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1.
Zootaxa ; 4927(1): zootaxa.4927.1.10, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756726

RESUMO

Two new species of the cercopid genus Aufidus Stål, 1863, A. alacaligus sp. nov. and A. albonigrus sp. nov., are described and illustrated, Photos of the type specimens with the illustrations of the male terminalia are provided. A key to the species found in New Guinea is presented.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Masculino , Nova Guiné
2.
Zootaxa ; 4926(1): zootaxa.4926.1.2, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756757

RESUMO

We describe a new species of groundsnake of the genus Stegonotus (Colubridae) from the Purari River basin in Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. The new species can be most readily distinguished from all other New Guinean Stegonotus by its unique dorsal colour pattern which consists of a dark head and creamy-white anterior one third to two thirds of the body, grading into increasingly dense dark pigmentation on the posterior of the body and tail. It is most similar to S. iridis from the Raja Ampat Archipelago off western New Guinea, but that species has a different pattern of pigmentation dorsally, has a lower ventral scale count (198-211 vs. 229-239), and exhibits a different temporal scale arrangement. The description of S. aplini sp. nov. brings to fourteen the number of Stegonotus species described from New Guinea. A dichotomous key to described species in the New Guinea region is provided.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Animais , Cor , Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné , Rios
3.
Zootaxa ; 4868(3): zootaxa.4868.3.9, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311396

RESUMO

In our recent publication (Telnov Zorn 2019) we overlooked and did not include Popillia migliaccioi Sabatinelli, 1996, described from "Java", in our checklist and key of Sundaland Popillia species. However, the examination of the holotype of this species deposited in the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland (Figs. 1-8) revealed that Popillia migliaccioi is in fact an Afrotropical species, which was already described under the name Popillia maynei Ohaus, 1914. It is obvious that the specimen studied and described by Sabatinelli (1996) is mislabelled and is not from Java (Fig. 8). Unfortunately, the type material of P. maynei, which is housed in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany, is on loan indefinitely and was not available for our study (Bernd Jäger, personal communication). However, the original description of P. maynei and the aedeagus as originally figured by Ohaus (1914) (Fig. 9) match habitus and aedeagus of the P. migliaccioi holotype perfectly (Figs. 4-6). Habitus photographs of an additional comparative specimen from Togo (Kloto, III.2015, Don P. Léonard, deposited in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium) are provided for comparison in figs. 10 and 11.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Nova Guiné
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027273

RESUMO

Environmental parameters constrain the distributions of plant and animal species. A key question is to what extent does environment influence human behavior. Decreasing linguistic diversity from the equator towards the poles suggests that ecological factors influence linguistic geography. However, attempts to quantify the role of environmental factors in shaping linguistic diversity remain inconclusive. To this end, we apply Ecological Niche Modelling methods to present-day language diversity in New Guinea. We define an Eco-Linguistic Niche (ELN) as the range of environmental conditions present in the territory of a population speaking a specific language or group of languages characterized by common language traits. In order to reconstruct the ELNs, we used Papuan and Austronesian language groups, transformed their geographical distributions into occurrence data, assembled available environmental data for New Guinea, and applied predictive architectures developed in the field of ecology to these data. We find no clear relationship between linguistic diversity and ELNs. This is particularly true when linguistic diversity is examined at the level of language groups. Language groups are variably dependent on environment and generally share their ELN with other language groups. This variability suggests that population dynamics, migration, linguistic drift, and socio-cultural mechanisms must be taken into consideration in order to better understand the myriad factors that shape language diversity.


Assuntos
Idioma , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Linguística , Nova Guiné , Dinâmica Populacional
5.
Zootaxa ; 4772(1): zootaxa.4772.1.5, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055626

RESUMO

Nine new species of Enithares are described from New Guinea and immediately adjacent islands: E. peninsularis from the Owen Stanley Mountains of the Papuan Peninsula, E. bosavi and E. papua from southern Papua New Guinea, E. orsaki from northern Papua New Guinea, E. insularis from the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, E. tagula from the Louisiade Archipelago, E. ziwa from the central mountains of western New Guinea, E. arfak from the Arfak Mountains of the eastern Vogelkop Peninsula, and E. kasim from the western Vogelkop Peninsula. Enithares bakeri is newly recorded from New Guinea, and in combination with the new species described above brings the total number of species of Enithares in New Guinea to 16, and the regional total to 19 when including nearby islands of Waigeo, Biak, the D'Entrecasteaux group, and the Louisiade Archipelago. The species concept of E. atra is clarified and geographically restricted to southeastern New Guinea; specimens previously recorded under this name from northern New Guinea are shown to represent the new species E. orsaki. Additional distribution records for 15 previously described Enithares species are provided for many localities in the Malay Archipelago and mainland Southeast Asia, including the first records of E. bakeri from Lombok, Flores, Timor, Halmahera, and Obi; the first record of E. paramegalops from Ambon; the first records of E. gibbera from Kolombangara and Malaita in the Solomon Islands; the first record of E. intricata from Bali; the first records of E. lombokensis from Flores and Sumba; the first records of E. ripleyana from Halmahera, Ternate and Tidore; and the first record of E. ciliata from Borneo. Photomicrographs of key characters and distribution maps are provided for all new species described, accompanied by an updated world checklist for the genus with distributional notes and associated references.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Animais , Nova Guiné
6.
Zootaxa ; 4833(1): zootaxa.4833.1.1, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056141

RESUMO

In this study, the clearwing moths (Sesiidae) of Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific Islands are reviewed. A total of 58 species belonging to 18 genera are recognized as native to this region. This includes the following new species and genera: Lophocnema mackeyi spec. nov. (Australia), Oligophlebia insurgia spec. nov. (New Guinea), Micrecia capillaria spec. nov. (New Guinea), Micrecia kuukuyau spec. nov. (Australia), Micrecia hawkei spec. nov. (Australia), Lamellisphecia sanguinea spec. nov. (New Guinea), Specodoptera hiltoni spec. nov. (New Guinea), Specodoptera hiltoni hibernia spec. nov., ssp. nov. (New Guinea), Aegerosphecia rufea spec. nov. (New Guinea), Melittia flanneryi spec. nov. (New Guinea), Melittia pyroptella spec. nov. (Australia), Archaeosesia milleri gen. nov. et spec. nov. (New Guinea), Nokona kungkay spec. nov. (Australia), Nokona bipora spec. nov. (New Guinea), Pseudosesia muyuae spec. nov. (New Guinea), Pseudosesia sumoensis spec. nov. (New Guinea), Pseudosesia sepikensis spec. nov. (New Guinea), Paranthrenella terminalia spec. nov. (New Guinea), Paranthrenella brandti spec. nov. (New Guinea), Paranthrenella lelatensis sp. nov. (New Guinea). Furthermore, 35 new combinations and each four new generic and species synonyms are introduced, while two genera and three species are resurrected from synonymy. Each 4 taxa at the species and genus levels are considered new synonyms. Six species are listed that originally derive from Africa, Europe, Northern Africa or Central America and were introduced into Australia or some of the Pacific Islands accidentally or deliberately.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Austrália , Nova Guiné , Ilhas do Pacífico
7.
Zootaxa ; 4821(1): zootaxa.4821.1.1, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056329

RESUMO

The formerly monotypic genera Tamolana Kuthy, 1910 and Ingrischia Naskrecki Rentz, 2010 are revised. Nanoagraecia gen. nov. is introduced as new genus, and Strictonicsara subgen. nov. as new subgenus of Pseudonicsara Karny, 1912. Five new species of Salomona Blanchard, 1853, one new species of Paramacroxiphus Willemse, 1961, and one new species of Jambiliara Ingrisch, 1998 are described. An updated key to the species of Paramacroxiphus is given. The following species are described as new: Tamolana extensa sp. nov., Tamolana arborea sp. nov., Tamolana malu sp. nov., Ingrischia acuticeps sp. nov., Ingrischia brevicona sp. nov., Ingrischia carinata sp. nov., Ingrischia signifer sp. nov., Ingrischia samberi sp. nov., Salomona brevivertex sp. nov., Salomona gumunang sp. nov., Salomona fuscifrons sp. nov., Salomona longicornis sp. nov., Salomona lanigera sp. nov., Paramacroxiphus bistylatus sp. nov., Pseudonicsara (Strictonicsara) brachyptera sp. nov., Pseudonicsara (Strictonicsara) rugosa sp. nov., Nanoagraecia gibberosa sp. nov., Jambiliara rotunda sp. nov. A subdivision of the female subgenital plate of Salomona into two sclerites plus a pair of lateral appendages is described and compared to a similar modification in the genus Ingrischia.


Assuntos
Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Melanesia , Nova Guiné
8.
Zootaxa ; 4786(4): zootaxa.4786.4.2, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056459

RESUMO

Examination of numerous specimens of squat lobsters of the genus Eumunida Smith, 1883 collected by French cruises along the coasts of New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands and Papua-New Guinea revealed the presence of six species, including a new species. The collection data of all of these species are recorded. The new species, E. turbulenta n. sp., is described and illustrated from New Caledonia and Chesterfield Islands.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Animais , Melanesia , Nova Caledônia , Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné
9.
Nature ; 584(7822): 579-583, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760001

RESUMO

New Guinea is the world's largest tropical island and has fascinated naturalists for centuries1,2. Home to some of the best-preserved ecosystems on the planet3 and to intact ecological gradients-from mangroves to tropical alpine grasslands-that are unmatched in the Asia-Pacific region4,5, it is a globally recognized centre of biological and cultural diversity6,7. So far, however, there has been no attempt to critically catalogue the entire vascular plant diversity of New Guinea. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, expert-verified checklist of the vascular plants of mainland New Guinea and surrounding islands. Our publicly available checklist includes 13,634 species (68% endemic), 1,742 genera and 264 families-suggesting that New Guinea is the most floristically diverse island in the world. Expert knowledge is essential for building checklists in the digital era: reliance on online taxonomic resources alone would have inflated species counts by 22%. Species discovery shows no sign of levelling off, and we discuss steps to accelerate botanical research in the 'Last Unknown'8.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Classificação/métodos , Ilhas , Plantas/classificação , Mapeamento Geográfico , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Internet , Nova Guiné , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Nature ; 584(7822): 531-533, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760035

Assuntos
Plantas , Ilhas , Nova Guiné
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2250, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418985

RESUMO

Explanations for the Upper Pleistocene extinction of megafauna from Sahul (Australia and New Guinea) remain unresolved. Extinction hypotheses have advanced climate or human-driven scenarios, in spite of over three quarters of Sahul lacking reliable biogeographic or chronologic data. Here we present new megafauna from north-eastern Australia that suffered extinction sometime after 40,100 (±1700) years ago. Megafauna fossils preserved alongside leaves, seeds, pollen and insects, indicate a sclerophyllous forest with heathy understorey that was home to aquatic and terrestrial carnivorous reptiles and megaherbivores, including the world's largest kangaroo. Megafauna species diversity is greater compared to southern sites of similar age, which is contrary to expectations if extinctions followed proposed migration routes for people across Sahul. Our results do not support rapid or synchronous human-mediated continental-wide extinction, or the proposed timing of peak extinction events. Instead, megafauna extinctions coincide with regionally staggered spatio-temporal deterioration in hydroclimate coupled with sustained environmental change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/história , Extinção Biológica , Fósseis , Animais , Austrália , Carnivoridade , Classificação , Clima , Dromaiidae , Ecossistema , Florestas , História Antiga , Humanos , Macropodidae , Marsupiais , Nova Guiné , Paleontologia , Datação Radiométrica , Répteis , Urânio
12.
Biol Lett ; 16(5): 20200040, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396783

RESUMO

Wallace's Line demarcates the transition between the differentiated regional faunas of Asia and Australia. However, while patterns of biotic differentiation across these two continental landmasses and the intervening island groups (Wallacea) have been extensively studied, patterns of long-term dispersal and diversification across this region are less well understood. Frogmouths (Aves: Podargidae) are a relictual family of large nocturnal birds represented by three extant genera occurring, respectively, in Asia, 'Sahul' (Australia and New Guinea) and the Solomon Islands, thus spanning Wallace's Line. We used new mitochondrial genomes from each of the extant frogmouth genera to estimate the timeline of frogmouth evolution and dispersal across Wallace's Line. Our results suggest that the three genera diverged and dispersed during the mid-Cenozoic between approximately 30 and 40 Mya. These divergences are among the oldest inferred for any trans-Wallacean vertebrate lineage. In addition, our results reveal that the monotypic Solomons frogmouth (Rigidipenna inexpectata) is one of the most phylogenetically divergent endemic bird lineages in the southwest Pacific. We suggest that the contemporary distribution of exceptionally deep divergences among extant frogmouth lineages may be explained by colonization of, and subsequent long-term persistence on, island arcs in the southwest Pacific during the Oligocene. These island arcs may have provided a pathway for biotic dispersal out of both Asia and Australia that preceded the formation of extensive emergent landmasses in Wallacea by at least 10 million years.


Assuntos
Aves , Animais , Ásia , Austrália , Ilhas , Nova Guiné , Filogenia
13.
Aust Vet J ; 98(7): 345-353, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399961

RESUMO

We have described the efforts of the Australian administration of the Territory of Papua and New Guinea (TPNG) to establish a veterinary service and viable animal industries. These efforts began with planning before the end of World War II in 1945 and continued until independence in 1975. Whereas pre-war cattle had mostly been used to control grass on plantations, post-war, the objective was to use the country's extensive, unoccupied grasslands for cattle production. During this period, the cattle population increased from 4000 to more than 150,000. The greatest success was achieved in herds with crosses of Bos indicus and Bos taurus owned by expatriates. The only serious disease constraint on production was myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana, a parasite throughout New Guinea and South-east Asia. Attempts were made to increase the productivity of the indigenous pig population. Success was limited by a failure to manage inadequate nutrition and internal parasites and to fully understand the cultural aspects of pig ownership. Similar problems inhibited chicken production in villages. The serious viral infections of pigs and birds were absent from TPNG, but a border with Indonesian Papua represents a potential route for the incursion of animal diseases exotic to both Papua New Guinea and to Australia.


Assuntos
II Guerra Mundial , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Indonésia , Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné , Suínos
14.
Sci Adv ; 6(13): eaay4573, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232149

RESUMO

The emergence of agriculture was one of the most notable behavioral transformations in human history, driving innovations in technologies and settlement globally, referred to as the Neolithic. Wetland agriculture originated in the New Guinea highlands during the mid-Holocene (8000 to 4000 years ago), yet it is unclear if there was associated behavioral change. Here, we report the earliest figurative stone carving and formally manufactured pestles in Oceania, dating to 5050 to 4200 years ago. These discoveries, at the highland site of Waim, occur with the earliest planilateral axe-adzes in New Guinea, the first evidence for fibercraft, and interisland obsidian transfer. The combination of symbolic social systems, complex technologies, and highland agricultural intensification supports an independent emergence of a Neolithic ~1000 years before the arrival of Neolithic migrants (Lapita) from Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Agricultura/métodos , Geografia , História Antiga , Humanos , Invenções , Nova Guiné , Oceania , Dinâmica Populacional , Datação Radiométrica , Solo/química
15.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(3): 223-266, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328810

RESUMO

Ixodes acer n. sp., Ixodes giluwensis n. sp., Ixodes mirzai n. sp., Ixodes planiscutatus n. sp. and Ixodes stellae n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), are described based on females ex various marsupials (Dasyuromorphia: Dasyuridae, Diprotodontia: Petauridae, Peramelemorphia: Peramelidae), rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) and a bird (Galliformes: Megapodiidae) from Indonesia (Papua Province) and Papua New Guinea. Females of all new species are similar to those of I. luxuriosus Schulze, 1935, I. steini Schulze, 1935 and I. zaglossi Kohls, 1960, but can be distinguished from them and each other by the distinctness of lateral carinae and cervical grooves on the scutum, length of setae on the idiosoma, sculpture of the basis capituli and palpal segment I dorsally, size of the dorsal cornua, shape and sculpture of the palpal segment I ventrally, size of ventral spur on the palpal segment I, dental formula on the hypostome and measurements of various structures and their proportions. For comparative purposes the female of I. luxuriosus, I. steini and I. zaglossi is redescribed and lectotypes for I. luxuriosus and I. steini have been designated. Studied females of I. luxuriosus, I. steini and I. zaglossi were found on marsupials (Dasyuromorphia: Dasyuridae; Diprotodontia: Macropodidae, Petauridae, Phalangeridae, Pseudocheiridae; Peramelemorphia: Peramelidae), rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) and echidnas (Monotremata: Tachyglossidae) in Indonesia (Papua Province) and Papua New Guinea.


Assuntos
Equidna/parasitologia , Ixodes/classificação , Marsupiais/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Ixodes/anatomia & histologia , Nova Guiné , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 146: 106749, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014575

RESUMO

New Guinea, the world's largest and highest tropical island, has a rich but poorly known biota. Papuascincus is a genus of skinks endemic to New Guinea's mountain regions, comprising two wide-ranging species and two species known only from their type series. The phylogeny of the genus has never been examined and the relationships among its species - as well as between it and closely related taxa - are hitherto unknown. We performed the first large-scale molecular-phylogenetic study of Papuascincus, including sampling across the genus' range in Papua New Guinea. We sequenced three mitochondrial and two nuclear markers from 65 specimens of Papuascincus and reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships. We also performed species-delimitation analyses, estimated divergence times and ancestral biogeography, and examined body-size evolution within the genus. Papuascincus was strongly supported as monophyletic. It began radiating during the mid-Miocene in the area now comprising the Central Cordillera of New Guinea, then dispersed eastward colonising the Papuan Peninsula. We found evidence of extensive cryptic diversity within the genus, with between nine and 20 supported genetic lineages. These were estimated using three methods of species delimitation and predominantly occur in allopatry. Distribution and body-size divergence patterns indicated that character displacement in size took place during the evolutionary history of Papuascincus. We conclude that the genus requires comprehensive taxonomic revision and likely represents a species-rich lineage of montane skinks.


Assuntos
Lagartos/classificação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/química , Variação Genética , Lagartos/genética , Nova Guiné , Papua Nova Guiné , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 671, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015346

RESUMO

Dingoes are wild canids living in Australia, originating from domestic dogs. They have lived isolated from both the wild and the domestic ancestor, making them a unique model for studying feralization. Here, we sequence the genomes of 10 dingoes and 2 New Guinea Singing Dogs. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses show that dingoes originate from dogs in southern East Asia, which migrated via Island Southeast Asia to reach Australia around 8300 years ago, and subsequently diverged into a genetically distinct population. Selection analysis identifies 50 positively selected genes enriched in digestion and metabolism, indicating a diet change during feralization of dingoes. Thirteen of these genes have shifted allele frequencies compared to dogs but not compared to wolves. Functional assays show that an A-to-G mutation in ARHGEF7 decreases the endogenous expression, suggesting behavioral adaptations related to the transitions in environment. Our results indicate that the feralization of the dingo induced positive selection on genomic regions correlated to neurodevelopment, metabolism and reproduction, in adaptation to a wild environment.


Assuntos
Canidae/classificação , Canidae/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Migração Animal , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Cães/classificação , Cães/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Mitocondrial , Nova Guiné , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética , Lobos/classificação , Lobos/genética
18.
Aust Vet J ; 98(1-2): 60-65, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762006

RESUMO

Until the latter part of the nineteenth century, there were no domestic animals other than pigs, dogs and poultry in the island of New Guinea. From 1889 onwards, occupying authorities, missionaries and settlers from Germany, the UK, Japan and Australia imported ruminants, pigs and horses. Some of these importations were from Asia. This paper describes some outcomes of those importations and the potential hazards for Australia entailed in them.


Assuntos
Medicina Veterinária , II Guerra Mundial , Animais , Ásia , Austrália , Cães , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Cavalos , Nova Guiné , Suínos , Medicina Veterinária/história
19.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 142: 106640, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605811

RESUMO

Molecular data sets and the increasing use of integrative systematics is revealing cryptic diversity in a range of taxa - particularly in remote and poorly sampled landscapes like the island of New Guinea. Green pythons (Morelia viridis complex) are one of the most conspicuous elements of this island's fauna, with large numbers taken from the wild to supply international demand for exotic pets. We test hypotheses about species boundaries in green pythons from across New Guinea and Australia with mitochondrial genomes, 389 nuclear exons, and comprehensive assessment of morphological variation. Strong genetic structuring of green python populations and species delimitation methods confirm the presence of two species, broadly occurring north and south of New Guinea's central mountains. Our data also support three subspecies within the northern species. Subtle but consistent morphological divergence among the putative taxa is concordant with patterns of molecular divergence. Our extensive sampling identifies several zones of hitherto unknown biogeographical significance on the island of New Guinea. We revise the taxonomy of the group, discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of Papuan biogeography and the implications of our systematic changes for the conservation management of these taxa.


Assuntos
Boidae/classificação , Animais , Austrália , Boidae/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Melanesia , Nova Guiné , Filogenia , Filogeografia
20.
Am J Hum Biol ; 32(2): e23321, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Indirect measures of physiological features, such as digit ratio and hand grip strength (HGS), are associated with the outcome of male competition activities. However, most of the studies were conducted in developed and industrialized societies. We tested the hypothesis that both digit ratio and HGS are associated with performance in male-specific activities in two traditional preindustrial societies: Yali and Hadza. METHODS: To measure masculine behavioral traits, we determined warriorship status (Yali; n = 49) and assessed hunting skills (Yali n = 47 and Hadza n = 49). We also assessed the digit ratio and HGS of each male. We conducted our analyses using the Bayesian approach. RESULTS: Bayesian regression models indicated that greater hand grip strength is associated with better hunting outcomes among Hadza males. We did not find a similar link for the Yali. We found anecdotal evidence for the link between left hand digit ratio and the number of birds hunted by Hadza. We found no evidence for the link between digit ratio and performance in male-male competition. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that male-male competition outcomes are determined by upper body strength, but only in the Hadza population. We also found limited support for the hypothesis that digit ratio is associated with hunting success among the Hadza. We found no support for the hypothesis concerning the digit ratio or HGS among the Yali. Our research provides partial support for the evolutionary hypotheses based on studies conducted in industrialized populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Força da Mão , Adulto , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Guiné , Tanzânia
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