serious and complex injuries require that the national guidelines for use of a trauma team be followed. Systematic and ongoing registration of cyclists' injuries in the form of a national registry could help increase our insight into the circumstances surrounding accidents and the extent of injuries related to these.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Transporte de Pacientes , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
9.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(13)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Norueguês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-inflicted poisoning is common in adolescents and is a risk factor for suicide. The aim of this study was to survey the circumstances surrounding hospitalisations due to acute poisoning in patients aged up to 18 years. MATERIAL AND METHOD: All hospitalisations in the Departments of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Sørlandet Hospital Trust (Arendal and Kristiansand) due to acute poisoning in the period 1 August 2014-31 July 2015 were prospectively recorded with the aid of a form completed during the admission. RESULTS: There were 88 hospitalisations distributed among 68 adolescents (mean age 15.5 years, SD 1.5) and 13 children (mean age 2.8 years, SD 2.8). The poisoning was categorised as self-harm behaviour in 32 (47 %) of the adolescents, and as substance misuse-related in 35 (52 %). In total, 37 (54 %) of the adolescents had been or were under treatment at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Fifteen (22 %) of the adolescents were deemed to be suicidal. Thirty (94 %) of the adolescents who reported self-harm as the intention behind their poisoning were offered further follow-up at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, along with 7 (20 %) of the group with substance misuse-related poisoning. INTERPRETATION: Adolescents who reported self-harm as their intention were usually offered further follow-up, whereas adolescents with substance misuse-related poisoning were rarely offered follow-up.


Assuntos
Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Assistência ao Convalescente , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Criança , Orientação Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Drogas Desenhadas/envenenamento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamento , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida
10.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(13)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Norueguês, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination of drugs is the main cause of fatal overdose, and polydrug use is associated with greater treatment needs. This study investigates the prevalence and registration of multiple substance dependence. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Substance dependence diagnoses for 147 inpatients at the Department of Addiction Treatment, Oslo University Hospital were registered and reassessed with a focus on the ICD-10 diagnosis F19 (chaotic intake of multiple substances). The resulting diagnoses were also assessed according to ICD-11. RESULTS: Altogether 116 (79 %) out of 147 patients were addicted to two or more drugs. Only 22 (15 %) out of 147 were diagnosed with F19, but this figure increased to 52 (35 %) after reassessment. Using ICD-11 we found a prevalence of the diagnosis 6C4F (multiple substance dependence) of 79 %. INTERPRETATION: We found an underreporting of the ICD-10 diagnosis F19. It is important to use the F19 diagnosis, because polydrug use is underreported, even though it predicts overdose, prognosis and treatment needs.


Assuntos
Documentação/normas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Registros Médicos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 927-938, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451995

RESUMO

Self-selection into prospective cohort studies and loss to follow-up can cause biased exposure-outcome association estimates. Previous investigations illustrated that such biases can be small in large prospective cohort studies. The structural approach to selection bias shows that general statements about bias are not possible for studies that investigate multiple exposures and outcomes, and that inverse probability of participation weighting (IPPW) but not adjustment for participation predictors generally reduces bias from self-selection and loss to follow-up. We propose to substantiate assumptions in structural models of selection bias through calculation of genetic correlations coefficients between participation predictors, outcome, and exposure, and to estimate a lower bound for bias due to self-selection and loss to follow-up by comparing effect estimates from IPP weighted and unweighted analyses. This study used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Using the example of risk factors for ADHD, we find that genetic correlations between participation predictors, exposures, and outcome suggest the presence of bias. The comparison of exposure-outcome associations from regressions with and without IPPW revealed meaningful deviations. Assessment of selection bias for entire multi-exposure multi-outcome cohort studies is not possible. Instead, it has to be assessed and controlled on a case-by-case basis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Viés de Seleção , Viés , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMJ ; 366: l4772, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cardiovascular effectiveness of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in routine clinical practice. DESIGN: Cohort study using data from nationwide registers and an active-comparator new-user design. SETTING: Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, from April 2013 to December 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 20 983 new users of SGLT2 inhibitors and 20 983 new users of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors, aged 35-84, matched by age, sex, history of major cardiovascular disease, and propensity score. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were major cardiovascular events (composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death) and heart failure (hospital admission for heart failure or death due to heart failure). Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the cardiovascular composite and any cause death. In the primary analyses, patients were defined as exposed from treatment start throughout follow-up (analogous to intention to treat); additional analyses were conducted with an as-treated exposure definition. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios. RESULTS: Mean age of the study cohort was 61 years, 60% were men, and 19% had a history of major cardiovascular disease. Of the total 27 416 person years of follow-up in the SGLT2 inhibitor group, 22 627 (83%) was among patients who initiated dapagliflozin, 4521 (16%) among those who initiated empagliflozin, and 268 (1%) among those who initiated canagliflozin. During follow-up, 467 SGLT2 inhibitor users (incidence rate 17.0 events per 1000 person years) and 662 DPP4 inhibitor users (18.0) had a major cardiovascular event, whereas 130 (4.7) and 265 (7.1) had a heart failure event, respectively. Hazard ratios were 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.06) for major cardiovascular events and 0.66 (0.53 to 0.81) for heart failure. Hazard ratios were consistent among subgroups of patients with and without history of major cardiovascular disease and with and without history of heart failure. Hazard ratios for secondary outcomes, comparing SGLT2 inhibitors with DPP4 inhibitors, were 0.99 (0.85 to 1.17) for myocardial infarction, 0.94 (0.77 to 1.15) for stroke, 0.84 (0.65 to 1.08) for cardiovascular death, and 0.80 (0.69 to 0.92) for any cause death. In the as-treated analyses, hazard ratios were 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98) for major cardiovascular events, 0.55 (0.42 to 0.73) for heart failure, 0.93 (0.76 to 1.14) for myocardial infarction, 0.83 (0.64 to 1.07) for stroke, 0.67 (0.49 to 0.93) for cardiovascular death, and 0.75 (0.61 to 0.91) for any cause death. CONCLUSIONS: In this large Scandinavian cohort, SGLT2 inhibitor use compared with DPP4 inhibitor use was associated with reduced risk of heart failure and any cause death, but not with major cardiovascular events in the primary intention-to-treat analysis. In the additional as-treated analyses, the magnitude of the association with heart failure and any cause death became larger, and a reduced risk of major cardiovascular events that was largely driven by the cardiovascular death component was observed. These data help inform patients, practitioners, and authorities regarding the cardiovascular effectiveness of SGLT2 inhibitors in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 50(4): 539-548, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466669

RESUMO

End-stage ankle arthritis has a significant effect on function and quality of life. Total ankle arthroplasty continues to emerge as a safe and effective treatment of ankle arthritis. Ankle arthroplasty preserves motion at the ankle joint, while still achieving the primary goal of pain relief. With encouraging outcomes and improved implant longevity, there has been significant improvement on the results of first-generation implants. Further high-quality studies are required to clarify outcomes post ankle arthroplasty. This article reviews the latest data from national registries and the wider literature to evaluate the current status with outcomes of modern total ankle replacements.


Assuntos
Artrite/epidemiologia , Artrite/cirurgia , Artroplastia de Substituição do Tornozelo/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Substituição do Tornozelo/instrumentação , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 180, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undetected vision problems is an important cause of reduced academic achievement, performance in everyday life and self-esteem. This receives little attention in national health care services in Norway even though most of these vision problems are easily correctable. There are no published data on how many Norwegian schoolchildren are affected by correctable vision problems. This study aims to determine the vision status in primary and secondary schoolchildren referred from vision screening during the 10 year period of 2003-2013. METHODS: Of the 1126 children (15%) aged 7-15 years referred to the university eye clinic by the school screening program, all 782 who attended the eye clinic were included in the study. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed with regard to symptoms, refractive error, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of logMAR, binocular vision, ocular health and management outcomes. RESULTS: Previously undetected vision problems were confirmed in 650 (83%) of the children. The most frequent outcomes were glasses (346) or follow-up (209), but types of treatment modalities varied with age. Mean refractive errors were hyperopic for all age groups but reduced with age (ANOVA, p < 0.001). Overall, 51% were hyperopic, 32% emmetropic and 17% myopic. Refractive errors did not change across the decade (linear regression, all p > 0.05). Mean logMAR BCVAs were better than 0.0 and improved with age (ANOVA, p < 0.001). The most prevalent symptoms were headaches (171), near vision problems (149) and reduced distance vision (107). CONCLUSIONS: The vision screening identified children with previously undetected visual problems. This study shows that the types of visual problems varied with age and that most problems could be solved with glasses. Our results stress the importance of regular eye examinations and that vision examinations should be included in primary health care services. Furthermore, there is a need for raised awareness among parents and teaching staff regarding vision problems in children.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Seleção Visual/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia
16.
BMJ ; 366: l4067, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the trajectories of body mass index (BMI) in Norway over five decades and to assess the differential influence of the obesogenic environment on BMI according to genetic predisposition. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: General population of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 118 959 people aged 13-80 years who participated in a longitudinal population based health study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT), of whom 67 305 were included in analyses of association between genetic predisposition and BMI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: BMI. RESULTS: Obesity increased in Norway starting between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s and, compared with older birth cohorts, those born after 1970 had a substantially higher BMI already in young adulthood. BMI differed substantially between the highest and lowest fifths of genetic susceptibility for all ages at each decade, and the difference increased gradually from the 1960s to the 2000s. For 35 year old men, the most genetically predisposed had 1.20 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.37 kg/m2) higher BMI than those who were least genetically predisposed in the 1960s compared with 2.09 kg/m2 (1.90 to 2.27 kg/m2) in the 2000s. For women of the same age, the corresponding differences in BMI were 1.77 kg/m2 (1.56 to 1.97 kg/m2) and 2.58 kg/m2 (2.36 to 2.80 kg/m2). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that genetically predisposed people are at greater risk for higher BMI and that genetic predisposition interacts with the obesogenic environment resulting in higher BMI, as observed between the mid-1980s and mid-2000s. Regardless, BMI has increased for both genetically predisposed and non-predisposed people, implying that the environment remains the main contributor.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Obesidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(10): 951-955, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313073

RESUMO

We have studied the alterations in the use of curative treatment and the outcome for lung cancer patients in Norway 2001-2016. The Cancer Registry of Norway has a practically complete registration of all cancer diagnoses, treatments given and deaths. For the years 2001-2016, 43,137 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer. Stereotactic radiotherapy was established nationwide from 2008 and its use has increased, and in 2016, 8.8% were given this treatment. In addition 20.6% were operated and 8.5% were treated with conventional radiotherapy. Thus 37.9% of those diagnosed were treated with intention to cure, compared to 22.9% in 2001 (p < 0.0001). Further, the median survival for the whole group diagnosed with lung cancer increased from 6.0 (95% CI 5.6-6.7) months in 2001 to 11.8 (95% CI 10.9-12.7) in 2016. The 5 year survival increased from 9.4 (95% CI 8.1-10.8)% to 19.9 (95% CI 19.2-20.6)% in the same period. In 2016 the age adjusted incidence rate was 59.5 per 100,000 (Norwegian standard) and had increased significantly in both sexes. There had also been an increase in mean age at diagnosis and the proportion diagnosed in an early stage. The increase in curative treatment has been paralleled with a doubling in both the median and 5-year survival. The present results are used for surveillance and as a benchmark, and we are looking forward to reaching a proportion of 40% of patients given curative treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/radioterapia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104699, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311646

RESUMO

Pancreas disease (PD), caused by several subtypes of salmonid alphavirus (SAV), is associated with significant economic losses in European salmonid aquaculture. In this retrospective cohort study, we investigate the impact of PD caused by SAV subtype 2 (SAV2) on growth, feed conversion, and mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The study was based on harvest data from a large salmon farming company operating in the SAV2 endemic area of Norway. Mixed-effect regression analyses showed a severe impact on both growth and feed conversion when PD appeared late in the production cycle. In a scenario with fixed slaughter time the estimated impact corresponded to a growth reduction of 0.7 kg and 0.07 points increase in feed conversion ratio. No effect on mortality was observed in this data set. In conclusion, the most important consequences of PD caused by SAV2 infection is reduced growth and feed conversion in large Atlantic salmon. The lack of effect on mortality in this study may be due to other factors overshadowing the impact of PD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Pancreatopatias/veterinária , Pancreatopatias/virologia , Alphavirus , Infecções por Alphavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Alphavirus/fisiopatologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Pesqueiros , Noruega/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salmo salar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmo salar/virologia
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 131: 191-199, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306833

RESUMO

Fatal road traffic crashes are often related to speeding, non-use of a seatbelt, and alcohol/drug-impaired driving. The aim of this study was to examine associations between driving under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol and driver-related risk factors that have been reported as significantly contributing causes of fatal road traffic crashes. The data were extracted from Norwegian road traffic crash registries and forensic toxicology databases. Drug/alcohol investigated car and van drivers and motorcycle riders fatally injured in road traffic crashes in Norway during 2005-2015 were included in this study (n = 772). Drug and alcohol concentrations corresponding to 0.5 g/kg alcohol in blood were used as the lower limits for categorising drivers/riders as impaired; 0.2 g/kg was the upper limit for being categorised as sober. Associations between driver-related risk factors and impairment from specific substance groups were calculated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for other substance groups, age, and sex, and were reported when the confidence intervals did not contain the value 1 or lower. Substances found in concentrations above the impairment limits were mainly alcohol (20%), medicinal drugs (10%: benzodiazepines, opioids, z-hypnotics), stimulants (5%: amphetamines, methylphenidate, and cocaine), and cannabis (4%: THC). The drug/alcohol-impaired drivers had compared to the sober drivers more often been speeding (68% versus 32%), not used a seatbelt (69% versus 30%), and been driving without a valid driver license (26% versus 1%). Logistic regression analysis showed that impairment from alcohol or stimulants (mainly amphetamines) was associated with all three risk factors, medicinal drugs with all except speeding, and impairment from cannabis (THC) with not having a valid driver license. Among motorcycle riders, drug/alcohol impairment was associated with not having a valid driver license and non-use of a helmet. At least one of the risk factors speeding, non-use of a seatbelt/helmet, and driving without a valid license were present among the vast majority of the drug/alcohol-impaired fatally injured drivers and riders, and also among more than half of the fatally injured sober drivers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motocicletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 630, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In hospitalised patients with diarrhoea a positive campylobacter stool Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test with negative culture results as well as Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) positive stool PCRs, challenges the clinician and may lead the unexperienced clinician astray. The aim of the study was to elucidate the clinical significance of positive Campylobacter and/or EPEC test results in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-case study. Case groups with 1) EPEC only and 2) EPEC in combination with any other pathogen in the PCR multiplex array, 3) PCR positive/culture negative Campylobacter, and 4) PCR positive/culture positive Campylobacter were compared. Medical records were reviewed and cases classified according to pre-specified clinical criteria as infectious gastroenteritis or non-infectious causes for diarrhoea. We analyzed the association between laboratory findings (the 4 subgroups) and the pre-specified clinical classification. We further sequenced culture negative campylobacter samples and tested EPEC for bundle forming pilus A (bfpA) gene, distinguishing typical from atypical EPEC. RESULTS: A total of 291 patients were included, 169 were PCR positive for Campylobacter and 122 for EPEC. For both pathogens, co-infections were more common in culture negative/PCR positive samples than in culture positive samples. Clinical characteristics differed significantly in and between groups. Campylobacter culture positive patients had very high prevalence of characteristics of acute infectious gastroenteritis, whereas patients with PCR positive test results only often had an alternative explanation for their diarrhoea. Culture positives were almost exclusively C. jejuni/coli, whereas in culture negatives, constituting a third of the total PCR positives, C. concisus was the most frequent species. The vast majority of EPEC only positives had documented non-infectious factors that could explain diarrhoea. The EPEC co-infected group mimicked the culture positive campylobacter group, with most patients fulfilling the infectious gastroenteritis criteria. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised patients, positive PCR results for campylobacter and EPEC should be interpreted in a clinical context after evaluation of non-infectious diarrhoea associated conditions, and cannot be used as a stand-alone diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Idoso , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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